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Базальты и каменно-керамические соединения

Журнальные статьи

Ahmad S. et al. Phase evaluation during high temperature long heat treatments in the Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 system // Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 2014. Vol. 34, № 15. P. 3835–3840.

The effect of high temperature long heat treatments on the microstructure of the eutectic glass composition in the Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 system was examined. The qualitative and quantitative phase analyses were conducted by using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive analysis and electron microprobe. Simultaneous thermal analyses were carried out to determine the transition temperatures and enthalpies. The crystallization behavior of these glasses was monitored with X-ray powder diffraction. A needle like X-phase was observed in the structure of this eutectic composition after long heat treatment at 1350 degrees C.

Applegarth L.J. et al. Degassing-driven crystallisation in basalts // Earth-Science Reviews. 2013. Vol. 116, № 1. P. 1–16.

Syn-eruptive crystallisation can drastically increase magma viscosity, with profound implications for conduit dynamics, lava emplacement and volcanic hazards. There is growing evidence that crystallisation is not only cooling-driven, but can also occur almost isothermally during decompression-induced degassing on ascent from depth. Here we review field and experimental evidence for degassing-driven crystallisation in a range of magma compositions. We then present new results showing, for the first time, experimental evidence for this process in basaltic magma.Our experiments use simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-DSC-MS) to monitor degassing patterns and thermal events during heating and cooling of porphyritic basaltic samples from Mt. Etna, Italy. The partly degassed samples, which contained 0.39-0.81. wt.% total volatiles in the glass fraction, were subjected to two cycles of heating from ambient to 1250. °C. On the first heating, TGA data show that 30-60% of the total volatiles degassed slowly at < 1050. °C, and that the degassing rate increased rapidly above this temperature. DSC data indicate that this rapid increase in the degassing rate was closely followed (? 3.4. min) by a strongly exothermic event, which is interpreted as crystallisation. Enthalpies measured for this event suggest that up to 35% of the sample crystallises, a value supported by petrographic observations of samples quenched after the event. As neither degassing nor crystallisation was observed at high temperature during the second heating cycle we infer that the events on first heating constitute degassing-driven crystallisation. The rapidity and magnitude of the crystallisation response to degassing indicates that this process may strongly affect the rheology of basaltic magma in shallow conduits and lava flows, and thus influence the hazards posed by basaltic volcanism.

Ashley K.T., Thigpen J.R., Law R.D. Prograde evolution of the Scottish Caledonides and tectonic implications // Lithos. 2015. Vol. 224. P. 160–178.

Recent thermometric analyses of samples collected in thrust-parallel structural transects across the Scandian (435-415 Ma) orogenic wedge in northwest Scotland provide a comprehensive characterization of the synorogenic retro-wedge thermal architecture. However, the paucity of petrologically-important Metamorphic mineral phases (e.g., staurolite, Al-silicates) has limited investigation of pressure-temperature (P-T) histories, which hinders our ability to examine the nature of orogen-scale kinematic and thermal coupling. New data collected along a foreland-to-hinterland transect from the Moine to the Haver thrust sheets provides additional constraints for characterizing the prograde metamorphic evolution. In addition, we characterized Ti diffusion profiles in quartz inclusions in garnet to constrain duration of metamorphic heating. These results are used to develop coupled kinematic-thermal models of Scandian orogenic evolution. Early garnet core growth conditions are constrained by isopleth intersections, with peak P-T estimates determined by conventional exchange and net transfer thermobarometry and thermodynamic calculations. Most samples follow normal prograde heating and burial profiles, with peak conditions of 450 degrees C and 5.0 kbar in the immediate hanging wall to the Moine thrust, increasing in temperature and pressure to 733 degrees C and 9.5 kbar in the immediate hanging wall to the Haver thrust. These normal prograde pressure trajectories are interpreted to reflect burial of incipient thrust sheets beneath the overriding wedge at the leading edge of the orogen. Prograde heating coeval with burial is interpreted to result from surface-directed isotherm perturbation due to thrust-related advection in the overriding wedge. One exception to this is a sample from the top of the Moine thrust sheet, where prograde heating occurs during decompression (540 degrees C and 8.1 kbar to 590 degrees C and 7.0 kbar). In this case, the short lag times between motion on the Moine and Ben Hope thrusts may have limited advectionary heating until after exhumation associated with motion on the underlying Moine thrust was underway. Ti diffusion profiles in quartz inclusions in garnet suggest the near-peak thermal evolution of these rocks occurred over very short time scales (< 200,000 years). While most of the garnets are inferred to be Scandian in age, we document evidence for pre-Scandian garnet cores in structurally higher (more hinterland positioned) samples that must have grown under higher temperatures. In the hanging wall of the Moine thrust, high grossular garnets with estimated formation conditions >9 kbar are probably of detrital origin.

Barton N., Quadros E. Anisotropy is Everywhere, to See, to Measure, and to Model // Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. 2015. Vol. 48, № 4. P. 1323–1339.

Anisotropy is everywhere. Isotropy is rare. Round stones are collectors' items, and any almost cubic blocks are photographed, as they are the exception. The reasons for rock masses to frequently exhibit impressive degrees of anisotropy, with properties varying with direction of observation and measurement, are clearly their varied geological origins. Origins may provide distinctive bedding cycles in sedimentary rocks, distinctive flows and flow-tops in basalts, foliation in gneisses, schistosity in schists and cleavage in slates, and faults through all the above. We can add igneous dykes, sills, weathered horizons, and dominant joint sets. Each of the above are rich potential or inevitable sources of velocity, modulus, strength and permeability anisotropy-and inhomogeneity. The historic and present-day stress anisotropy provides a wealth of effects concerning the preferentially oriented jointing, with its reduced roughness and greater continuity. High stress may also have induced oriented micro-cracks. All the above reinforce disbelief in the elastic-isotropic-continuum or intact-medium-based assumptions promoted by commercial software companies and used by so many for modelling rock masses. RQD and Q are frequently anisotropic as well, and Q is anisotropic not just because of RQD. The authors, therefore, question whether the a priori assumption of homogeneous-isotropic-elastic behaviour has any significant place in the scientific practice of realistic rock mechanics.

Bayrak G. et al. Bond Strength of Basalt Based Glass-Ceramic Coatings // Acta Physica Polonica A. 2014. Vol. 125, № 2. P. 620–622.

In the present study, powders produced from the volcanic basalt rocks were coated on pre-coated AISI 1040 steel with Ni-5% Al bond coat by atmospheric plasma spray coating technique. The coated specimens were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, metallography and X-ray diffraction. Bonding strength of coatings was evaluated in accordance with the ASTM C-633 method. Coated basalt material from the APS coating system was determined in the glassy amorphous state by X-ray diffraction analysis. The coated samples were heat-treated at 800 degrees C for 1-4 h for crystallization. The phases formed in the basalt base glass-ceramic coatings were augite, Fe-diopside, anorthite, and andesine which were detected by X-ray diffraction analysis. Basalt based glass-ceramic coatings include splat, porosity and un-melted particles which were the characteristic of plasma sprayed coatings. Experiment result showed that the crystallization time increase caused the decrease of the bond strengths of the coatings.

Ben-Zion Y., Sammis C.G. Shear heating during distributed fracturing and pulverization of rocks // Geology. 2013. Vol. 41, № 2. P. 139–142.

We provide estimates of temperature changes produced in fault damage zones during brittle deformation associated with distributed cracking and pulverization. In contrast to localized faulting accompanied by significant frictional weakening, the relatively high friction coefficient on the multitudinous small cracks generated in the fracturing process can lead to significant shear heating. Simple calculations with parameter values constrained by laboratory experiments and simulations indicate that the temperature can increase during the generation of rock damage and pulverization by 100 degrees C or more. The results can help explain signatures of elevated temperature observed in geometrically complex fault zone sections with significant rock damage and regions with broad distributed deformation.

Bin X., LiFei Z., Yang X. Petrology and phase equilibrium of newly found eclogites from Kekesu Valley in eastern part of southwest Tianshan HP-UHP metamorphic belt, China, and its tectonic significance // Science China-Earth Sciences. 2014. Vol. 57, № 1. P. 117–131.

Eclogites and omphacite-bearing blueschists have been newly found in the eastern segment of the southwest Tianshan orogenic belt, Xinjiang, northwest China. After detailed petrological study, three samples including one fresh eclogite TK003, one blueschist sample TK026-8 and one retrograded eclogite TK027, were selected for phase equilibrium modeling under NC(K)MnFMASHO (N2O-CaO-K2O-MnO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-O) system, by thermocalc 3.33 software. Composition analyses of garnets in these three samples show typical growth zoning with Xpy and Xgrs increasing, Xspss decreasing from core to rim. Pseudosection modeling of the garnet zonation reflects that the eclogites and blueschist experienced a similar P-T evolution trajectory, with a near iso-baric heating in the early stage, and reached eclogite facies metamorphic field with peak P-T regime of 480-515A degrees C, 2.00-2.30 GPa. Subsequently the rocks experienced an early iso-thermal decompression retrograde stage with P-T conditions of 515-519A degrees C, 1.78-1.93 GPa. Variations of mineralogy and modes of these rocks are probably due to different retrograde paths as a consequence of different bulk-rock composition, as well as a variation in fluid activity during exhumation. P-T calculation and a peak geothermal gradient of 6-7A degrees C/km indicate HP rocks in the Kekesu Valley experienced cold subducted eclogite facies metamorphism. Thus a huge oceanic subduction eclogite facies metamorphic belt in southwest Tianshan has been recognized, extending from the Kekesu Valley in the east to the Muzhaerte Valley in the west for nearly 200 km. However, UHP evidence has not been found in the Kekesu terrane, perhaps because the slab in east part of southwest Tianshan did not subduct into such a great depth.

Brown R.J. et al. Disruption of tephra fall deposits caused by lava flows during basaltic eruptions // Bulletin of Volcanology. 2015. Vol. 77, № 10. P. 90.

Observations in the USA, Iceland and Tenerife, Canary Islands reveal how processes occurring during basaltic eruptions can result in complex physical and stratigraphic relationships between lava and proximal tephra fall deposits around vents. Observations illustrate how basaltic lavas can disrupt, dissect (spatially and temporally) and alter sheet-form fall deposits. Complexity arises through synchronous and alternating effusive and explosive activity that results in intercalated lavas and tephra deposits. Tephra deposits can become disrupted into mounds and ridges by lateral and vertical displacement caused by movement (including inflation) of underlying pahoehoe lavas and clastogenic lavas. Mounds of tephra can be rafted away over distances of 100 s to 1,000 s m from proximal pyroclastic constructs on top of lava flows. Draping of irregular topography by fall deposits and subsequent partial burial of topographic depressions by later lavas can result in apparent complexity of tephra layers. These processes, deduced from field relationships, have resulted in considerable stratigraphic complexity in the studied proximal regions where fallout was synchronous or alternated with inflation of subjacent lava sheets. These mechanisms may lead to diachronous contact relationships between fall deposits and lava flows. Such complexities may remain cryptic due to textural and geochemical quasi-homogeneity within sequences of interbedded basaltic fall deposits and lavas. The net effect of these processes may be to reduce the usefulness of data collected from proximal fall deposits for reconstructing basaltic eruption dynamics.

Brown R.J. et al. Pyroclastic edifices record vigorous lava fountains during the emplacement of a flood basalt flow field, Roza Member, Columbia River Basalt Province, USA // Geological Society of America Bulletin. 2014. Vol. 126, № 7-8. P. 875–891.

The 1300 km(3) tholeiitic lava flow field of the 14.98 Ma Roza Member of the Columbia River Basalt Province has the best-preserved vent system of any known continental flood basalt. Detailed geological mapping and logging of the exposed pyroclastic rocks along the >180-km-long vent system enable the reconstruction of pyroclastic edifices (partial cones) built around vents. The pyroclastic cones differ from those constructed during typical basaltic effusive eruptions and are characterized by low to moderate slope angles (<20 degrees), have minimum heights up to similar to 160 m, and are composed of dominantly coarse-grained, moderately to densely agglutinated and welded spatter and scoria that extend up to 750 m away from the vent. Thick, well-sorted fall deposits composed of moderately to highly vesicular scoria lapilli extend away from some vents and exhibit some characteristics comparable to the proximal deposits of violent Strombolian or subplinian eruptions. The recorded volcanic activity does not fit with common eruption styles of basaltic magmas, and the evidence indicates that the Roza eruption was punctuated by eruptive activity of unusually high intensity that was characterized by vigorous lava fountains. The extensive agglutinated deposits accumulated around the vents as a result of fallout from high (>1 km) fountains enhanced by fallout from the lower parts of convective plumes that rose above the fountains.

Capkova P. et al. Electrically conductive aluminosilicate/graphene nanocomposite // Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 2014. Vol. 34, № 12. P. 3111–3117.

Highly electrically conductive ceramic material based on aluminosilicate/graphene nanocomposite has been prepared by high pressure (400 MPa) compaction of montmorillonite intercalated with polyaniline followed with the high temperature (1400 degrees C) treatment in argon atmosphere. Tablets pressed from polyaniline/montmorillonite intercalate exhibits strong texture due to the disk-shaped montmorillonite particles and, consequently, the high anisotropy in conductivity. The high temperature induced phase transformation of montmorillonite into cristobalite and mullite preserved the aluminosilicate layered structure and created good conditions for formation of graphene sheets from polyaniline layers intercalated in montmorillonite. Therefore, the texture and anisotropy in conductivity remain preserved in resulting aluminosilicate/graphene tablets, while the in-plane conductivity in aluminosilicate/graphene tablets is 23,000x higher than the conductivity of uncalcined polyaniline/montmorillonite tablets. Simple fabrication method of aluminosilicate/graphene tablets is very promising for the manufacturing of the electrically conductive and tough ceramic material, which can be exposed to corrosive environment as well as to high temperatures.

Chemia Z., Dolejs D., Steinle-Neumann G. Thermal effects of variable material properties and metamorphic reactions in a three-component subducting slab // Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 2015. Vol. 120, № 10. P. 6823–6845.

We explore the effects of variable material properties, phase transformations, and metamorphic devolatilization reactions on the thermal structure of a subducting slab using thermodynamic phase equilibrium calculations combined with a thermal evolution model. The subducting slab is divided into three layers consisting of oceanic sediments, altered oceanic crust, and partially serpentinized or anhydrous harzburgite. Solid-fluid equilibria and material properties are computed for each layer individually to illustrate distinct thermal consequences when chemical and mechanical homogenization within the slab is limited. Two extreme scenarios are considered for a newly forming fluid phase: complete retention in the rock pore space or instantaneous fluid escape due to porosity collapse. Internal heat generation or consumption due to variable heat capacity, compressional work, and energetics of progressive metamorphic and devolatilization reactions contribute to the thermal evolution of the slab in addition to the dominating heat flux from the surrounding mantle. They can be considered as a perturbation on the temperature profile obtained in dynamic or kinematic subduction models. Our calculations indicate that subducting sediments and oceanic crust warm by 40 and 70 degrees C, respectively, before the effect of wedge convection and heating is encountered at 1.7GPa. Retention of fluid in the slab pore space plays a negligible role in oceanic crust and serpentinized peridotites. By contrast, the large volatile budget of oceanic sediments causes early fluid saturation and fluid-retaining sediments cool by up to 150 degrees C compared to their fluid-free counterparts.

