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Ahmed T. et al. Emerging nanotechnology-based methods for water purification: a review // Desalin. Water Treat. 2014. Vol. 52, № 22-24. P. 4089–4101.

Nanotechnology has a wide range of applications. This makes it a very important technology of the future. Its application in water and wastewater purification is of great interest not only in developing countries but also in the developed countries. The application of nanometals (silver and gold) and nanomembranes can help in developing of water treatment technologies which can be used for solving water-related problems such as waterborne pathogens, biofouling, removal of toxic metals (lead, arsenic, and chromium), etc. Moreover, nanotechnology can also be used to increase the efficiency of water filters. In this paper, we review the emerging nanotechnology-based methods for water purification, the potential applications of nanotechnology in the form of nanosensors, nanomembranes, nanometallic particles, and photocatalysis for water purification, nanosensors for detection of contaminants in water, novel magnetic nanoparticles for water desalination, and finally we present the possible risks associated with the use of this technology.

Amin M.T., Alazba A.A. A review of nanomaterials based membranes for removal of contaminants from polluted waters // Membr. Water Treat. 2014. Vol. 5, № 2. P. 123–146.

Safe water has becoming a competitive resource in many parts of the world due to increasing population, prolonged droughts, climate change etc. The development of economical and stable materials and methods for providing the fresh water in adequate amounts is the need of the water industry. Nanomaterials have unique characteristics e. g., large surface areas, size, shape, and dimensions etc. that make them particularly attractive for removing various contaminants from polluted waters. Nanotechnology based multifunctional and highly efficient membrane processes are providing affordable solutions in the new era that do not rely on large infrastructures or centralizes systems. The objective of the current study is to review the possible applications of the membrane based nanomaterials/composites for the removal of various contaminations from polluted waters. The article will briefly overview the availability and practice of different nanomaterials based membranes for removal of bacteria and viruses, organic compounds and inorganic solutes etc. present in surface water, ground water, seawater and/or industrial water. Finally, recommendations are made based on the current practices of nanofiltration membranes in water industry for a stand-alone membrane filtration system in removing various types of contaminants from polluted waters.

Bakker K. Water security: Research challenges and opportunities // Science. 2012. Vol. 337, № 6097. P. 914–915.

New strategies for analyzing water security have the potential to improve coordination and generate synergies between researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners.

Bielefeldt A.R. et al. Removal of virus to protozoan sized particles in point-of-use ceramic water filters // Water Research. 2010. Vol. 44, № 5. P. 1482–1488.

The particle removal performance of point-of-use ceramic water filters (CWFs) was characterized in the size range of 0.02-100 mu m using carboxylate-coated polystyrene fluorescent microspheres, natural particles and clay. Particles were spiked into dechlorinated tap water, and three successive water batches treated in each of six different CWFs. Particle removal generally increased with increasing size. The removal of virus-sized 0.02 and 0.1 mu m spheres were highly variable between the six filters, ranging from 63 to 99.6%. For the 0.5 mu m spheres removal was less variable and in the range of 95.1-99.6%, while for the 1, 2, 4.5, and 10 mu m spheres removal was >99.6%. Recoating four of the CWFs with colloidal silver solution improved removal of the 0.02 mu m spheres, but had no significant effects on the other particle sizes. Log removals of 1.8-3.2 were found for natural turbidity and spiked kaolin clay particles; however, particles as large as 95 mu m were detected in filtered water.

Biksey T.M. et al. Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment // Water Environment Research. 2009. Vol. 81, № 10. P. 2170–2210.

This literature review covers the risk assessment process and addresses both ecological and human re receptors. The review covers the risk assessment The literature including methodology, analysis, interpretation, management, uncertainty, policy, and regulatory guidance. The review is divided into ecological and human health sections. The focus of the review is on the risk assessment process as it is applied to ecological systems and human health, site investigation and remediation, and natural resources. The objective is to provide an overview of the scope of the literature published in 2008.

Bond T., Templeton M.R., Graham N. Precursors of nitrogenous disinfection by-products in drinking water––A critical review and analysis // Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2012. Vol. 235-236. P. 1–16.

In recent years research into the formation of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) in drinking water – including N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), the haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloacetamides (HAcAms), cyanogen halides (CNX) and halonitromethanes (HNMs) – has proliferated. This is partly due to their high reported toxicity of N-DBPs. In this review paper information about the formation yields of N-DBPs from model precursors, and about environmental precursor occurrence, has been employed to assess the amount of N-DBP formation that is attributable to known precursors. It was calculated that for HANs and HAcAms, the concentrations of known precursors – mainly free amino acids are insufficient to account for the observed concentrations of these N-DBP groups. However, at least in some waters, a significant proportion of CNX and NDMA formation can be explained by known precursors. Identified N-DBP precursors tend to be of low molecular weight and low electrostatic charge relative to bulk natural organic matter (NOM). This makes them recalcitrant to removal by water treatment processes, notably coagulation, as confirmed by a number of bench-scale studies. However, amino acids have been found to be easier to remove during water treatment than would be suggested by the known molecular properties of the individual free amino acids.

Boyd G.R. et al. Nanomaterials: Removal Processes and Beneficial Applications in Treatment // Journal - American Water Works Association. 2013. Vol. 105, №12. P. E699–E708

Nanomaterials are typically defined as particles with at least one dimension measuring < 100 nm. Limited information is currently available and more research is needed regarding the occurrence of these materials in source water and the effectiveness of water treatment processes at removing engineered nanomaterials. Engineered nanomaterials also offer opportunities for improving the operation and performance of drinking water treatment systems. Nanomaterials are currently being developed for the removal of trace organics and metals and for disinfection through application to membranes (nanomaterial-enhanced or nanoreactive membranes), ion exchange, and sorption processes. Nanomaterials can remove contaminants of emerging concern by oxidation processes (e.g., titanium dioxide photocatalysis) and abiotic reduction (e.g., nanozerovalent iron). They are also being used in nanosensors for water quality monitoring. Ongoing development of nanomaterials is expected to continue contributing improvements to treatment systems with the potential for increasing the availability of safe drinking water supplies.

Braden J.B. et al. Social science in a water observing system // Water Resources Research. 2009. Vol. 45. N11. P. W11301.

We set forth an argument for the integration of social science research with natural science and engineering research in major research infrastructure investments addressing water science. A program of integrated observation of water resources offers great opportunities to address several environmental "grand challenges'' identified by the National Research Council, including climate variability, institutions and resource use, and land use dynamics, and their importance for hydrologic forecasting. We argue that such a program has the potential to advance both water science and the contributing disciplines. However, to realize this potential, it is essential to recognize that social science requires critical infrastructure funding on the scale of advanced research facilities in the natural sciences and engineering.

Bulo R.E. et al. Multiscale Modeling of Chemistry in Water: Are We There Yet? // Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation. 2013. Vol. 9, № 12. P. 5567–5577.

This paper critically evaluates the state of the art in combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approaches to the computational description of chemistry in water and supplies guidelines for the setup of customized multiscale simulations of aqueous processes. We differentiate between structural and dynamic performance, since some tasks, e.g., the reproduction of NMR or UV–vis spectra, require only structural accuracy, while others, i.e., reaction mechanisms, require accurate dynamic data as well. As a model system for aqueous solutions in general, the approaches were tested on a QM water cluster in an environment of MM water molecules. The key difficulty is the description of the possible diffusion of QM molecules into the MM region and vice versa. The flexible inner region ensemble separator (FIRES) approach constrains QM solvent molecules within an active (QM) region. Sorted adaptive partitioning (SAP), difference-based adaptive solvation (DAS), and buffered-force (BF) are all adaptive approaches that use a buffer zone in which solvent molecules gradually adapt from QM to MM (or vice versa). The costs of SAP and DAS are relatively high, while BF is fast but sacrifices conservation of both energy and momentum. Simulations in the limit of an infinitely small buffer zone, where DAS and SAP become equivalent, are discussed as well and referred to as ABRUPT. The best structural accuracy is obtained with DAS, BF, and ABRUPT, all three of similar quality. FIRES performs very well for dynamic properties localized deep within the QM region. By means of elimination DAS emerges as the best overall compromise between structural and dynamic performance. Eliminating the buffer zone (ABRUPT) improves efficiency and still leads to surprisingly good results. While none of the many new flavors are perfect, all together this new field already allows accurate description of a wide range of structural and dynamic properties of aqueous solutions.

Chary N.S., Fernandez-Alba A.R. Determination of volatile organic compounds in drinking and environmental waters // TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 2012. Vol. 32. P. 60–75.