Chemtob S.M., Rossman G.R. Timescales and mechanisms of formation of amorphous silica coatings on fresh basalts at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai’i // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2014. Vol. 286. P. 41–54.

Young basalts from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, frequently feature opaque surface coatings, 1-80 mu m thick, composed of amorphous silica and Fe-Ti oxides. These coatings are the product of interaction of the basaltic surface with volcanically-derived acidic fluids. Previous workers have identified these coatings in a variety of contexts on Hawai'i, but the timescales of coating development, coating growth rates, and factors controlling lateral coating heterogeneity were largely unconstrained. We sampled and analyzed young lava flows (of varying ages, from hours to similar to 40 years) along Kilauea's southwest and east rift zones to characterize variation in silica coating properties across the landscape. Coating thickness varies as a function of flow age, flow surface type, and proximity to acid sources like local fissure vents and regional plumes emitted from Kilauea Caldera and Pu'u (O) over bar'(o) over bar. Silica coatings that form in immediate proximity to acid sources are more chemically pure than those forming in higher pH environments, which contain significant Al and Fe. Incipient siliceous alteration was observed on basalt surfaces as young as 8 days old, but periods of a year or more are required to develop contiguous coatings with obvious opaque coloration. Inferred coating growth rates vary with environmental conditions but were typically 1-5 mu m/year. Coatings form preferentially on flow surfaces with glassy outer layers, such as spatter ramparts, volcanic bombs, and dense pahoehoe breakouts, due to glass strain weakening during cooling. Microtextural evidence suggests that the silica coatings form both by in situ dissolution-reprecipitation and by deposition of silica mobilized in solution. Thin films of water, acidified by contact with volcanic vapors, dissolved near-surface basalt, then precipitated amorphous silica in place, mobilizing more soluble cations. Additional silica was transported to and deposited on the surface by silica-bearing altering fluids derived from the basalt interior.

Chlup Z. et al. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on fracture response in SiOC based composites reinforced by basalt woven fabric // Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 2014. Vol. 34, № 14. P. 3389–3398.

The fracture resistance of ceramic based composites reinforced by various ceramic fibres can be dramatically enhanced when an efficient fracture mechanism takes place during the crack propagation. Presented work shows an effect of the pyrolysis temperature of the composite matrix on the fracture behaviour of the composite. The matrix is formed from the polysiloxane resin precursor and the reinforcement is a basalt woven fabric. The temperature range under investigation was from 600 degrees C, where the onset of fracture properties were observed up to 800 degrees C. Above this temperature basalt fibres suffer by rapid degradation of the microstructure. The optimum stage of the polysiloxane resin transformation maximizing the fracture resistance of the composite was identified. The fractographic analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed the differences in the acting fracture mechanism.

D’Oriano C. et al. Effects of experimental reheating of natural basaltic ash at different temperatures and redox conditions // Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 2013. Vol. 165, № 5. P. 863–883.

A set of experiments have been performed on volcanic materials from Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius in order to evaluate how the exposure to thermal and redox conditions close to that of active craters affects the texture and composition of juvenile pyroclasts. Selected samples were placed within a quartz tube, in presence of air or under vacuum, and kept at T between 700 and 1,130 A degrees C, for variable time (40 min to 12 h). Results show that reheating reactivates the melt, which, through processes of chemical and thermal diffusion, reaches new equilibrium conditions. In all the experiments performed at T = 700-750 A degrees C, a large number of crystal nuclei and spherulites grows in the groundmass, suggesting conditions of high undercooling. This process creates textural heterogeneities at the scale of few microns but only limited changes of groundmass composition, which remains clustered around that of the natural glasses. Reheating at T = 1,000-1,050 A degrees C promotes massive groundmass crystallization, with a different mineral assemblage as a function of the redox conditions. Morphological modifications of clasts, from softening to sintering as temperature increases, occur under these conditions, accompanied by progressive smoothing of external surfaces, and a reduction in size and abundance of vesicles, until the complete obliteration of the pre-existing vesicularity. The transition from sintering to welding, characteristic of high temperature, is influenced by redox conditions. Experiments at T = 1,100-1,130 A degrees C and under vacuum produce groundmass textures and glass compositions similar to that of the respective starting material. Collapse and welding of the clasts cause significant densification of the whole charge. At the same temperature, but in presence of air, experimental products at least result sintered and show holocrystalline groundmass. In all experiments, sublimates grow on the external surfaces of the clasts or form a lining on the bubble walls. Their shape and composition is a function of temperature and fO(2) and the abundance of sublimates shows a peak at 1,000 A degrees C. The identification of the features recorded by pyroclasts during complex heating-cooling cycles allows reconstructing the complete clasts history before their final emplacement, during weakly explosive volcanic activity. This has a strong implication on the characterization of primary juvenile material and on the interpretation of eruption dynamics.

Del Moro S. et al. Unusual lapilli tuff ejecta erupted at Stromboli during the 15 March 2007 explosion shed light on the nature and thermal state of rocks forming the crater system of the volcano // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2013. Vol. 254. P. 37–52.

Textural and mineralogical study of high-temperature, angular blocks erupted during the Stromboli explosion of 15 March 2007 was used to make inferences on the nature and thermal state of rocks forming the subsurface of the volcano' summit crater terrace. The studied ejecta consist of lapilli tuff that formed as a result of the transformation and high temperature induration (sintering) of the basaltic scoriae, lapilli and ash originally accumulated as loose tephra during the current activity of the volcano. The main processes leading to the tephra transformation were investigated through microstructural observations, mineral and glass analyses (SEM-EDS and EMP analyses). Investigations revealed that subsolidus reactions and partial melting of the tephra occurred, at temperatures higher than 600 degrees C and under variable fO(2) conditions from QFM to HM buffering curves. In some blocks, evidence of high-T reheating and partial melting at the expense of secondary hydrothermal minerals was also observed. In order to track the subsolidus reheating history of the basaltic pyroclasts, a detailed study of the pseudomorphic phases and reactions after olivine, driven by iron oxidation under high-T conditions, was performed. The observed mineralogical transformation suggests that the lapilli tuff material, originating from the burial of tephra routinely accumulated by persistent Strombolian explosions within the crater terrace, were in some cases altered by the circulation of acidic fluids and were in any case reheated due to isotherm rise forced by high heat flux and gas streaming delivered by the underlying magma system. It is worth noting that the ejection of these unusual volcanic lithotypes was possible because a few days before the 15 March 2007 event, the craters were clogged with lapilli tuff material that slid into the crater bottom between 7 and 9 March. Findings of this study suggest that the scattered permanently active vents and shallow conduits of Stromboli are surrounded sideways and underneath the crater terrace, by a fairly large volume of high temperature rocks with variable degree of compaction, sintering up to partially melted. Such a spectrum of rock types is in good agreement with the conceptual model of prominent thermal zoning all around (sideway and upwards) the active magmatic system. We speculate that continuous migration upwards of isotherms led to transformation and partial melting of the normal Strombolian tephra.

Deng J. et al. Early Cretaceous arc volcanic suite in Cebu Island, Central Philippines and its implications on paleo-Pacific plate subduction: Constraints from geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology and Lu-Hf isotopes // Lithos. 2015. Vol. 230. P. 166–179.

The Philippine island arc system is a collage of amalgamated terranes of oceanic, continental and island arc affinities. Here we investigate a volcanic suite in Cebu Island of central Philippines, including basalt, diabase dike, basaltic pyroclastic rock and porphyritic andesite. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology of zircon grains from the porphyritic andesite and pyroclastic rock yielded ages of 126 +/- 3 Ma and 119 +/- 2 Ma, respectively, indicating an Early Cretaceous age. The age distribution of the detrital zircons from river sand in the area displays a peak at ca. 118 Ma, close to the age of the pyrodastic rock. The early Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the central Philippines were previously regarded as parts of ophiolite complexes by most investigators, whereas the Cebu volcanics are distinct from these, and display calc-alkaline affinity and island arc setting, characterized by high LREE/HREE ratios and low HFSE contents. These features are similar to the Early Cretaceous arc basalts in the Amami Plateau and east Halmahera in the northernmost and southernmost West Philippine Basin respectively. Zircon Hf isotopes of the pyroclastic rocks show depleted nature similar to those of the Amami Plateau basalts, implying the subducted Pacific-type MORB as probable source. Zircon Hf isotopes of the porphyritic andesite show slight enrichment relative to that of the pyroclastic rocks and MORB, indicating subducted sediments as a minor endmember in the source. The Hf isotopic compositions of the volcanic rocks are also reflected in the detrital zircons from the river sands. We propose that the volcanic rocks of Cebu Island were derived from partial melting of subarc mantle wedge which was metasomatized by dehydration of subducted oceanic crust together with minor pelagic sediments. Within the tectonic environment of Southeast Asia during Early Cretaceous, the volcanic rocks in Cebu Island can be correlated to the subduction of paleo-Pacific plate. The Early Cretaceous volcanic suites in Cebu Island along with the Early Cretaceous arc volcanic rocks, ophiolites and boninites in the southern-western-northern margin of West Philippine Basin are inferred to have formed within single subduction zone before the opening of the Philippine Sea Plate.

Deng Q. et al. Continental flood basalts of the Huashan Group, northern margin of the Yangtze block-implications for the breakup of Rodinia // International Geology Review. 2013. Vol. 55, № 15. P. 1865–1884.

It is generally accepted that Neoproterozoic extension and dispersal of the supercontinent Rodinia was associated with mantle plume or superplume activities. However, plume-generated contemporaneous continental flood basalts (CFBs) have rarely been identified. In this study, we present geochronological and geochemical evidence for the basalts from the Liufangzui Formation of the Huashan Group in the Dahongshan region of east-central China. A representative sample yields a SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 824 ± 9 Ma, interpreted as the crystallization age of the rocks. Geochemically, these basalts belong to the subalkaline tholeiite series and display slight enrichments in light rare earth elements (LREE) and varying degrees of deficiency of high field strength elements (HFSE) such as Nb, Ta, and Ti. This pattern is very similar to that of CFBs from the Bikou Group and Tiechuanshan Formation in the northwestern Yangtze block in China and Siberia in Russia. The basaltic magmas underwent partially-fractional crystallization during ascent, but were not intensely influenced by crustal contamination. The characteristic element ratios and negative Hf isotopic analyses (?Hf(t) =-6.6-2.6) in zircons indicate that the parental magmas of the basalts might have been derived from an enriched lithospheric mantle rather than from the depleted mantle such as normal mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORBs). The geochemical signatures and regional geological characteristics show that these basalts were formed along intraplate continental rifts rather than in island arcs or ocean basins. Considering the coeval basic volcanic rocks in South China, we propose that these Huashan Group basalts represent the remnants of plume-generated CFBs and have close spatiotemporal ties with a coeval basic igneous province in Australia. Our results support the Neoproterozoic location of the South China block adjacent to southeastern Australia in the reconstruction model of the supercontinent Rodinia.

Dorfler K.M., Caddick M.J., Tracy R.J. Thermodynamic Modeling of Crustal Melting Using Xenolith Analogs from the Cortlandt Complex, New York, USA // Journal of Petrology. 2015. Vol. 56, № 2. P. 389–408.

Emplacement of gabbroic magmas of the Cortlandt Complex, New York, induced rapid (less than 5 years) heating of pelitic schist protoliths (up to similar to 1200 degrees C at similar to 0.9 GPa). Xenoliths entrained within the mafic melt experienced significant melting and melt-segregation, now represented as a series of complex fabrics and structures comprising Si-rich veins and an Al-rich, Si-poor residuum (a typical assemblage is spinel-magnetite-ilmeno-hematite-sillimanite +/- sapphirine +/- corundum). Subtle microscopic textures in the residuum include corundum-magnetite symplectites, which are interpreted to be a result of oxidative breakdown of the hercynite component in spinel during cooling. Aluminous orthopyroxene selvages in veins have typically grown along the contact between the residuum and quartzofeldspathic 'melt'. Hybrid monzonorite and monzodiorite crop out near the xenoliths and are interpreted to represent assimilation by the mafic magma of some of the partial melt produced from the pelitic xenoliths. Equilibrium-melting and batch-melting thermodynamic models track the evolution of the pelitic schist, its partial melt upon heating, and the residuum from melting and melt extraction. We introduce a 'filter-pressing' cooling calculation to simulate the crystallization of the quartzofeldspathic veins. Modeling results yield the following: (1) an initial partial melt that, when mixed with the estimated composition of the mafic melt, produces a hybrid igneous rock consistent with the monzonorite found near the xenolith; (2) a high-T melt that upon 'filter-pressing' crystallization produces a mineral assemblage that texturally and compositionally corresponds to the quartzofeldspathic veinlets retained in the samples within xenolith interiors; (3) a residual material that, when oxidized, resembles the aluminous assemblages in the residuum. Modeling of crystallization of the high-T melt predicts early orthopyroxene formation, with the Al content of orthopyroxene consistent with that of analyzed selvage pyroxene. We propose that this pyroxene reflects a primary melt crystallization phase rather than reaction-rim margins of the veins against residual matrix.

Ercenk E., Sen U., Yilmaz S. Tribological Properties of SiC-Reinforced Basalt-Based Coatings // Tribology Letters. 2014. Vol. 56, № 2. P. 337–354.

In the current study, the wear behaviour of basalt-based glass and glass-ceramic coatings was investigated. SiC-reinforced basalt-based powders were coated by an atmospheric plasma spray process and evaluated using the ball-on-disk wear test. X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy were employed for characterisation. The friction coefficients of the basalt-based glass and glass-ceramic coatings ranged from 0.38 to 0.55 and from 0.12 to 0.70, respectively, depending on the wear condition and SiC content. The wear test results show that SiC addition has a positive effect on the wear resistance of the glass and glass-ceramic coatings.

Eslami-Farsani R. et al. Influence of thermal conditions on the tensile properties of basalt fiber reinforced polypropylene-clay nanocomposites // Materials and Design. 2014. Vol. 53. P. 540–549.

In this paper, a comparative study on the tensile properties of clay reinforced polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites (PPCN) and chopped basalt fiber reinforced PP-clay nanocomposites (PPCN-B) is presented. PP matrix are filled with 1, 3 and 5. wt.% of nanoclays. The ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, Young's modulus and toughness are measured at various temperature conditions. The thermal conditions are included the room temperature (RT), low temperature (LT) and high temperature (HT). The basal spacing of clay in the composites is measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Nanoscale morphology of the samples is observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Addition of nanoclay improves the yield strength and Young's modulus of PPCN and PPCN-B; however, it reduces the ultimate tensile strength. Furthermore, the addition of chopped basalt fibers to PPCN improves the Young's modulus of the composites. The Young's modulus and the yield strength of both PPCN and PPCN-B are significantly high at LT (-196. °C), descend at RT (25. °C) and then low at HT (120. °C).

Fiore V. et al. A review on basalt fibre and its composites // Composites Part B: Engineering. 2015. Vol. 74. P. 74–94.

In recent years, both industrial and academic world are focussing their attention toward the development of sustainable composites, reinforced with natural fibres. In particular, among the natural fibres (i.e. animal, vegetable or mineral) that can be used as reinforcement, the basalt ones represent the most interesting for their properties. The aim of this review is to illustrate the results of research on this topical subject. In the introduction, mechanical, thermal and chemical properties of basalt fibre have been reviewed. Moreover, its main manufacturing technologies have been described. Then, the effect of using this mineral fibre as reinforcement of different matrices as polymer (both thermoplastic and thermoset), metal and concrete has been presented. Furthermore, an overview on the application of this fibre in biodegradable matrix composites and in hybrid composites has been provided. Finally, the studies on the industrial applications of basalt fibre reinforced composites have been reviewed.

Fuchs S., Balling N., Forster A. Calculation of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity of sedimentary rocks using petrophysical well logs // Geophysical Journal International. 2015. Vol. 203, № 3. P. 1977–2000.

In this study, equations are developed that predict for synthetic sedimentary rocks (clastics, carbonates and evapourates) thermal properties comprising thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity. The rock groups are composed of mineral assemblages with variable contents of 15 major rock-forming minerals and porosities of 0-30 per cent. Petrophysical properties and their well-logging-tool-characteristic readings were assigned to these rock-forming minerals and to pore-filling fluids. Relationships are explored between each thermal property and other petrophysical properties (density, sonic interval transit time, hydrogen index, volume fraction of shale and photoelectric absorption index) using multivariate statistics. The application of these relations allows computing continuous borehole profiles for each rock thermal property. The uncertainties in the prediction of each property vary depending on the selected well-log combination. Best prediction is in the range of 2-8 per cent for the specific heat capacity, of 5-10 per cent for the thermal conductivity, and of 8-15 for the thermal diffusivity, respectively. Well-log derived thermal conductivity is validated by laboratory data measured on cores from deep boreholes of the Danish Basin, the North German Basin, and the Molasse Basin. Additional validation of thermal conductivity was performed by comparing predicted and measured temperature logs. The maximum deviation between these logs is <3 degrees C. The thermal-conductivity calculation allowed an evaluation of the depth range in which the palaeoclimatic effect on the subsurface temperature field can be observed in the North German Basin. This effect reduces the surface heat-flow density by 25 mW m(-2).

Fuchs S., Foerster A. Well-log based prediction of thermal conductivity of sedimentary successions: a case study from the North German Basin // Geophysical Journal International. 2014. Vol. 196, № 1. P. 291–311.

Data on rock thermal conductivity (TC) are important for the quantification of the subsurface temperature regime and for the determination of heat flow. If drill core is not retrieved from boreholes and thus no laboratory measurement of TC can be made, other methods are desired to determine TC. One of these methods is the prediction of TC from well logs. We have examined the relationships between TC and standard well-log data (gamma ray, density, sonic interval transit time, hydrogen index and photoelectric factor) by a theoretical analysis and by using real subsurface data from four boreholes of the North German Basin. The theoretical approach comprised the calculation of TC from well-log response values for artificial sets of mineral assemblages consisting of variable contents of 15 rock-forming minerals typical for sedimentary rocks. The analysis shows different correlation trends between TC and the theoretical well-log response in dependence on the mineral content, affecting the rock matrix TC, and on porosity. The analysis suggests the development of empirical equations for the prediction of matrix TC separately for different groups of sedimentary rocks. The most valuable input parameters are the volume fraction of shale, the matrix hydrogen index and the matrix density. The error of matrix TC prediction is on the order of 4.2 +/- 3.2 per cent (carbonates), 7.0 +/- 5.6 per cent (evaporites), and 11.4 +/- 9.1 per cent (clastic rocks). From the subsurface data, comprising measured TC values (n = 1755) and well-log data, four prediction equations for bulk TC were developed resembling different lithological compositions. The most valuable input parameters for these predictions are the volume fraction of shale, the hydrogen index and the sonic interval transit time. The equations predict TC with an average error between 5.5 +/- 4.1 per cent (clean sandstones of low porosity; Middle Buntsandstein), 8.9 +/- 5.4 per cent (interbedding of sandstone, silt- and claystones; Wealden), and 9.4 +/- 11 per cent (shaly sandstones; Stuttgart Fm.). An equation including all clastic rock data yields an average error of 11 +/- 10 per cent. The subsurface data set also was used to validate the prediction equation for matrix TC established for clastic rocks. Comparison of bulk TC, computed from the matrix TC values and well-log porosity according to the geometric-mean model, to measured bulk TC results in an accuracy <15 per cent. A validation of the TC prediction at borehole scale by comparison of measured temperature logs and modeled temperature logs (based on the site-specific surface heat flow and the predicted TC) shows an excellent agreement in temperature. Interval temperature gradients vary on average by <3 K km(-1) and predicted compared to measured absolute temperature fitted with an accuracy <5 per cent. Compared to previously published TC prediction approaches, the developed matrix and bulk TC prediction equations show significantly higher prediction accuracy. Bulk TC ranging from 1.5 to 5.5 W (m K)(-1) is always predicted with an average error <10 per cent relative to average errors between 15 and 35 per cent resulting from the application to our data set of the most suitable methods from literature.

Greenfield A.M.R., Ghent E.D., Russell J.K. Geothermobarometry of spinel peridotites from southern British Columbia: implications for the thermal conditions in the upper mantle // Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 2013. Vol. 50, № 10. P. 1019–1032

Spinel lherzolite xenoliths within alkali basalts exposed at Rayfield River and Big Timothy Mountain, south-central British Columbia, represent samples of the underlying lithospheric mantle. Electron microprobe analysis shows that most xenoliths comprise compositionally homogeneous grains of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel. We applied the following mineral-pair geothermometers to these rocks: orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene, spinel-orthopyroxene, and spinel-olivine. Temperatures calculated using the Brey and Kohler calibration of two-pyroxene thermometry were constrained in pressure by being required to lie on a model geotherm we develop for this region of B. C. The model geotherm is constrained to produce a temperature at the Moho (33 km) of 825 +/- 25 degrees C to match the lowest temperature peridotite xenoliths recovered in this study. Although the overall effect of pressure on the temperature calculations is negligible (similar to 2 degrees C for 0.1 GPa), the simultaneous solution of the model geotherm and the pressure-dependent Brey-Kohler two-pyroxene thermometry removes the need for adopting an arbitrary pressure. We take these temperatures to represent peak mantle lithosphere temperatures. Fourteen Rayfield River xenoliths return two-pyroxene temperatures between 841 and 962 degrees C corresponding to depths of 34-42 km. Orthopyroxene-spinel and olivine-spinel results are 889 +/- 60 and 825 +/- 88 degrees C, respectively. Five Big Timothy xenoliths have two-pyroxene temperatures spanning 840-1058 degrees C and corresponding to depths of 34-48 km. Mean orthopyroxene-spinel and olivine-spinel temperatures are 844 +/- 63 and 896 +/- 232 degrees C, respectively. We argue that the differences in ranges of temperature do not represent closure temperatures imposed during cooling either in the mantle or during transport by the magma. Rather, these differences reflect differences in the original calibrations of the geothermometers or different degrees of equilibration in exchange reactions in dry rocks. Isochemical phase diagrams (pseudosections) constrain the pressure-temperature (P-T) field in which spinel is stable. These diagrams suggest that the spinel-bearing peridotites equilibrated at pressures ranging from similar to 9.6 to 14 kbar (10 kbar = 1 GPa).

Hassaan M.Y. et al. Structural Study of Glass and Glass Ceramics Prepared with Egyptian Basalt // Silicon. 2015. Vol. 7, № 4. P. 383–391.

Egyptian basalt rock was used to prepare some glasses with different additives of Na2O by the melt quenching method. The prepared glasses were characterized applying FTIR, XRD and Mossbauer Effect (ME) spectroscopy. XRD indicated that all the samples showed a homogeneous glassy phase except the sample containing 35 mol % of Na2O which showed a very small crystalline phase of less than 5 %. FTIR measurements indicated the presence of various structural units including SiO4, FeO4 and AlO4. ME hyperfine parameters indicated the presence of both Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the low Na2O content glasses (the first three samples), while the iron in the high Na2O content glasses (the last three samples) showed only the Fe3+ state. All the glass samples were heated at 900 degrees C for 6 h, of which XRD analysis showed different crystallites of nanometer size. ME spectra of the heat-treated (HT) samples indicated the presence of magnesium ferrites as confirmed by XRD study.

Heinonen J.S., Luttinen A.V., Bohrson W.A. Enriched continental flood basalts from depleted mantle melts: modeling the lithospheric contamination of Karoo lavas from Antarctica // Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 2016. Vol. 171, № 1. P. 9.

Continental flood basalts (CFBs) represent large-scale melting events in the Earth's upper mantle and show considerable geochemical heterogeneity that is typically linked to substantial contribution from underlying continental lithosphere. Large-scale partial melting of the cold subcontinental lithospheric mantle and the large amounts of crustal contamination suggested by traditional binary mixing or assimilation-fractional crystallization models are difficult to reconcile with the thermal and compositional characteristics of continental lithosphere, however. The well-exposed CFBs of Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, belong to the Jurassic Karoo large igneous province and provide a prime locality to quantify mass contributions of lithospheric and sublithospheric sources for two reasons: (1) recently discovered CFB dikes show isotopic characteristics akin to mid-ocean ridge basalts, and thus help to constrain asthenospheric parental melt compositions and (2) the well-exposed basaltic lavas have been divided into four different geochemical magma types that exhibit considerable trace element and radiogenic isotope heterogeneity (e.g., initial epsilon(Nd) from -16 to +2 at 180 Ma). We simulate the geochemical evolution of Vestfjella CFBs using (1) energy-constrained assimilationfractional crystallization equations that account for heating and partial melting of crustal wall rock and (2) assimilation-fractional crystallization equations for lithospheric mantle contamination by using highly alkaline continental volcanic rocks (i.e., partial melts of mantle lithosphere) as contaminants. Calculations indicate that the different magma types can be produced by just minor (1-15 wt%) contamination of asthenospheric parental magmas by melts from variable lithospheric reservoirs. Our models imply that the role of continental lithosphere as a CFB source component or contaminant may have been overestimated in many cases. Thus, CFBs may represent major juvenile crustal growth events rather than just recycling of old lithospheric materials.

High C. et al. Use of basalt fibers for concrete structures // Construction and Building Materials. 2015. Vol. 96. P. 37–46.

This study investigated the use of basalt fiber bars as flexural reinforcement for concrete members and the use of chopped basalt fibers as an additive to enhance the mechanical properties of concrete. The material characteristics and development length of two commercially-available basalt fiber bars were evaluated. Test results indicate that flexural design of concrete members reinforced with basalt fiber bars should ensure compression failure and satisfying the serviceability requirements. ACI 440.1R-06 accurately predicts the flexural capacity of members reinforced with basalt bars, but it significantly underestimates the deflection at service load level. Use of chopped basalt fibers had little effect on the concrete compressive strength; however, significantly enhanced its flexural modulus.

Hopkins J.L. et al. Tools and techniques for developing tephra stratigraphies in lake cores: A case study from the basaltic Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand // Quaternary Science Reviews. 2015. Vol. 123. P. 58–75.

Probabilistic hazard forecasting for a volcanic region relies on understanding and reconstructing the eruptive record (derived potentially from proximal as well as distal volcanoes). Tephrostratigraphy is commonly used as a reconstructive tool by cross-correlating tephra deposits to create a stratigraphic framework that can be used to assess magnitude-frequency relationships for eruptive histories. When applied to widespread rhyolitic deposits, tephra identifications and correlations have been successful; however, the identification and correlation of basaltic tephras are more problematic. Here, using tephras in drill cores from six maars in the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), New Zealand, we show how X-ray density scanning coupled with magnetic susceptibility analysis can be used to accurately and reliably identify basaltic glass shard-bearing horizons in lacustrine sediments and which, when combined with the major and trace element signatures of the tephras, can be used to distinguish primary from reworked layers. After reliably identifying primary vs. reworked basaltic horizons within the cores, we detail an improved method for cross-core correlation based on stratigraphy and geochemical fingerprinting. We present major and trace element data for individual glass shards from 57 separate basaltic horizons identified within the cores. Our results suggest that in cases where major element compositions (SiO2, CaO, Al2O3, FeO, MgO) do not provide unambiguous correlations, trace elements (e.g. La, Gd, Yb, Zr, Nb, Nd) and trace element ratios (e.g. [La/Yb](N), [Gd/Yb](N), [Zr/Yb](N)) are successful in improving the compositional distinction between the AVF basaltic tephra horizons, thereby allowing an improved eruptive history of the AVF to be reconstructed.

Jamshaid H., Mishra R. A green material from rock: basalt fiber – a review // The Journal of The Textile Institute. 2015 Article in Press. 2015.

The nature is continually providing varied resources for creating textile materials for various applications. Although many textile fibers in the nature are provided with the fibrous kind itself it additionally offers raw materials that may be changed and formed into a filament in a way similar to the melt and solution spinning of other textile fibers. Basalt is an igneous rock, which is solidified volcanic lava. In recent years, basalt received attention as a replacement for asbestos fibers. Basalt has emerged as a contender in the fiber reinforcement of composites. Basalt fiber (BF) is capable to withstand very high temperature and can be used in high performance applications. This paper is review of state of art of knowledge of BF, the production methods, properties and its applications.

Karthigeyan R. et al. Review of al metal matrix composite and basalt fiber as a new reinforcement for MMC // Life Science Journal. 2013. Vol. 10, № SUPPL. 7. P. 522–527.