A review. Volatile org. compds. (VOCs) are of prime concern due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment. It is focussed on sample-?prepn. methods, instruments used and concns. reported in the detn. of VOCs in aquatic matrixes (e.g., seawater, river water, groundwater and drinking water)?. Special attention was payed to sample-?enrichment methods and mention the application of different detectors with resp. sensitivities. Among the sample preconcn. methods, purge-?and-?trap and solid-?phase microextn. were the most chosen methods, which enabled excellent recoveries for a wide range of VOCs. Among the detectors, the mass-?selective detector was unchallenged, due to the remarkable sensitivity and detection based on mass. Tandem mass spectrometry is still emerging for detg. VOCs, since not many papers were published on it. The compds. detected most were the halogenated volatiles (e.g., dichloroethane, trichloroethane, bromodichloromethane and dibromochloromethane (DBCM)?)?, followed by benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX)?. Trihalomethanes were also reported as a result of water-?disinfection byproducts. Finally, the VOC levels detected most were the trihalo-?alkanes (trichloromethane: 1900 ng?/L in estuary surface water; tribromomethane: 147-?762 ng?/L in drinking water; and, DBCM: 92-?399 ng?/L in drinking water)?, and among BTEX were benzene (3.9-?141.7 ng?/L in seawater) and xylene (4.3-?332 ng?/L in seawater)?. Also noted is the need for quality assurance and mention the European Union Directive regarding VOCs.

Chen X. et al. Simultaneous determination of ten taste and odor compounds in drinking water by solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry // Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2013. Vol. 25, № 11. P. 2313–2323.

Taste and odor (T&O) problems in drinking water frequently occur because of many compounds present in the water, of which trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are well-known. In this study, a fast and effective method was established for simultaneous determination of 10 T&O compounds, including geosmin, MIB, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), 2-methylbenzofuran, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), cis-3-hexenyl acetate, trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal, trans, cis-2,6-nonadienal, and trans-2-decenal in water samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An orthogonal array experimental design was used to optimize the effects of SPME fiber, extraction temperature, stirring rate, NaCl content, extraction time, and desorption time. The limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 73 ng/L were lower than or close to the odor threshold concentrations (OTCs). All the 10 T&O compounds were detected in the 14 water samples including surface water, treatment process water and tap water, taken from a waterworks in Lianyungang City, China. MIB and geosmin were detected in most samples at low concentration. Six T&O compounds (IPMP, IBMP, trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal, 2-methylbenzofuran, trans-2-decenal, and TCA) were effectively decreased in water treatment process (sedimentation and filtration) that is different from cis-3-hexenyl acetate, KM and geosmin. It is noted that the TCA concentrations at 15.9-122.3 ng/L and the trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal concentrations at 79.9-190.1 ng/L were over 10 times higher than their OTCs in tap water. The variation of the analytes in the all water samples, especially distribution system indicated that distribution system cannot be ignored as a T&O compounds source.

Cho Y., Easter K.W., Konishi Y. Economic evaluation of the new U.S. arsenic standard for drinking water: A disaggregate approach // Water Resour. Res. 2010. Vol. 46, № 10. P. W10527.

We evaluate the welfare consequences of the new U.S. arsenic standard for drinking water, using contingent valuation survey and recent cost data for the small rural community water systems in Minnesota that have had arsenic levels above the new standard prior to its implementation. Using variation in actual arsenic levels and an elicitation method that recognizes the dependence of welfare values on both ambient arsenic concentrations and self-protection levels, the welfare values of the new arsenic rule are estimated at $6–$23 per household per year for communities with less than 10 ?g/L of arsenic currently in their water and $31–$78 for communities with more than 10 ?g/L of arsenic. Given cost estimates of $230–$2,006 and the fact that a substantial portion of the cost needs to be internally financed, the new rule may have substantially negative welfare consequences for a number of small communities.

Clasen T.F. Household Water Treatment and the Millennium Development Goals: Keeping the Focus on Health // Environmental Science & Technology. 2010. Vol. 44, № 19. P. 7357–7360.

Waterborne diseases such as diarrhea are a major killer in low-income settings, particularly of young children. For those without access to safe drinking water, household water treatment, such as boiling, chlorinating, and filtering water in the home, when combined with safe storage (HWTS) can significantly improve water quality and prevent disease, thereby contributing to the child survival and other health priorities encompassed within the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). There is uncertainly, however, about whether HWTS should count toward the MDG water target, which promotes "sustainable access to safe drinking water". This paper reviews the relevant research and concludes that it should not Although HWTS can significantly improve water quality, it does not improve water quantity and access-key aspects of the MDG water target that are essential for optimal improvements in health and development A policy that excludes HWTS from the MDG water target will discourage governments from diverting scarce public resources from comprehensive and long-term improvements in water supplies. At the same time, the health-oriented MDGs provide a sufficient case for scaling up effective and appropriate HWTS among target populations. Moreover, a health-based strategy for HWTS will help ensure that promotion of the intervention is driven by measurable improvements in outcomes rather than inputs, thus encouraging advances in both hardware and programmatic delivery that will make HWTS more effective, appropriate, and accessible to vulnerable populations.

Das S.K. et al. Silver-nano biohybride material: Synthesis, characterization and application in water purification // Bioresource Technology. 2012. Vol. 124. P. 495–499.

A green chemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through in situ reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) by a fungal strain of Rhizopus oryzae is described along with the promising eco-friendly role of the synthesized nano-silver bioconjugate (NSBC) material in water purification process. The NSBC has been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron (HRTEM) microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The NSBC exhibits strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis and high adsorption capacity towards different organophosphorous pesticides. Fluorescence and electron microscopic images reveal NSBC binds on the bacterial cell wall, which cause irreversible membrane damage eventually leading to cell death. Proteomic analysis further demonstrates down regulation of protein expression, inhibition of cytosolic and membrane proteins and leakage of cellular content following binding of NSBC with bacterial cell wall. NSBC has been exploited to obtain potable water free from pathogens and pesticides in one step process.

Dietrich A.M., Phetxumphou K., Gallagher D.L. Systematic tracking, visualizing, and interpreting of consumer feedback for drinking water quality // Water Research. 2014. Vol. 66. P. 63–74.

Consumer feedback and complaints provide utilities with useful data about consumer perceptions of aesthetic water quality in the distribution system. This research provides a systematic approach to interpret consumer complaint water quality data provided by four water utilities that recorded consumer complaints, but did not routinely process the data. The utilities tended to write down a myriad of descriptors that were too numerous or contained a variety of spellings so that electronic "harvesting" was not possible and much manual labor was required to categorize the complaints into majors areas, such as suggested by the Drinking Water Taste and Odor Wheel or existing check-sheets. When the consumer complaint data were categorized and visualized using spider (or radar) and run-time plots, major taste, odor, and appearance patterns emerged that clarified the issue and could provide guidance to the utility on the nature and extent of the problem. A caveat is that while humans readily identify visual issues with the water, such as color, cloudiness, or rust, describing specific tastes and odors in drinking water is acknowledged to be much more difficult for humans to achieve without training. This was demonstrated with two utility groups and a group of consumers identifying the odors of orange, 2-methylisoborneol, and dimethyl trisulfide. All three groups readily and succinctly identified the familiar orange odor. The two utility groups were much more able to identify the musty odor of 2-methylisoborneol, which was likely familiar to them from their work with raw and finished water. Dimethyl trisulfide, a garlic-onion odor associated with sulfur compounds in drinking water, was the least familiar to all three groups, although the laboratory staff did best. These results indicate that utility personnel should be tolerant of consumers who can assuredly say the water is different, but cannot describe the problem. Also, it indicates that a T&O program at a utility would benefit from identification of aesthetic issues in water.

Dutra-de-Oliveira J.E. et al. Drinking Water as Iron Carrier for the Prevention of Iron Deficiency Anemia: The Brazilian Experience // Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 2013. Vol. 05, № 09. P. 854–858.

On a global base, estimated 2 billion people are iron deficient and/or anemic with small children and child bearing age most likely to be the ones affected. These high levels of world anemia prevalence have been maintained and even growing in spite of the global and national food fortification programmes carried out in several places. These have been based on the iron fortification of local foods. In Brazil a wheat flour iron fortification program has been going on for several years and the anemia prevalence has been going on as a still large public health problem. We started since the nineties and in several under five day care centers, in various part of Brazil a new program using drinking water as the iron carrier for the prevention of iron deficiency anemia. It was shown through several studies in different places in Brazil that drinking water being available everywhere, daily consumed by everyone, children, adults and old people have shown to be effective for the prevention of iron anemia. Iron salts are low-priced, water soluble, effective, easily and locally prepared, should be known and accepted as a rational, practical and effective locally community preventive solution for iron anemia, still a great problem of our developing and underdeveloped countries of the world.

Fotiou T. et al. Photocatalytic degradation of water taste and odour compounds in the presence of polyoxometalates and TiO2: Intermediates and degradation pathways // Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology a-Chemistry. 2014. Vol. 286. P. 1–9.