The development of high-performance engineering products made from natural resources is increasing worldwide, due to renewable and environmental issues. Among different types of natural resources, hard, and dense volcanic rocks can be found in most of the countries across the globe. These hard and dense volcanic rocks have been extensively exploited over the past few years. By using the volcanic rock basalt fiber is produced, this paper presents an overview of the developments made in the area of basalt fiber reinforced composites. This study, for the first time investigates the applicability of basalt fiber as a new reinforcing material for Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) in terms of their availability in market, manufacturing methods, and overall properties through various experimental work for thermal stability and mechanical properties. It includes several critical issues and suggestions for future works, which underscore the roles of material scientists and manufacturing engineers and for the bright future of this new fiber material through value addition to enhance its uses.

Khalaf E.A. et al. Volcano-sedimentary characteristics in the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez District, Egypt: Example of dynamics and fluidization over, sedimentary and volcaniclastic beds by emplacement of syn-volcanic basaltic rocks // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 308. P. 158–178.

This paper describes the Neogene lava-sediment mingling from the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez district, Egypt The lava-sediment interactions as peperites have been identified for the first time at the study area and can be used as paleoenvironmental indicators. The identification of peperite reflects contemporaneous time relationship between volcanism and sedimentation and this finding is of primary importance to address the evolutional reconstruction of the Abu Treifiya Basin. Characterization of the facies architecture and textural framework of peperites was carried out through detailed description and interpretation of their outcrops. The peperites and sedimentary rocks are up to 350 m thick and form a distinct stratigraphic framework of diverse lithology that is widespread over several kilometers at the study area. Lateral and vertical facies of the peperites vary from sediment intercalated with the extrusive/intrusive basaltic rocks forming peperitic breccias to lava-sediment contacts at a large to small scales, respectively. Peperites encompass five main facies types ascribed to: (i) carbonate sediments-hosted fluidal and blocky peperites, (ii) lava flow-hosted blocky peperites, (iii) volcaniclastics-hosted fluidal and blocky peperites, (iv) sandstone/siltstone rocks-hosted blocky peperites, and (iv) debris-flows-hosted blocky peperites. Soft sediment deformation structures, vesiculated sediments, sediments filled-vesicles, and fractures in lava flows indicate that lava flows mingled with unconsolidated wet sediments. All the peperites in this study could be described as blocky or fluidal, but mixtures of different clast shapes occur regardless of the host sediment The presence of fluidal and blocky juvenile clasts elucidates different eruptive styles, reflecting a ductile and brittle fragmentation. The gradual variation from fluidal to blocky peperite texture, producing the vertical grading is affected by influencing factors, e.g., the viscosity, magma temperature, confining pressure, sediment fluidization, and vapor film at the magma-sediment interactions. Peperites in the study area record deposition within a shallow marine and fluvio-lacustrine environment accumulated in a rift-related basin developed during pre- to syn-rift phase, respectively. The fades transitions (peperites) in this area resulted from the explosive and sediment depositional processes, which were mingled separately by volcanism under contrast geological conditions. The development of such contrast in the depositional sequences reflects variation in the accommodation to sediment supply in the same accumulation space inside the depocenters during the rifting of the Abu Treifiya Basin. Hydrothermal mineralizations comprising quartz and carbonate are restricted to peperites and lava flows.

Khater G.A., Abu S., Hamzawy E.M.A. Augite-anorthite glass-ceramics from residues of basalt quarry and ceramic wastes // Processing and Application of Ceramics. 2015. Vol. 9, № 2. P. 117–123.

Dark brown glasses were prepared from residues of basalt quarries and wastes of ceramic factories. Addition of CaF2, Cr2O3 and their mixture CaF2/Cr2O3 were used as nucleation catalysts. Generally, structures with augite and anorthite as major phases and small amount of magnetite and olivine phases were developed through the crystallization process. In the samples heat treated at 900 °C the dominant phase is augite, whereas the content of anorthite usually overcomes the augite at higher temperature (1100 °C). Fine to medium homogenous microstructures were detected in the prepared glass-ceramic samples. The coefficient of thermal expansion and microhardness measurements of the glass-ceramic samples were from 6.16?10-6 to 8.96?10-6 °C-1 (in the 20-500 °C) and 5.58 to 7.16 GP, respectively.

Kirsever D. et al. The Cordierite Formation in Mechanically Activated Talc-Kaoline-Alumina-Basalt-Quartz Ceramic System // Acta Physica Polonica A. 2015. Vol. 127, № 4. P. 1042–1044.

The powder mixtures of Talc-Kaolinite-Alumina-Basalt-Quartz were mechanically activated in a planetary ball mill for 1 hour. The structural alterations and thermal behaviour of the powder mixture were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The results showed that the mechanical activation led to amorphisation and decreased the temperature of cordierite formation.

Kurniawan D. et al. Towards improving mechanical properties of basalt fiber/polylactic acid composites by fiber surface treatments // Composite Interfaces. 2015. Vol. 22, № 7. P. 553–562.

Attempting to improve reinforcement effect on basalt fiber/polylactic acid composites, this study evaluates the effects of silane treatment, atmospheric glow discharge plasma polymerization, desizing, and addition of maleic anhydride coupling agent. The treated fibers were characterized, in terms of surface morphology and existing molecular bonds, and the mechanical properties of the composites were tested (i.e. strength, stiffness, and elongation at yield). Among the fiber surface treatments and the addition of coupling agent, improved mechanical properties were only shown by the silane treated and the atmospheric plasma polymerized composites by having 26 and 22% higher strength, respectively, as compared with the untreated one.

Lambart S., Laporte D., Schiano P. Markers of the pyroxenite contribution in the major-element compositions of oceanic basalts: Review of the experimental constraints // Lithos. 2013. Vol. 160-161, № 1. P. 14–36.

Based on previous and new results on partial melting experiments of pyroxenites at high pressure, we attempt to identify the major element signature of pyroxenite partial melts and to evaluate to what extent this signature can be transmitted to the basalts erupted at oceanic islands and mid-ocean ridges. Although peridotite is the dominant source lithology in the Earth's upper mantle, the ubiquity of pyroxenites in mantle xenoliths and in ultramafic massifs, and the isotopic and trace elements variability of oceanic basalts suggest that these lithologies could significantly contribute to the generation of basaltic magmas. The question is how and to what degree the melting of pyroxenites can impact the major-element composition of oceanic basalts. The review of experimental phase equilibria of pyroxenites shows that the thermal divide, defined by the aluminous pyroxene plane, separates silica-excess pyroxenites (SE pyroxenites) on the right side and silica-deficient pyroxenites (SD pyroxenites) on the left side. It therefore controls the melting phase relations of pyroxenites at high pressure but, the pressure at which the thermal divide becomes effective, depends on the bulk composition; partial melt compositions of pyroxenites are strongly influenced by non-CMAS elements (especially FeO, TiO2, Na2O and K2O) and show a progressive transition from the liquids derived from the most silica-deficient compositions to those derived from the most silica-excess compositions. Another important aspect for the identification of source lithology is that, at identical pressure and temperature conditions, many pyroxenites produce melts that are quite similar to peridotite-derived melts, making the determination of the presence of pyroxenite in the source regions of oceanic basalts difficult; only pyroxenites able to produce melts with low SiO2 and high FeO contents can be identified on the basis of the major-element compositions of basalts. In the case of oceanic island basalts, high CaO/Al2O3 ratios can also reveal the presence of pyroxenite in the source-regions. Experimental and thermodynamical observations also suggest that the interactions between pyroxenite-derived melts and host peridotites play a crucial role in the genesis of oceanic basalts by generating a wide range of pyroxenites in the upper mantle: partial melting of such secondary pyroxenites is able to reproduce the features of primitive basalts, especially their high MgO contents, and to impart, at least in some cases, the major-element signature of the original pyroxenite melt to the oceanic basalts. Finally, we highlight that the fact the very silica depleted compositions (SiO2<42wt.%) and high TiO2 contents of some ocean island basalts seem to require the contribution of fluids (CO2 or H2O) through melting of either carbonated lithologies (peridotite or pyroxenite) or amphibole-rich veins.

Lee W.H., Yao X.H. First principle investigation of phase transition and thermodynamic properties of SiC // Computational Materials Science. 2015. Vol. 106. P. 76–82.

First principle calculations are employed to investigate the phase transition and thermodynamic properties of cubic silicon carbide. The Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerh of for solids (PBEsol) generalized gradient approximation (GGA) are used as the exchange-correlation potential respectively to reproduce the phase transition from zinc-blende (ZB) structure to rock-salt (RS) structure of silicon carbide. Then, they are compared with previous results and experiments which are calculated with different pseudopotentials. Both of the two pseudopotentials show reasonable results on equilibrium properties of SiC. However, Further analysis show that the calculated lattice constants, bulk modulus and elastic constants with PBEsol are indeed better than the calculations with PBE, while the PBEsol pseudopotentials has a lower evaluation than the PBE and other pseudopotentials on calculating the phase transition pressure of cubic silicon carbide. Moreover, the thermodynamic properties are studied with the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The isothermal bulk modulus and the adiabatic bulk modulus, the specific heat at constant volume and pressure, the Debye temperature and the entropy under different pressures and temperatures have been successfully obtained and discussed in detail.

Morgavi D. et al. Interactions between rhyolitic and basaltic melts unraveled by chaotic mixing experiments // Chemical Geology. 2013. Vol. 346. P. 199–212.

Magma mixing may operate at any stage in the evolution of a magmatic system. The development of mixing is strongly controlled by fluid dynamics and its understanding requires a comprehensive physico-chemical approach in order to identify and interpret its occurrence in nature. Here, we experimentally study the physical and chemical interplays during the mixing of basaltic and rhyolitic natural melts from the Snake River Plains, USA. In particular, we present the results of the first high-temperature mixing experiments performed under controlled chaotic dynamic conditions, providing a new methodological approach to constrain the complexities of the mixing process between natural silicate melts. The mixing process is initially governed by the dynamics of stretching and folding of the melts, producing alternating flow bands. These bands increase the contact area between the end-members, which subsequently enhance chemical exchanges and thus contribute to the generation of regions with variable degrees of hybridization. We quantified the mobility of major and trace elements across contact areas, and analyzed the concentration variance decay induced by chemical diffusion. The analysis shows that elements diffuse with different efficiencies as the chemical gradient evolves and therefore, the achievement of hybrid compositions contrasts between elements. The approach introduced in this study can, in principle, be applied to mixing trends observed in nature in order to estimate the time-scales and degree of magma mixing evidenced across volcanic rocks/deposits.

Morse S.A. Linear partitioning in binary solutions: A review with a novel partitioning array // American Mineralogist. 2015. Vol. 100, № 5-6. P. 1021–1032.

Linear partitioning refers to a graphical plot of a partition ratio D <= 1.0 against a composition ratio X-2 given as the mole fraction of a refractory component 2. When this plot is linear from D = 1.0, X-2 = 0.0, its intercept at X-2 = 1.0 is a value on the D scale here identified as the value of the exchange coefficient K-D). The plot is generated from phase compositions 1 and 2 in states L-V or L-S or S-S depending on whether the system is a boiling mixture, a melting equilibrium, or a solid-solid equilibrium. The linear partitioning equation so generated is a mathematical description of a binary solution loop, and it has the form y = ax + b where y D, a K-D, x X-2, and b = 1 - x 1 - X-2. In practice, the linearity is tested by regressing values of D against X-2 to find the intercept K-D. If linearity occurs, the system is a binary solution loop; if it does not occur, the system is not a binary loop. Strict linearity is not always observed even in true binary solutions; in such cases the path to K-D, may be either segmented or moderately curved. Such is the case with the melting equilibria of both plagioclase and olivine, possibly a clue to the non-ideality of solution. Loop width is an inverse function of K-D, and can vary with pressure as in the case of plagioclase in troctolites and gabbros. Systems with two loops joined at a common minimum or maximum are called azeotropes and all of them show linear partitioning. Sanidine crystalline solutions form a classic example of such behavior. When the system An-Ab is revisited to repeat the Bowen thermodynamic calculation from the latent heats of fusion with modern data, the array shows a single modest curvature. The monoclinic pyroxene pairs augite and pigeonite form a binary loop; augite-orthopyroxene does not. The olivine compositions of rocks in the Kiglapait intrusion follow a linear partitioning line with K-D = 0.26 for data above 50% crystallized (50 PCS). All the rocks below 50 PCS occupy a new trend in the linear partitioning diagram. This trend is anchored at D = 0.0, X-2(S) = 1.0 and runs to the calculated liquid composition at its intercept with the D = 1.0 upper bound. The new trend is an artifact of a nearly constant liquid composition and serves only to show low Fo contents in the range 0-50 PCS.

Pan Z., Gu B., Sun B. Numerical analyses of thermo-mechanical behaviors of 3-D rectangular braided composite under different temperatures // Journal of the Textile Institute. 2015. Vol. 106, № 2. P. 173–186.

This paper reports numerical analyses of thermo-mechanical behaviors of three-dimensional (3-D) 4-step rectangular braided basalt fiber/epoxy resin composite materials under different temperatures from 60 to 210 degrees C. In the braided composite, the basalt fiber tows were assumed as thermal insensitive material and the mechanical behaviors of the epoxy resin under different temperatures were tested and introduced in microstructure model of the 3-D braided composite. The thermal stress distributions in fiber tows and resins were numerical calculated based on the microstructure model. The influences of fiber tow orientations and braided architectures on the stress distribution along the axial direction and resins have been discussed to characterize the thermal stress under different temperatures. The residual stress in the braided composite induced from the temperature change is also analyzed for the application of the braided composite to different temperature environments. It is expected that such a numerical investigation could be extended to the design of 3-D braided composite applied to high temperatures.

Parat F. et al. Experimental study into the petrogenesis of crystal-rich basaltic to andesitic magmas at Arenal volcano // Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 2014. Vol. 168, № 2. P. 1040.

Arenal volcano is nearly unique among arc volcanoes with its 42 year long (1968-2010) continuous, small-scale activity erupting compositionally monotonous basaltic andesites that also dominate the entire, similar to 7000 year long, eruptive history. Only mineral zoning records reveal that basaltic andesites are the result of complex, open-system processes deriving minerals from a variety of crystallization environments and including the episodic injections of basalt. The condition of the mafic input as well as the generation of crystal-rich basaltic andesites of the recent, 1968-2010, and earlier eruptions were addressed by an experimental study at 200 MPa, 900-1,050 degrees C, oxidizing and fluid-saturated conditions with various fluid compositions [ H2O/(H2O + CO2) = 0.3-1]. Phase equilibria were determined using a phenocryst-poor (similar to 3 vol%) Arenal-like basalt (50.5-wt% SiO2) from a nearby scoria cone containing olivine (Fo(92)), plagioclase (An(86)), clinopyroxene (Mg# = 82) and magnetite (X-ulvo = 0.13). Experimental melts generally reproduce observed compositional trends among Arenal samples. Small differences between experimental melts and natural rocks can be explained by open-system processes. At low pressure (200 MPa), the mineral assemblage as well as the mineral compositions of the natural basalt were reproduced at 1,000 degrees C and high water activity. The residual melt at these conditions is basaltic andesitic (55 wt% SiO2) with 5 wt% H2O. The evolution to more evolved magmas observed at Arenal occurred under fluid-saturated conditions but variable fluid compositions. At 1,000 degrees C and 200 MPa, a decrease of water content by approximately 1 wt% induces significant changes of the mineral assemblage from olivine + clinopyroxene + plagioclase (5 wt% H2O in the melt) to clinopyroxene + plagioclase + orthopyroxene (4 wt% H2O in the melt). Both assemblages are observed in crystal-rich basalt (15 vol%) and basaltic andesites. Experimental data indicate that the lack of orthopyroxene and the presence of amphibole, also observed in basaltic andesitic tephra units, is due to crystallization at nearly water-saturated conditions and temperatures lower than 950 degrees C. The enigmatic two compositional groups previously known as low-and high-Al2O3 samples at Arenal volcano may be explained by low-and high-pressure crystallization, respectively. Using high-Al as signal of deeper crystallization, first magmas of the 1968-2010 eruption evolved deep in the crust and ascent was relatively fast leaving little time for significant compositional overprint by shallower level crystallization.

Park N.-K. et al. Synthesis of Meso- and Macro- Porous Aluminosilicate over Micro-Channel Plate as Support Material for Production of Hydrogen by Water-Gas Shift (WGS) // International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing. 2015. Vol. 16, № 7. P. 1239–1244.

Meso- and macro-porous aluminosilicate was synthesized using a templating method. Aluminosilicate, which consists of alumina and silica, is a zeolite ceramic that exhibits high porosity and high specific surface area. These properties make aluminosilicates good catalytic support materials. Despite this, the applications of aluminosilicates have been limited to the catalytic conversion of light gases because of the small pore size, < 2 nm. Therefore, meso- and macro-porous zeolite was synthesized for use in the catalytic process for the large size molecules and water vapor. In this study, a range of surfactants were used to produce meso-pores, 2-5 nm in size. Polymer nano-beads were also used as a template for the formation of macro-pores in aluminosilicate. The meso- and macro-porous aluminosilicate was coated over a micro-channel plate, and the coated micro-channel plates were stacked for use as a catalytic micro-channel reactor The meso- and macro-porous aluminosilicate over the micro-channel plate was supported with copper and zinc oxide using the impregnation method for the production of hydrogen via the water-gas shift reaction.

Polozov A.G. et al. The basalt pipes of the Tunguska Basin (Siberia, Russia): High temperature processes and volatile degassing into the end-Permian atmosphere // Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 2016. Vol. 441. P. 51–64.

A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the end-Permian crisis. Many of them explore the link between this catastrophe and the Siberian Traps. We test the hypothesis that eruption of thermogenic gas generated in contact aureoles around igneous sills intruded into evaporite sequences of the Tunguska Basin triggered the crisis. In particular, we test the idea that the aspect that breccia pipes represent conduits for voluminous gas migration from the deep basins to the atmosphere. This contribution sheds new light on the pipe formation based on new field and borehole observations and electron microscopy analyses. Of more than three hundred mapped magnetite-bearing basalt pipes, 43 are classified as diatremes. The diatremes are usually circular or elliptical, with multiple zones of brecciation reaching the surface, sometimes with preserved in-filled crater lakes. The pipe diameter on the surface varies from a few tens of meters for small single diatremes to about a kilometer. The largest crater lake area is 2.7 km(2). We have conducted a detailed study of the breccias in the Sholokhovsk basalt pipe located within the Nepa potash deposit in the Tunguska Basin, Siberia, Russia (about N 59 degrees and E 107 degrees) and find that the breccias are cemented by carbonate matrix (calcite, dolomite) and halite. Breccia clasts are altered at various temperatures, evidenced by growth of albite and garnet from basaltic glass, and diopside, garnet, magnetite and chlorine-bearing amphibole (up to 1.8% Cl) in altered magmatic clasts. These mineral assemblages suggest high temperature interactions with evaporites within the pipe conduits. The large number of pipes support that degassing of halogen-rich volatiles was a widespread and violent process with implications for the end-Permian crisis.

Ramstad R.K. et al. Thermal conductivity map of the Oslo region based on thermal diffusivity measurements of rock core samples // Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment. 2015. Vol. 74, № 4. P. 1275–1286.

A thermal conductivity map can serve as a good basis for ground-source heat pump projects in the pre-design phase. However, due to large variations, a thermal response test is required for larger projects to get the accurate values needed for proper design of the ground-source heat pump system. This study describes the systematic methodology for producing such a thermal conductivity map of a larger geographic area around Oslo, Norway. The map is based on the results of 1,398 thermal diffusivity measurements of rock core samples. The thermal diffusivity is measured and used in the calculation of the thermal conductivity of the different geological units in the bedrock map of the Oslo region. Large variations in thermal conductivity data were registered within the data sets for the different rock polygons and geological units and the greatest variation is found in metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Rock polygons and geological units with magmatic origin show the least variation within the data sets. The internal micro structures of the rocks can have a strong influence on the thermal conductivity. This is pronounced in some foliated metamorphic rocks where the thermal conductivity is highest parallel to the orientation of the foliation. The median value for the whole data set is 2.62 W/(m K), while the minimum and maximum value is 1.0 and 6.88 W/(m K), respectively. The minimum value is a breccia, and the maximum value was measured in a quartzite/metasandstone. The lower and upper quartiles for the sets of rock polygons and geological units are 2.1-3.9 W/(m K), respectively.

Ricard L.P., Chanu J.-B. GeoTemp (TM) 1.0: A MATLAB-based program for the processing, interpretation and modelling of geological formation temperature measurements // Computers & Geosciences. 2013. Vol. 57. P. 197–207.

The evaluation of potential and resources during geothermal exploration requires accurate and consistent temperature characterization and modelling of the sub-surface. Existing interpretation and modelling approaches of 1D temperature measurements are mainly focusing on vertical heat conduction with only few approaches that deals with advective heat transport. Thermal regimes are strongly correlated to rock and fluid properties. Currently, no consensus exists for the identification of the thermal regime and the analysis of such dataset. We developed a new framework allowing the identification of thermal regimes by rock formations, the analysis and modelling of wireline logging and discrete temperature measurements by taking into account the geological, geophysical and petrophysics data. This framework has been implemented in the GeoTemp software package that allows the complete thermal characterization and modelling at the formation scale and that provides a set of standard tools for the processing wireline and discrete temperature data. GeoTemp (TM) operates via a user friendly graphical interface written in Matlab that allows semiautomatic calculation, display and export of the results. Output results can be exported as Microsoft Excel spreadsheets or vector graphics of publication quality. Geolemp (TM) is illustrated here with an example geothermal application from Western Australia and can be used for academic, teaching and professional purposes.

Robert G. et al. Heat capacity of hydrous basaltic glasses and liquids // Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 2014. Vol. 390. P. 19–30.

We determined the heat capacities of four series of glasses and liquids of basaltic and basaltic andesite compositions from remelted volcanic rock samples and Fe-free synthetic analogues. The samples are low-alkali, Ca- and Mg-rich aluminosilicates with non-bridging oxygen to tetrahedrally-coordinated cation ratios (NBO/T) ranging between 0.33 and 0.67. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were performed at atmospheric pressure between room temperature and ? 100 K above the glass transition for hydrous samples and up to ? 1800 K for dry samples. The water contents investigated range up to 5.34 wt.% (16.4 mol%). Water does not measurably affect the heat capacity of glasses. We derived a new value of the partial molar heat capacity of water in silicate glasses of C?P,H2Oglass=82.804+10-3T-48.274?10 -5T-2 (J/mol K) using our new data in combination with literature data on more and less polymerized compositions. The increase in heat capacity at the glass transition is of the order of ? 30-40% and generally increases with increasing water content. The onset of the glass transition in hydrous samples occurs below the Dulong-Petit limit of 3R/g atom. The configurational heat capacity, i.e., the magnitude of the change in heat capacity observed at the glass transition, generally increases as polymerization decreases and as water content increases. We obtained a partial molar heat capacity of water in silicate liquids of basaltic composition of ? 86 J/mol K. This value is comparable to the partial molar values for the major oxides which range from ? 79 to 230 J/mol K. The partial molar heat capacity of water in silicate liquids appears to be compositionally-dependent, increasing as melt polymerization decreases. Such a dependence is certainly linked to the speciation and structural roles of water in complex silicate melts, however, a single value of ? 93 J/mol K could reproduce the heat capacity of hydrous liquids of a wide range of NBO/T (0-1.51) at temperatures up to ? 100 K above the glass transition and water contents of 0-3.76 wt.% with a root-mean square deviation of only 3.23 J/mol K.

Semprich J., Simon N.S.C. Inhibited eclogitization and consequences for geophysical rock properties and delamination models: Constraints from cratonic lower crustal xenoliths // Gondwana Research. 2014. Vol. 25, № 2. P. 668–684.

Studies on lower crustal and mantle xenoliths as well as geophysical data provide important information on the cratonic lithosphere. While geothermobarometric calculations of a majority of mantle xenoliths are in agreement with the typically low surface heat flow values of a craton (similar to 40 mW/m(2)), P-T estimates for lower crustal xenoliths deviate significantly from the cratonic geotherms. Independent from the individual cratonic history, the temperatures are similar to 200-300 degrees C higher than what is expected at the base of the lower crust (similar to 500-600 degrees C at similar to 1.3-1.6 GPa). Possible explanations may be a lack of equilibration to the cratonic geotherm or a relatively recent localized heat input. The presence of granulitic rocks under eclogite-facies conditions which are expected to prevail in the lower cratonic crust has consequences for the interpretation of geophysical rock properties; A mafic granulite which has been preserved under eclogite-facies conditions has densities and P-wave velocities similar to a felsic composition equilibrated to eclogite-facies conditions. Furthermore, phase diagrams calculated from xenolith bulk compositions demonstrate that eclogitization at relatively high temperatures as required for delamination of continental crust can only be triggered at significantly higher pressures than lithostatic at the base of the lower crust. As long as P-T conditions and the rock composition entail the assemblage to be granulitic, the addition of fluid at temperatures above 800 degrees C will not result in eclogitization, but rather in melt generation. This can also lead to an increase in density of up to 3%, however, this is strongly dependent on the amount of water saturation.

ShuFeng Y. et al. Early Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province in northwest China // Science China-Earth Sciences. 2013. Vol. 56, № 12. P. 2015–2026.

Tarim Large Igneous Province (TLIP) is the second Late Paleozoic LIPs in China after the recognition of Emeishan LIP, and is a hot research topic in geosciences. On the basis of the analysis of research history about TLIP, this paper summarizes the research result during last twenty years and suggests the key research area in the future. The residual distribution range of TLIP is up to 250000 km(2), and the largest residual thickness is 780 m. The eruption of basalt happened during 290-288 Ma and belongs to LIPs magmatic event with fast eruption of magma. The lithological units of the TLIP include basalt, diabase, layered intrusive rock, breccia pipe mica-olivine pyroxenite, olivine pyroxenite, gabbro, ultramafic dyke, quartz syenite, quartz syenite porphyry and bimodal dyke. The basalt and diabase of TLIP exhibit OIB-like trace element patterns and enrichment of LILE and HFSE, and mainly belong to high TiO2 series. There is an obvious difference in isotope among the basalt from Keping and the basalt and dibase from the northern Tarim Basin. The basalt from Keping with negative E > (Nd) and high REE value derives from enriched mantle, and the diabase and basalt from the northern Tarim Basin with positive E > (Nd) and low REE value are related to depleted mantle. The crust uplifting in the Early Permian and the development of picrite and large scale dyke and formation of large scale V-Ti-Magnetite deposit in Wajilitag area support the view that the TLIP is related to mantle plume. The TLIP has a temporal-spatial relationship with Permian basic to ultra-basic igneous rock, which is distributed widely in Central Asia, and they represent a tectono-magmatic event with very important geodynamic setting. This paper also suggests that the deep geological process, the relation with mantle plume, mineralization, the relation with environmental change and biological evolution, and the geodynamics of the TLIP will be the key research topics in the future.

Souag R. et al. Study of the Effect of Ca/Mg Alkali-Oxides Ratio on the Structure of a Glass-Ceramic Based on an Aluminosilicated Glass Containing 2wt.% of Zirconolite Crystalline Phase // Science of Sintering. 2014. Vol. 46, № 3. P. 377–383.

New nuclear glass-ceramics are extensively studied for the radioactive waste confinement, due to the double confinement conferred by the glass-ceramics. In this study, a glass-ceramic constituted by an aluminosilicate glass in the system: SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-ZrO2-TiO2, containing 2wt.% of Ca0.83Ce0.17ZrTi1.66Al0.34O7 zirconolite, has been synthesized by the discontinuous method. Cerium, an actinide surrogate is introduced both in the glass and ceramic phases. The synthesis is performed by a double melting at 1350 degrees C, followed by a nucleation at 564 degrees C, during 2 h, and a crystal growth at 1010 degrees C during 3 h. Then effect of Ca / Mg ratio on the distribution of the crystalline network in the material was studied for Ca / Mg ratios ranging from 0.4 to 5.5. For the whole of the materials, Archimedes density is about 2.80 g/cm(3). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the increase of Ca/Mg ratio leads to the increase of aluminosilicated crystalline phases with high Ca contents; the materials molar volumes remaining constant. The zirconolite phase is not affected by these additive aluminosilicated phases. The scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirmed these results; and shows the uniformity of distribution of the ceramics in the bulk of the materials.

Streck M.J., Ferns M.L., McIntosh W. Large, persistent rhyolitic magma reservoirs above Columbia River Basalt storage sites: The Dinner Creek Tuff Eruptive Center, eastern Oregon // Geosphere. 2015. Vol. 11, № 2. P. 226–235.