Geosmin (GSM) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are produced by several species of cyanobacteria and actinomycetes. These compounds can taint water and fish causing undesirable taste and odours. Studies have shown that GSM/MIB are resistant in standard water treatments. Polyoxometalates (POM) are efficient photocatalysts in the degradation and mineralization of a great variety of organic pollutants, presenting similar behaviour with the widely published titanium dioxide (TiO2). Photocatalytic degradation of GSM and MIB under UV-A light in the presence of a characteristic POM photocatalyst, SiW12O404-, in aqueous solution has been studied and compared with the photodegradation by TiO2 suspensions. GSM and MIB are effectively degraded in the presence of both photocatalysts. Addition of (OH)-O-center dot radical scavengers (KBr and tertiary butyl alcohol, TBA) retards the photodegradation rates of both compounds, suggesting that photodegradation mechanism takes place via (OH)-O-center dot radicals. Intermediates identified using GC-MS in the case of GSM and MIB, are mainly identical in the presence of both photocatalysts, also suggesting a common reaction mechanism. Possible photocatalytic degradation pathway for both GSM and MIB is proposed.

Gouda M., Hebeish A.A., Al-Omair M.A. Development of silver-containing nanocellulosics for effective water disinfection // Cellulose. 2014. Vol. 21, № 3. P. 1965–1974.

Electrospun cellulose nanofibers and cellulose-graft-polyacrylonitrile (Cell-g-PAN) copolymer nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized for effective water disinfection. Surface morphology, AgNPs content, physical distribution of AgNPs, levels of silver leaching from the fibers in water and antimicrobial efficacy were studied. Scanning electron microscope images revealed that AgNPs in cellulose nanofibers were more evenly dispersed than in Cell-g-PAN copolymer nanofibers, but with the certainty that Cell-g-PAN copolymer nanofibers had higher AgNPs content. This was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis and atomic absorption analysis. Both cellulose nanofibers and Cell-g-PAN copolymer nanofibers containing AgNPs had excellent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococcus aureus, with cellulose-nAg nanofibers killing between 91 and 99 % of bacteria in a contaminated water sample and Cell-g-PAN-nAg copolymer nanofibers killed 100 %. Neither Cell-g-PAN copolymer nanofibers nor cellulose nanofibers leached silver into water.

Haese G. et al. Tastes and Odors of Water-Quantifying Objective Analyses: A Review // Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 2014. Vol. 44, № 22. P. 2455–2501.

Usually, organoleptic criteria have to be fulfilled for tap water in order for it to be considered safe to drink. This can be achieved at three levels: chemical analysis, sensory analysis, or through electrophysiology. While chemical analysis has been quite extensively discussed in the literature and as consumer perception is of vital importance, we propose a review of the latter two levels, namely sensory analysis and electrophysiology. We first recall some basics of perception and how it can be influenced by stimuli properties, human intrinsic factors and contextual factors, which are critical for an efficient measurement. Next, we present sensory analysis methods, as these are usually carried out in order to measure consumer appreciation of water. The drawbacks of such methods are then discussed before introducing the alternative of electrophysiological measurements. Some evidence that activity from the central and autonomic nervous systems can be measured in response to gustatory and olfactory stimuli in water is first described. Then, a review of objective physiological methods in the literature, developed to assess the emotional aspect of these reactions, is detailed. Finally, the possibility of correlating and predicting the quality, intensity, and hedonic dimension of a stimulus in water with sensory self-report and nervous system responses is discussed.

Hossain F. et al. Antimicrobial nanomaterials as water disinfectant: Applications, limitations and future perspectives // Science of The Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 466-467. P. 1047–1059.

Nanotechnology and its application is one of the rapidly developing sciences. As demand of fresh drinking water is increasing, nanotechnology can contribute noticeable development and improvement to water treatment process. Disinfection process is the last and most important step in water and wastewater treatment process. Some nanomaterials can be used as disinfectants due to their antimicrobial properties and reduce the possibility of harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation during traditional disinfection process. A significant number of research efforts is done or going on to understand the mechanisms and enhance the efficiency of nanomaterials as antimicrobial agents, although it will take more time to understand the full potential of nanomaterials in this field. This review paper focuses on inactivation pathways of benign nanomaterials, their possible and probable application and limitations as disinfectants and future opportunities for their application in water cleaning processes.

Hurley T., Mazumder A. Spatial scale of land-use impacts on riverine drinking source water quality // Water Resources Research. 2013. Vol. 49, № 3. P. 1591–1601.