Our understanding of the Yellowstone hotspot and its connection to flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt province (western and northwestern USA) has grown tremendously over the past decades since the model was first proposed in 1972. Despite strong support for a plume origin of the entire Yellowstone-Columbia River Basalt magmatic province, new non-plume models have emerged to explain early flood basalt volcanism. Unresolved issues of the early flood basalt stage include the location of crustal magma reservoirs feeding these voluminous eruptions and to what extent these were associated with contemporaneous silicic reservoirs. This study focuses on the newly defined ca. 16-15 Ma Dinner Creek Tuff Eruptive Center that overlaps in time and space with flood basalt volcanism of the Columbia River Basalt Group. New work on distribution, lithologic variations, geochemical compositions, and eruption ages indicate that the extensive Dinner Creek Welded Tuff (herein Dinner Creek Tuff) and associated mapped and unmapped ignimbrites include a minimum of 4 discrete cooling units that spread out over an area of similar to 25,000 km(2). Widespread fallout deposits in northeast Oregon and the neighboring states of Nevada, Idaho, and Washington have now been compositionally correlated with the redefined Dinner Creek Tuff. Compositional coherence between the ignimbrite sheets and fallout deposits indicate a common source, herein referred to as the Dinner Creek Tuff eruptive center (DITEC). Cognate mafic components (glass shards, pumice shards, and mafic globules) that range from dacite (similar to 68 wt% SiO2) to Fe-rich basaltic andesite (similar to 56 wt% SiO2) in composition are found in two of the cooling units. Major and trace element compositions of the more mafic components match the compositions of nearby Grande Ronde Basalt flows and dikes. Compositional similarities between cognate mafic components and Grande Ronde Basalt flows are direct evidence for coeval mafic and silicic magmatism linking DITEC and Grande Ronde Basalt eruptions. Furthermore, finding Grande Ronde Basalt magmas as coeruptive component in Dinner Creek Tuff suggests that Grande Ronde Basalt magmas were stored beneath Dinner Creek Tuff rhyolites, thereby providing the first direct evidence for the location of a storage site of Columbia River Basalt magmas. Shallow crustal rhyolitic reservoirs active during ca. 16-15 Ma that yielded tuffs of the DITEC and other surrounding contemporaneous and widespread rhyolites of the area likely imposed control on timing and place of eruption of Columbia River Basalt Group lava flows.

Su S. et al. Synthesis of kalsilite from microcline powder by an alkali-hydrothermal process // International Journal of Minerals Metallurgy and Materials. 2014. Vol. 21, № 8. P. 826–831.

The properties of aluminosilicate kalsilite have attracted the interest of researchers in chemical synthesis, ceramic industry, biofuels, etc. In this study, kalsilite was hydrothermally synthesized from microcline powder in a KOH solution. The microcline powder, rich in potassium, aluminum, and silicon, was collected from Mountain Changling in Northwestern China. The effects of temperature, time, and KOH concentration on the decomposition of microcline were investigated. The kalsilite and intermediate products were characterized by means of wet chemistry analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrometry (IR), Si-29 magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (Si-29 MAS NMR), Al-27 MAS NMR, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). With increasing temperature, the microcline powder transforms into a metastable KAlSiO4 polymorph before transforming further into pure kalsilite. A mixture of both kalsilite and metastable KAlSiO4 polymorph is obtained when the hydrothermal reaction is carried out within 2 h; but after 2 h, kalsilite is the predominant product. The concentration of KOH, which needs to be larger than 4.3 M, is an important parameter influencing the synthesis of kalsilite.

Vakalova T.V. et al. Activation of Synthesis and Sintering of Mullite Aluminosilicate Ceramics Based on Natural Raw Materials // High Technology: Research and Applications B92/ ed. Bogdan A., Martyushev N. 2014. Vol. 1040. P. 268–271.

It is found out that activation of the sintering process for refractory clay- containing raw materials (rusk kaolin and wocheinite) is provided using additives of 3d-transition elements oxides (Fe2O3 and MnO2) in the amount of 2 - 5 wt. % due to formation of defective solid solutions of mullite by isovalent substitution mechanism as well as fluxing additives of alkaline and alkaline-earth oxides (Na2O, MgO) in the amount of 2 wt. % by regulating rheological properties of silicate melts.

Wang L. et al. Volcanic structure of the Tarim flood basalt revealed through 3-D seismological imaging // Science Bulletin. 2015. Vol. 60, № 16. P. 1448–1456.

The detailed structures of the volcanic edifice and plumbing system of the early Permian Tarim flood basalt were investigated by three-dimensional seismic imaging. The images show that the Tarim flood basalt erupted from central volcanoes distributed along major faults. The uppermost magma formed a single lava lobe with a volume of similar to 0.74 km(3) and an aspect ratio of 50, implying a sheet flow eruption with a high effusion rate. At the subsurface level, all central volcanoes, irrespective of size, had a separate pipe-like feeder vent. Only thirteen dikes were identified at shallow depths of < 100 m below the lava surface; deeper dikes were even rarer. The pipe-like plumbing system and the paucity of dilational dikes were different from the typical plumbing system of flood basalt provinces on Earth, which are normally buoyancy-controlled dike-sill networks. A gas-driven vigorous eruption can be inferred from the imaged structure, which means that the Tarim flood basalt may have carried and released a large proportion of volcanic gas, similar to some mafic volcaniclastic deposit-bearing continental flood basalt provinces.

Weichand P., Gadow R. Basalt fibre reinforced SiOC-matrix composites: Manufacturing technologies and characterisation // Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 2015. Vol. 35, № 14. P. 4025–4030.

In order to evaluate the capability of resin transfer moulding for the manufacturing of fibre reinforced SiOC-composites derived from polysiloxanes, basalt fibre reinforced polysiloxane matrix composite plates were manufactured with uni-directional, orthotropic and quasi-isotropic lay-up. After precursor injection, the composites were thermally cured in the closed mould at temperatures below 200 degrees C. The cured polymer composites were pyrolysed in nitrogen atmosphere at 650 degrees C for 8 hand reinfiltrated with subsequent polymer infiltration and pyrolysis steps in order to reduce the matrix porosity. Characterisation of flexural strength was performed via three-point bending tests with pyrolysed samples. Especially the uni-directional composites show good mechanical properties comparable to samples manufactured via filament winding or pressing techniques. Additionally, hardness evaluation of matrix and basalt fibres was performed via Vickers micro hardness indentation for different pyrolysis temperatures in-between 600 and 1000 degrees C, showing a significant increase in hardness of the matrix in the temperature range above 850 degrees C.

Xia L.-Q. The geochemical criteria to distinguish continental basalts from arc related ones // Earth-Science Reviews. 2014. Vol. 139. P. 195–212.

Contamination by continental crust or lithosphere can impart subduction-like signatures and lead to the misidentification of contaminated continental intraplate basaltic rocks as arc related ones. Uncontaminated plume-derived continental basaltic rocks are normally characterized by high Nb/La ratios of higher than or near one, low 87Sr/86Sr(t) ratios, high ?Nd(t) values and "hump-shaped" OIB-like mantle-normalized multi-element patterns without negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies. As the uncontaminated plume-derived basaltic rocks have been found in the studied volcanic successions, the possibility can be basically excluded that they belong to island-arc or active continental margin volcanic rocks. The contaminated continental basaltic lavas have higher 87Sr/86Sr, concentrations of incompatible trace elements and lower ?Nd relative to the arc related ones. For the basaltic lavas with subduction-like signatures, we can judge whether they are really island-arc or active continental margin basalts by utilizing the geochemical diagrams which do not use Nb, Ta or Ti as discriminating factors. The contaminated continental basalts can be distinguished from continental margin by two factors: 1) the overall level of the incompatible elements, including Nb is higher for the contaminated continental basalts, and 2) on trace element diagrams that do not involve Nb, Ta and Ti, even the contaminated basalts exhibit within plate character.

Xin L. et al. Study on the effect of basalt fiber on the energy absorption characteristics of porous material // Construction and Building Materials. 2014. Vol. 68. P. 384–390.

Ceramics-cement based porous material (CCPM) and basalt fiber reinforced ceramics-cement based porous material (BFRCCPM) have been prepared. The quasi-static compression test and impact compression test of both CCPM and BFRCCPM have been made and the energy-absorption indicators under different strain rate have been obtained. The energy-absorbing features of them have been comparatively analyzed and the effect of basalt fiber has been comparatively studied. The results show: under quasi-static compression state, the peak toughness and full toughness increase continuously with strain rate. Under the same strain rate, the peak toughness of BFRCCPM are obviously higher than that of CCPM. It is because basalt fiber can increase the peak toughness and full toughness. During impact compression stage, the peak toughness and specific energy absorption are highly strain rate sensitive and increase continuously with it. Basalt fiber has obvious improving effect on both peak toughness and full toughness. During impact compression state, the more energy the specimen absorbs, the more seriously it is damaged. BFRCCPM is comparatively slightly damaged given the same amount of absorbed energy. It is because the important effect of the basalt fiber. So, it can be concluded that basalt fiber can improve the energy-absorbing ability of porous material and has a promising future in the feature improving field.

Xu X. et al. Synthesis and characterization of Al2O3/SiC composite ceramics via carbothermal reduction of aluminosilicate precursor for solar sensible thermal storage // Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2016. Vol. 662. P. 126–137.

Al2O3 material with high heat capacity and high thermal conductivity was in situ formed to bond with SiC for synthesizing Al2O3/SiC composite ceramics by the removal of silica in aluminosilicate precursor using carbothermal reduction method. Phase transformation, microstructural evolution, and the relevant variations in properties were studied in the temperature range 1460-1580 degrees C. Results indicated that the addition of Y2O3 improved the carbothermal reaction rate significantly and decreased the finish temperature of carbothermal reaction to 1500 degrees C. Incorporation of the in situ formed Al2O3 could lower the sintering temperature of SiC ceramic without decreasing the heat capacity. By sintering at the optimal temperature as 1540 degrees C, Al2O3/SiC composite ceramics with the heat capacity of 1.16 J/(g.K) and the high thermal conductivity of 13.73 W/(m.K) were obtained. The relatively high thermal conductivity endowed the composites with a good thermal shock resistance. This study was intended to identify the reaction conditions for obtaining sensible thermal storage materials with favorable morphology and properties by using a simple in situ synthesis method.

Yong Z., Yan-yong X. A semi-analytical modeling approach for three-dimensional heat transfer in sparsely fractured rocks with water flow and distributed heat source // International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics. 2014. Vol. 38, № 11. P. 1149–1171.

A semi-analytical approach is developed for modeling 3D heat transfer in sparsely fractured rocks with prescribed water flow and heat source. The governing differential equations are formulated, and the corresponding integral equations over the fracture faces and the distributed heat source are established in the Laplace transformed domain using the Green function method with local systems of coordinates. The algebraic equations of the Laplace transformed temperatures of water in the fractures are formed by dividing the integrals into elemental ones; in particular, the fracture faces are discretized into rectangular elements, over which the integrations are carried out either analytically for singular integrals when the base point is involved or numerically for regular integrals when otherwise. The solutions of the algebraic equations are inverted numerically to obtain the real-time temperatures of water in the fractures, which may be employed to calculate the temperatures at prescribed locations of the rock matrix. Three example calculations are presented to illustrate the workability of the developed approach. The calculations found that water flux in the fractures may decrease the rate of temperature rise in regions close to the distributed heat source and increase the rate of temperature rise in regions downstream away from the distributed heat source and that the temperature distribution and evolvement in a sparsely fractured rock mass may be significantly influenced by water flow exchange at intersection of fractures.

Zhang C. et al. Granulite facies xenoliths from the Yuhuashan complex, central Jiangxi, South China: constraints on Late Palaeozoic orogeny and middle-lower crust components // Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 2016. Vol. 34, № 1. P. 45–61.

The Cretaceous Yuhuashan igneous complex contains abundant xenoliths of high-grade metamorphic rocks, with the assemblage garnet +/- hypersthene + biotite + plagioclase + K-feldspar + quartz. The biotite in these samples has high TiO2 (>3.5%), indicating high-T metamorphism (623-778 degrees C). P-T calculations for two felsic granulites indicate that the peak metamorphism took place at 880-887 degrees C and 0.64-0.70 GPa, in the low pressure/high temperature (LP-HT) granulite facies. Phase equilibrium modelling gives equilibrium conditions for the peak assemblage of a felsic granulite of >0.6 GPa and >840 degrees C, consistent with the P-T calculations, and identifies an anticlockwise P-T-t path. LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of metamorphic and detrital zircon from one xenolith reveals that the granulite facies metamorphism took place at 273.6 +/- 2.2 Ma, and the protolith was a sedimentary rock deposited later than 683 Ma. This represents the first Late Palaeozoic (Variscan) granulite facies event identified in the South China Block (SCB). Coupled with other geological observations, the LP-HT metamorphic conditions and anticlockwise P-T-t path suggest that Variscan metamorphism probably occurred in a post-orogenic or intraplate extensional tectonic setting associated with the input of external heat, related to the underplating of mantle-derived magma. Based on P-T estimates and the comparison of the protolith composition with mid-to low-grade metamorphic rocks in the area, it is suggested that the mid-lower crust under the Xiangshan-Yuhuashan area consists mainly of these felsic granulites and gneisses, whose protoliths were probably subducted to these depths during the Early Palaeozoic orogeny in the SCB, and underwent two episodes of metamorphism during Early Palaeozoic and Late Palaeozoic time.

ZhiGang Z. et al. Hydrothermal alteration of plagioclase microphenocrysts and glass in basalts from the East Pacific Rise near 13 degrees N: An SEM-EDS study // Science China-Earth Sciences.. 2014. Vol. 57, № 7. P. 1427–1437.

The interactions of seafloor hydrothermal fluid with igneous rocks can result in leaching elements from the rocks, creating potential ore-forming fluids and influencing the chemical compositions of near-bottom seawater. The hydrothermal alteration of plagioclase microphenocrysts and basaltic glass in the pillow basalts from one dredge station (103 degrees 57.62'W, 12 degrees 50.55'N, water depth 2480 m) on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near 13 degrees N were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The results show that the edges of the plagioclase microphenocrysts and the basaltic glass fragments are altered but the pyroxene and olivine microphenocrysts in the interior of the pillow basalts appear to be unaffected by the hydrothermal fluids. In addition, our results show that the chemical alteration at the rims of the plagioclase microphenocrysts and the edges of basaltic glass fragments can be divided into separate types of alteration. The chemical difference in hydrothermal alteration of the plagioclase microphenocrysts and the basaltic glass indicate that different degrees of hydrothermal fluid-solid phase interaction have taken place at the surface of the pillow basalts. If the degree of hydrothermal fluid-solid phase interaction is relatively minor, Si, Al, Ca and Na diffuse from the inside of the solid phase out and as a result these elements have a tendency to accumulate in the edge of the plagioclase microphenocrysts or basaltic glass. If the degree of hydrothermal fluid-solid phase interaction is relatively strong, Si, Al, Ca and Na also diffuse from the inside of solid phase out but these elements will have a relatively low concentration in the edge of the plagioclase microphenocrysts or basaltic glass. Based on the chemical variation observed in the edges of plagioclase microphenocrysts and basaltic glass, we estimate that the content of Si, Al and Fe in the edges of plagioclase microphenocrysts can have a variation of 10.69%, 17.59% and 109%, respectively. Similarly, the Si, Al and Fe concentrations in the edges of basaltic glass can have a variation of 9.79%, 16.30% and 37.83%, respectively, during the interaction of hydrothermal fluids and seafloor pillow basalt.

Буянтуев С.Л., Кондратенко А.С., Цыренов С.А. Расчет процесса высокотемпературной плавки базальта Селендумского месторождения // Вестник Бурятского Государственного Университета. 2014. № 3. С. 162-165.

Рассматривается механизм плавления базальта с помощью электромагнитного технологического реактора. Проводится анализ температурных и фазовых превращений сырья при его нагревании вплоть до плавления, а также определение удельных энергозатрат с помощью обобщенной модели термодинамического анализа ТЕРРА.

Васильева А.А. и др. Исследование свойств базальта Васильевского месторождения Якутии в качестве сырья для получения непрерывных волокон // Химическая технология. 2013. Т. 14. № 9. С. 516-520.

Представлены результаты исследований химического и минералогического состава потенциально пригодного петрургического сырья Васильевского месторождения для производства базальтового непрерывного волокна и композиционных материалов на его основе. Использованы методы рентгенспектрального и петрографического анализов. Проведенные исследования доказали возможность получения базальтовых непрерывных волокон на основе базальта Васильевского месторождения Якутии, так как его состав и основные характеристики соответствуют требованиям, предъявляемым к петрургическому сырью, по модулю вязкости, пироксеновому составу, наличию фазовых преобразований и т.д.

Волокитин О.Г., Волокитин Г.Г., Скрипникова Н.К. Получение минеральных волокон на основе зол Республики Казахстан с использованием устройств низкотемпературной плазмы // Стекло и керамика. 2013. № 9. С. 31-34.

Разработана технология утилизации золошлаковых отходов Республики Казахстан при производстве минеральных волокон с использованием электроплазменной установки для плавления силикатсодержащих материалов и переработки полученного расплава в минеральные волокна. Проведены исследования электроплазменной установки, сырьевых материалов и полученных на их основе минеральных волокон

Горбачев Н.С., Костюк А.В., Шаповалов Ю.Б. Экспериментальное изучение системы базальт–карбонат± H2O при Р = 4 ГПА, Т 1100–1300°С: образование карбонатитовых и высококалиевых силикатных магм // Доклады Академии Наук. 2015. Т. 464. № 4. С. 452-456.

Формирование К-силикатных и карбонатитовых расплавов при плавлении карбонатизированного эклогита c водным флюидом и в “сухих” условиях изучено экспериментально при 4 ГПа, 1100-1300°С. В Н2-содержащей системе при 1100°С первым образуется К-силикатный расплав, сосуществующий с Grt, Cpx, Сb. При 1200-1250°С К-силикатный и карбонатитовый расплавы сосуществуют с Cpx ± Grt ± Сb-ассоциацией. При 1300°С наблюдается полная смесимость К-силикатного и карбонатитового расплавов с образованием сверхкритического силикатно-карбонатного флюидорасплава.

Горошко М.В., Шевченко Б.Ф., Гурьянов В.А., Старосельцев В.С. и др. Лено-Алданская Протерозойская зона базальтоидной протоактивизации юго-востока Сибирской платформы // Доклады Академии Наук. 2013. Т. 451. № 3. С. 303-307.

Демешкин А.Г., Шваб А.А. Влияние агрессивной щелочной среды на прочностные свойства технических волокон // Вестник Самарского Государственного Технического Университета. Серия: Физико-математические науки. 2013. № 2 (31). С. 36-41.

Рассматриваются вопросы, связанные с прочностными свойствами непрерывных волокон из базальта, карбона и стеклопластика под воздействием агрессивных щелочных сред в растворе гидроокиси калия. Исследования проводились на жгутах (ровингах), имеющих 4000 нитей непрерывного волокна. Показано влияние агрессивной среды на прочность и структуру поверхностного слоя волокон. Проведён сравнительный анализ влияния щелочной среды на прочность материалов.

Дробот Н.Ф. и др. Влияние содержания железа на процесс спекания измельченного базальта с целью получения керамики // Неорганические материалы. 2014. Т. 50. № 3. С. 339-344.

Методом магнитной сепарации измельченный базальт месторождения Мяндуха (Архангельская область) был разделен на магнитно-обогащенную и магнитно-обедненную фракции. Определен их химический состав. На основании данных ДСК/ТГ и минерального состава исходного базальта, рассчитанного методом термодинамического моделирования, рассмотрены различия в термическом поведении двух фракций. Исследован процесс спекания магнитной и немагнитной фракций измельченного базальта и изучены некоторые свойства полученных образцов керамических материалов.

Игнатова А.М. и др. Фазовые превращения и механизм разрушения синтетических минеральных базальтоподобных сплавов при воздействии металлическим пробойником // Вестник Пермского Национального Исследовательского Политехнического Университета. Машиностроение, Материаловедение. 2015. Т. 17. № 3. С. 88-100.

В качестве объекта исследования рассматриваются синтетические минеральные базальтоподобные сплавы с добавлением Cr 2O 3 и без добавок. Структура этих материалов состоит из 95 % кристаллических и 5 % аморфных фазовых составляющих, изучаемые материалы обладают выраженными диссипативными свойствами. Для реализации потенциала диссипативных свойств этих материалов необходимо подробное изучение их деформационного поведения при высокоскоростных ударных нагрузках. Ранее авторами было установлено, что при скоростях 2700-3000 м/с в материалах происходят значительные фазовые и структурные изменения, вплоть до образования ударных модификаций оксида кремния, таких как стишовит. Однако предшествующие им изменения, которые должны были быть, зафиксированы не были, для установления механизма разрушения синтетических минеральных базальтоподобных сплавов при ударном воздействие необходимо идентифицировать начальные фазовые преобразования, сопутствующие этому процессу. Авторы исследования предлагают установить начальные фазовые превращения, сопровождающие разрушение синтетических минеральных базальтоподобных сплавов при контакте с металлическим пробойником. Для разгона пробойника используется пневматическая установка, для фиксации этапов процесса - высокоскоростная видеосъемка, а для исследования фрагментов разрушения - растровая электронная микроскопия и рентгено-спектральный микрозондовый анализ. В результате исследования получены данные, характеризующие деформационное поведение синтетических минеральных сплавов при ударе стальным шариком диаметром 23,8 мм со скоростью 233-234 м/с. Обнаружено, что начало процесса разрушения характеризуется частичным оплавлением синтетического минерального базальтоподобного сплава в зоне контакта с пробойником, полиморфные превращения не наблюдаются, но при этом происходит уплотнение кристаллических составляющих.

Игнатова А.М., Попов В.Л. и др. Конструктивно-технологическая характеристика опытно-промышленной малогабаритной дуговой печи для плавки петрургического сырья // Научно-технический вестник Поволжья. 2013. № 1. С. 185-189.

В статье изложены материалы как была разработана, изготовлена и опробована опытно-промышленная малогабаритная дуговая печь для плавки петрургического сырья.

Игнатова А.М., Шешуков О.Ю., Балакирев В.Ф. Систематизация и классификация техногенных образований Уральского горнометаллургического комплекса с позиций их петрургического рециклинга // Научно-технический вестник Поволжья. 2013. № 3. С. 153-165.

Представлены сведения о номенклатуре техногенных образований Уральской горно-металлургической промышленности и дополнение их классификации с точки зрения их химического и минералогического составов позволяют в высшей степени положительно оценить перспективность использования петрургических методов рециклинга для экономического и производственного развития предприятий.

Колдаев А.Б. Каменное литье: применение при производстве строительных изделий // Химическая технология. 2014. Т. 15. № 4. С. 193-200.

Рассмотрена возможность получения методом каменного литья из силикатного расплава строительных изделий: облицовочных и накрывочных плит, брусчатки, бордюров, карнизов и других видов продукции. Проведены исследования физико-химических свойств образующегося литого камня в сравнении со свойствами природных камней: гранита, габбро, мрамора, доломита. Установлено, что свойства материала каменного литья соответствуют высоким требованиям, предъявляемым к изделиям из камня. Предложено применять при производстве каменного литья в качестве сырьевого материала фосфогипс (отход производства фосфорных удобрений) или продукт его переработки - фосфомел.

Кочергин А.В., Грановская Н.В. и др. Пути обеспечения производителей минерального волокна габбро-базальтовым сырьем // Стекло и керамика. 2012. № 12. С. 17-21.

Рассмотрены направления использования габбро-базальтового сырья для производства минеральной ваты и требования к нему промышленности. Показаны причины нестабильности качества и состава сырья. Даны рекомендации производителям для решения сырьевой проблемы - подготовка собственных месторождений на основе геологических предпосылок, минералого-технологическое картирование объектов, организация селективной добычи сырья.

Кренев В.А., Бабиевская И.З. и др. Экспериментальные и расчетные методы определения минерального состава горных пород в производстве минеральных волокон и петрургии // Неорганические материалы. 2013. Т. 49. № 4. С. 424-428.

Приведены данные о влиянии минерального состава габбро-базальтовых пород на свойства получаемых из них минеральных волокон и изделий каменного литья. Рассмотрены экспериментальные и расчетные методы определения минерального состава магматических горных пород и обсуждаются возможные причины расхождения в получаемых результатах. Показано, что результаты физико-химических расчетов минеральных составов могут быть использованы для предварительной оценки технологических свойств природного сырья при производстве минеральных волокон и изделий каменного литья (петрургии).

Криволуцкая Н.А., Плечова А.А., Костицын Ю.А. и др. Геохимические аспекты ассимиляции базальтовыми расплавами вмещающих пород при образовании норильских медно-никелевых руд // Петрология. 2014. Т. 22. № 2. С. 147-170.

В моделях образования Норильских платино-медно-никелевых месторождений важная роль отводится процессам ассимиляции вмещающих пород базитовыми расплавами. Эта идея базируется на необычном соотношении силикатной и сульфидной составляющих для данного типа месторождений, а также тяжелом изотопном составе серы сульфидов руд, который, как предполагается, обусловлен ассимиляцией ангидрита из вмещающих пород. Анализ других факторов, влияющих на этот процесс, в литературе не рассматривается. Нами впервые детально проанализировано строение контактовых зон интрузивов, локализованных в различных вмещающих породах: Масловского в раннетриасовых базальтах ивакинской-надеждинской свит и Талнахского в девонских карбонатно-терригенных породах с ангидритом. На примере распределения редких элементов и соотношения изотопов 87Sr/86Sr и Sm-Nd показано, что ассимиляция вмещающих пород либо отсутствовала, либо была проявлена в очень локальной зоне (1 м) в восточной апофизе юга Масловского интрузива. Продемонстрировано, что по изотопному составу стронция, неодима, и особенно свинца, ангидрит не мог быть источником тяжелой серы для сульфидов норильских месторождений. Руды Масловского и Талнахского интрузивов близки по изотопному составу таковым слагающих их сульфидов (максимальные значения 34S в которых достигают 10.8 и 14.2 соответственно), несмотря на существенную разницу в составе вмещающих их пород. На основании проведенных исследований сделан вывод о незначительности проявления ассимиляционных процессов и отсутствии их влияния на образование руд.

Лебухова Н.В., Кириченко Е.А., Чигрин П.Г. Термохимическая стойкость и адгезионная прочность каталитических композиций СuMoO4/базальтовое волокно // Неорганические материалы. 2015. Т. 51. № 5. С. 516-521.

Проведено сравнительное исследование адгезии и устойчивости к высокотемпературному воздействию газа SO2 и паров воды медномолибдатных каталитических покрытий, сформированных на базальтовом волокне различными методами. Полученные композиции СuMoO4/базальтовое волокно обладают высокой активностью окисления сажи и не подвержены ингибированию реакционными газами. Показана слабая адгезия к поверхности волокон фазы СuMoO4, нанесенной экстракционно-пиролитическим методом. При использовании полимерно-солевого геля в качестве пропиточного раствора закрепление катализатора на носителе обеспечивает частичное выщелачивание железа из базальта, протекающее с формированием пористой структуры волокон. Последующий пиролиз приводит к образованию железомолибдатного промежуточного слоя и фаз Сu3Мо2О9 и FeхCu3 - хMo2O9, которые в процессе каталитического горения сажи разлагаются до СuMoO4 и соответствующих оксидов СuО, Fe2O3.

Макаревич К.С., Кириченко Е.А. и др. Особенности формирования композиций СuMoO4/базальтовое волокно для каталитического дожига сажи // Катализ в промышленности. 2013. № 2. С. 33-38.

Показана возможность использования базальтового волок- на в качестве носителя медно-молибдатного катализатора окисления сажи. Методами СЭМ и РФА обнаружена неоднородность медно-молибдатного слоя, сформированного на поверхности базальтовых волокон. Нанесение на волокно полимерно-солевого геля с исходным эквимолярным соотношением Cu и Мо сопровождается выщелачиванием желе- за из структуры базальта, что при последующем пиролизе способствует закреплению медно-молибдатного слоя на носителе и приводит к формированию фаз Сu3Мо2О9 и FeO– Cu3Mo2O9, которые в процессе каталитического горения сажи разлагаются с образованием СuMoO4 и оксидов СuО и Fe2O3. Композиции 5%СuMoO4/базальтовое волокно после использования в двух циклах каталитического процесса обеспечивают стабильные параметры сгорания сажи, сопоставимые с активностью массивного образца СuMoO4 ( t max = 403 °С, ?(CO2)= 97,8 %). Результаты исследования полезны при разработке способов формирования композиционных каталитических покрытий конструкций сажевых фильтров.

Пергамент В.Х., Караулов Н.Г. и др. Определение скорости движения потоков базальтовых лав на малых уклонах // Актуальные проблемы современной науки, техники и образования. 2015. Т. 1. № 1. С. 55-58.

На основе приведенных (Кукал З., Шабер Г.) численных величин скоростей движений базальтовых лав с t=1200 0 C на пологих склонах в регионах Гавайских островов и плато Колумбия-Ривер получены степенные приближения зависимостей этих скоростей от мощности (m=10...30 м) при ламинарном и турбулентном режимах движений. Для обоих регионов отмечена единообразная связь скоростей ламинарных и турбулентных потоков одинаковой мощности (глубины). Полученные соотношения могут быть полезны для оценок влияния отдельных факторов на особенности и характеристики разнорежимных потоков при вулканических извержениях и в промышленности каменного литья.

Персиков Э.С., Бухтияров П.Г., Сокол А.Г. Изменение вязкости кимберлитовых и базальтовых магм в процессах их зарождения и эволюции (прогноз) // Геология и геофизика. 2015. Т. 56. № 6. С. 1131-1140.

На основе анализа экспериментальных данных по вязкости магматических расплавов в ряду основные-ультраосновные с использованием структурно-химической модели расчетов и прогноза вязкости магм впервые установлено, что кимберлитовая магма, выносящая из недр Земли алмазы, при подъеме из мантии в земную кору должна двигаться с заметным ускорением. Вязкость кимберлитовой магмы по мере ее зарождения, эволюции и подъема из мантии в земную кору будет уменьшаться более чем в 3 раза. И это несмотря на значительное снижение температуры поднимающейся кимберлитовой магмы (на ~ 150 °С) по мере ее подъема из глубин мантии к поверхности, ее частичной кристаллизации и дегазации. При частичном плавлении карбонатизированного перидотита (степень плавления < 1 мас. %) в мантии на глубинах порядка 250-350 км вязкость образовавшегося кимберлитового расплава будет сравнительно высокой и равной ~ 35 Па·с при Р ? 8.5 ГПа, Т ? 1350 °С, содержание воды в расплаве до ~ 8 мас. %, С(ОН -) = 0-2 мас. %, молекулярная С(Н 2О) = 0-6 мас. %. Тогда как при образовании кимберлитовых трубок взрыва, даек и силлов в приповерхностных условиях вязкость кимберлитового расплава будет значительно уменьшаться и станет ~ 10 Па·с при Р ~ 50 МПа, Т = 1200 °С, объемном содержании кристаллической и флюидной (пузыри) фаз соответственно равном V кр. = 35, V фл. = 5 об. %, концентрации воды в магме С(ОН -) = 0.5 мас. %. Напротив, вязкость базальтовой магмы в процессе подъема из мантии Земли в земную кору будет возрастать более чем на 2 порядка величины. При зарождении базальтовой магмы в астеносфере на глубинах ~ 100 км вязкость образовавшегося базальтового расплава будет минимальной и достигать ~ 2.3 Па·с при Р ? 4 ГПа, Т ? 1350 °С, содержание воды в расплаве С(ОН -) ? 3 мас. %, С(Н 2О) ? 5 мас. %. Тогда как на финальной стадии эволюции, например, при извержении базальтовых вулканов, вязкость базальтового расплава будет много выше и равна ~ 600 Па·с при Р ? 10 МПа, Т ? 1180 °С, V кр. ? 30 об. %, V фл. ? 15 об. %, С(ОН -) ~ 0.5 мас. %.

Пивинский Ю. Е., Дякин П. В., Горбачев Д. В., Стрельцов С. А. Получение и некоторые свойства спеченной алюмосиликатной керамики на основе ВКВС. Часть I // Новые огнеупоры. 2013. №2. С. 30-41.

Wet grinding in a disk mill is used to prepare highly-concentrated ceramic binder suspensions (HCBS) based on broken porcelain electric insulator and pearlite with a volume concentration of solid phase of 70% and with specified rheotechnological properties. Asemifinished product, obtained by slip casting and centrifugal molding, has original porosity of 20 – 22% and shrinkage during drying of less than 0.05%.

Пивинский Ю. Е., Дякин П. В., Горбачев Д. В., Стрельцов С. А. Получение и некоторые свойства спеченной алюмосиликатной керамики на основе ВКВС. Часть II // Новые огнеупоры. 2013. №3. С. 145-154.

Sintering and some properties of fine aluminosilicate ceramic, prepared on the basis of HCBS from broken porcelain electric insulator and pearlite, are studied. After firing at 1000 – 1500°C ceramic has open porosity of 1 – 8%, and ultimate strength in bending and compression of 45 – 65 and 350 – 500 MPa respectively. Compared with traditional fine ceramic materials, such as porcelain, semi-porcelain, hard faience, and majolica, in the new technology comparable properties are achieved with significantly (by a factor of 3 – 5) lower overall shrinkage and a reduced (by 150 – 200°C) firing temperature. Possible areas are indicated for implementingHCBS-technology in the field of production, not only for traditional fine ceramic, but also fine-grained structural, and artistic architectural ceramics.

Попов В.Л., Антонов Б.Ю., Игнатова А.М. Эволюционное развитие и конструктивно-технологическая характеристика современной промышленной электродуговой печи для плавки петрургического сырья // Научно-технический вестник Поволжья. 2013. № 1. С. 240-244.

В статье рассматривается эволюционное развитие промышленных плавильных агрегатов для петрургического сырья, технологические особенности петрургических расплавов и конструкция наиболее современного плавильного агрегата для петрургического сырья.

Румянцев Б.М., Жуков А.Д. и др. Технологические аспекты эксплуатационной стойкости минеральных волокон // Промышленное и гражданское строительство. 2015. № 1. С. 32-36.

Изделия на основе каменной или стеклянной ваты, базальтового волокна являются наиболее распространенными минераловатными теплоизоляционными материалами. Минеральные волокна изготовляют с использованием горных пород габбро-базальтовой группы, карбонатов, шлаков, различных добавок, положительно влияющих на плавкость расплавов и их вязкость, а также на формирование необходимых строительных свойств и эксплуатационной стойкости минераловатных теплоизоляционных материалов. Получение качественных минеральных волокон, обладающих высокими прочностными показателями и эксплуатационной стойкостью, зависит от компонентного состава шихты, условий и способов плавления и технологических приемов переработки расплава в волокно. Косвенным образом эти параметры определяют такую характеристику расплава, как его вязкость. В статье приведены результаты исследования вязкости минеральных расплавов и водостойкости минеральной ваты в зависимости от ее химического состава, в частности от содержания оксидов, и от модуля кислотности. Установлено, что водо- и химическая стойкость минерального волокна при постоянном модуле кислотности зависит от содержания оксидов кальция и магния и их соотношения в шихте. При производстве теплоизоляционных материалов на основе минеральных волокон результаты выполненных работ позволяют решать практические задачи по оптимизации химического и минералогического составов компонентов шихты.

Рыбин В.А., Уткин А.В., Бакланова Н.И. Щелочеустойчивое покрытие для базальтового волокна // Физикохимия поверхности и защита материалов. 2013. Т. 49. № 6. С. 636-640.

С помощью золь-гель метода получены покрытия из диоксида циркония на базальтовом волокне. На основе изучения морфологических особенностей и элементного состава покрытий, полученных в различных условиях, определения механической прочности на растяжение индивидуальных волокон определены условия нанесения покрытий, позволяющие минимизировать негативное воздействие термической обработки и окислительной среды на свойства волокон. Исследована коррозионная устойчивость базальтовых волокон в сильнощелочной среде. Показано, что нанесение защитного покрытия из диоксида циркония улучшает коррозионную устойчивость базальтового волокна, при этом морфология и текстура покрытия из диоксида циркония имеют ключевое значение.

Рябов В.В. Экзотические полиминеральные рудные скопления в трапповых интрузиях Сибирской платформы // Геология и минерально-сырьевые ресурсы Сибири. 2014. № 3с-1. С. 101-104.

В габбродолеритах интрузий Курейско-Горбиачинского вулканоплутона обнаружены скопления различных по составу минеральных фаз, количество которых на одном локальном участке породы достигает 50-60 и более зерен (различные сочетания Pt, Pd, Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Bi, Pb, Zn, Sn, As, Sb, S, Ge). Минеральные фазы этих скоплений представляют классы и группы минералов, известных в рудах норильских месторождений, а также первые находки необычных по составу минералов и их разновидностей в природе. Предполагается, что ведущую роль в образовании полиминеральных скоплений сыграли углеводородные флюиды. Они экстрагировали металлы из толеит-базальтового расплава, создавали летучие гетерометалльные элементоорганические соединения, мигрировали в расплаве и на геохимических барьерах диссоциировали с образованием различных по составу минеральных фаз. Источником минералообразующих химических элементов были пласты каменного угля и базальтовый расплав.

Симонов В.А. и др. Петрогенезис меймечитов Сихотэ-Алиня (данные по расплавным включениям) // Тихоокеанская геология. 2014. Т. 33. № 6. С. 34-49.

В результате исследования состава минералов и расплавных включений в них получена новая информация о физико-химических условиях петрогенезиса меймечитов Сихотэ-Алиня. Данные по составам минералов субвулканических ультраосновных пород из двух местонахождений (бассейны рек Барахта и Катэн) свидетельствуют о сходстве рассматриваемых меймечитов с эталонными породами Маймеча-Котуйской провинции и об их формировании во внутриплитных условиях. Эксперименты с расплавными включениями в оливинах и расчетное моделирование на основе данных о составах стекол включений показали незначительные различия температурных режимов магматических систем, формировавших меймечиты из местонахождений по р. Барахта (1235-1280 °С) и р. Катэн (1230-1300 °С). Результаты исследования включений в оливинах показали, что кристаллизация меймечитов Сихотэ-Алиня происходила из базальтоидных расплавов (соответствующих по химическому составу оливиновым базальтам и пикробазальтам) в результате кумуляции оливинов. Данные по особенностям распределения титана, редких и редкоземельных элементов в расплавных включениях свидетельствуют об активном участии плюмовых магматических систем при формировании меймечитовых комплексов Сихотэ-Алиня. Прямой анализ с помощью ионного зонда содержаний летучих компонентов в стеклах прогретых расплавных включений в оливинах выявил существенные различия в содержании воды в магматических системах, формировавших меймечиты бассейнов р. Барахта (0.82-0.9 мас. % и до 2.45 мас. %) и р. Катэн (0.22-0.30 мас. %).

Судавцова В.С., Шевченко М.А., Березуцкий В.В. и др. Термодинамические свойства и фазовые равновесия в сплавах двойных систем Al(Si)-Ce // Журнал физической химии. 2014. Т. 88. № 5. С. 736-746.

Энтальпии смешения жидких сплавов двойных систем Al(Si)-Ce определены методом калориметрии при 1540 и 1870 K в интервале концентраций 0 < xAl(Si) < 0.3. Термодинамические свойства жидких сплавов рассчитаны в полном концентрационном интервале с использованием модели идеального ассоциированного раствора. Сделан вывод, что термодинамические активности компонентов расплавов Al(Si)-Ce проявляют большие отрицательные отклонения от идеального поведения; энтальпии смешения указывают на значительные экзотермические эффекты. Установлено, что минимумы энтальпий смешения составляют 45.8 ± 2.2 кДж/моль при xCe = 0.37 (Al-Ce, 1870 K) и 75.0 ± 2.2 кДж/моль при xCe = 0.47 (Si-Ce, 1923 K).

Тронза Е.И., Терновых А.М. и др. Влияние термической обработки и климатических условий на прочность базальтовых и стеклянных волокон // Вестник Московского Государственного Университета приборостроения и информатики. Серия: Приборостроение и информационные технологии. 2013. № 44. С. 134-140.

В работе методом энергодисперсионной спектрометрии изучены поверхностные дефекты стеклянных волокон. Установлено, что влияние климатических условий на прочность волокон очень слабое. Показано, что термическая обработка позволяет существенно повысить прочность волокна.

Туркина О.М., Ножкин А.Д. Геохимия и вопросы генезиса метабазитов из гранулито-гнейсового комплекса Ангаро-Канского блока (юго-запад Сибирского Кратона) // Геохимия. 2014. № 10. С. 892-906.

Изучено распределение петрогенных и редких элементов в высокометаморфизованных породах основного состава из гранулито-гнейсового комплекса Ангаро-Канского блока (юго-запад Сибирского кратона), определены магматические протолиты метабазитов и оценена подвижность элементов при метаморфизме. Установлены два типа пород, различающихся по геологическому положению и составу. Гранат-двупироксеновые гранулиты (Cpx + Pl + Grt + Opx) слагают субпластовые и будинообразные тела, которые испытали складчатые деформации совместно с вмещающими парагнейсами. Дайковые тела, подверженные только хрупким деформациям, образованы метабазитами с минеральной ассоциацией Cpx + Hbl + Pl + Grt. Магматические протолиты мафических гранулитов и метабазитов дайковых тел по содержанию петрогенных элементов отвечают в различной степени дифференцированным базальтовым расплавам. Формирование протолитов метабазитов, обедненных K2O, LILE, Zr, Nb и легкими РЗЭ, происходило из деплетированного мантийного источника. По петро- и геохимическим параметрам метабазиты дайковых тел сопоставимы с низкокалиевыми толеитовыми базальтами океанических островных дуг. Вероятными магматическими протолитами мафических гранулитов, обогащенных Ba, легкими РЗЭ, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, являются континентальные внутриплитные базальты, образованные из обогащенного мантийного источника. Предполагается, что аномально низкое содержание Rb, Th, U в мафических гранулитах в сравнение с континентальными платобазальтами, высокие K/Rb, La/Th и умеренные Th/U обусловлены выносом этих элементов при гранулитовом метаморфизме.

Флеров Г.Б., Ананьев В.В., Пономарев Г.П. Петрогенезис пород вулканов Острого и Плоского Толбачиков и соотношение вулканических проявлений базальтовой и трахибазальтовой магм на территории Толбачинского Дола (Камчатка) // Вулканология и сейсмология. 2015. № 3. С. 15-35.

Предложена петролого-геодинамическая модель магмогенеза вулканических образований на территории Толбачинского Дола. Установлены различия эволюции продуктов вулканизма и минерального состава пород стратовулканов Острого и Плоского Толбачиков с одной стороны и региональной зоны шлаковых конусов с другой. Делается вывод о генетической независимости базальтовой и трахибазальтовой магм и их смешении на этапе смены вулканизма центрального и трещинного типов. Ведущим процессом, ответственным за образование серий пород базальтовой и трахибазальтовой ассоциаций является кристаллизационная дифференциация, а вариации составов пород стратовулканов и конусов объясняются привносом щелочной компоненты в очаг базальтовой магмы и их накоплением в процессе ее кристаллизации.

Фомичёв С.В., Дергачёва Н.П., Бабиевская И.З. и др. Применение высокодисперсного порошка базальта для изготовления каменной керамики // Химическая технология. 2012. Т. 13. № 11. С. 666-669.

На основе высокодисперсных порошков базальта, полученных методом ультразвукового диспергирования, были изготовлены образцы каменной керамики. Определены некоторые свойства полученных образцов.

Черкасов Г.Н., Беляев Н.В. Мезозойско-кайнозойская тектономагматическая активизация и позднемеловой палеогеновый рудолитогенез в Приенисейской зоне Западно-Сибирской плиты. Ч. 1 // Геология и минерально-сырьевые ресурсы Сибири. 2015. № 3. С. 107-114.

По результатам изучения литологии стратифицированных систем плитного комплекса (Т) и чехла (J1-Q) Приенисейской зоны Западно-Сибирской плиты (ЗСП) выявлены признаки участия вулканизма в их формировании. С использованием усредненных мощностей систем реконструирована схема этапов тектономагматической активизации. Для подтверждения использованы не только данные изучения чехла, но и материалы по юрско-меловому магматизму восточного и юго-восточного обрамления ЗСП. Установлено, что в течение позднемезозойско-кайнозойского времени в Приенисейской зоне проявились два этапа базальтоидного и два этапа гранитоидного вулканизма.

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