Drinking water purveyors are increasingly relying on land conservation and management to ensure the safety of the water that they provide to consumers. To cost-effectively implement any such landscape initiatives, resources must be targeted to the appropriate spatial scale to address quality impairments of concern in a cost-effective manner. Using data gathered from 40 Canadian rivers across four ecozones, we examined the spatial scales at which land use was most closely associated with drinking source water quality metrics. Exploratory linear mixed-effects models accounting for climatic, hydrological, and physiographic variation among sites suggested that different spatial areas of land-use influence drinking source water quality depending on the parameter and season investigated. Escherichia coli spatial variability was only associated with land use at a local (5-10 km) spatial scale. Turbidity measures exhibited a complex association with land use, suggesting that the land-use areas of greatest influence can range from a 1 km subcatchment to the entire watershed depending on the season. Total organic carbon concentrations were only associated with land use characterized at the entire watershed scale. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index was used to calculate a composite measure of seasonal drinking source water quality but did not provide additional information beyond the analyses of individual parameters. These results suggest that entire watershed management is required to safeguard drinking water sources with more focused efforts at targeted spatial scales to reduce specific risk parameters.

Jalba D.J. et al. Effective drinking water collaborations are not accidental: Interagency relationships in the international water utility sector // Science of the Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 470. P. 934–944.

The role that deficient institutional relationships have played in aggravating drinking water incidents over the last 30 years has been identified in several inquiries of high profile drinking water safety events, peer-reviewed articles and media reports. These indicate that collaboration between water utilities and public health agencies (PHAs) during normal operations, and in emergencies, needs improvement Here, critical elements of these interagency collaborations, that can be integrated within the corporate risk management structures of water utilities and PHAs alike, were identified using a grounded theory approach and 51 semi-structured interviews with utility and PHA staff. Core determinants of effective interagency relationships are discussed. Intentionally maintained functional relationships represent a key ingredient in assuring the delivery of safe, high quality drinking water.

Jasim S.Y. et al. The effect of ozone on cold water coagulation // Ozone-Science & Engineering. 2008. Vol. 30, № 1. P. 27–33.

The application of pre-coagulation ozone in drinking water treatment to provide primary disinfection, has an impact on coagulation and flocculation, and needs to be evaluated further for cold water temperatures, especially when accompanied by episodes of high alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Ozone application to raw water, prior to the addition of coagulants and coagulant aides, was shown to reduce coagulant and coagulant aide doses, and improve settled and filtered water turbidity. The impact on particle count was also noticeable, filtered water particle count was reduced after the application of pre-coagulation ozonation. Pilot-scale experiments were conducted at the Walkerton Clean Water Centre, Walkerton, Ontario, Canada, to investigate the effect of pre-coagulation ozonation, on filtered water turbidity, particle count, and filter performance, during periods when water temperatures could be lower than 5 degrees C.

Johnson B.B. Public Views on Drinking Water Standards as Risk Indicators // Risk Analysis. 2008. Vol. 28, № 6. P. 1515–1530.

Government agencies often compare contaminant levels to standards and other regulatory benchmarks to convey relative risk to public audiences, as well as for enforcement. Yet we know little of how citizens interpret these risk indicators or factors influencing interpretations. Owners of private residential wells in New Jersey were surveyed by mail. A majority appreciated this comparison, trusted the standard, and could effectively compare the contaminant level to the standard. Most people who recalled that their own well water quality was unsatisfactory simply installed treatment systems. However, there was also a surprising amount of inability to tell whether pollution levels were better or worse than the standard, perhaps exacerbated by confusing institutional language to summarize the comparison (e.g., pollution "exceeds" or is "less than" the standard) and innumeracy. There was also substantial skepticism about the degree to which pollution levels below, or (to a lesser extent) above, the standard are harmless or harmful, respectively. Skepticism was variously due to distrust of standards, disbelief in thresholds for health effects, inability to accurately compare standards and contaminant levels, information processing, and demographics. Discontinuity in reactions below versus above the standard did not exist in the aggregate, and rarely among individuals, contrary to some previous findings. At identical standards and contaminant levels, familiar toxins (mercury, arsenic, lead) elicited higher risk ratings than less familiar ones. Given the wide institutional use of this risk indicator, further research on how to improve the design and use of this indicator, and consideration of alternatives, is warranted.

Kehoe M.J., Chun K.P., Baulch H.M. Who Smells? Forecasting Taste and Odor in a Drinking Water Reservoir // Environmental Science & Technology. 2015. Vol. 49, № 18. P. 10984–10992.

Taste and odor problems can impede public trust in drinking water and impose major costs on water utilities. The ability to forecast taste and odor events in source waters, in advance, is shown for the first time in this paper. This could allow water utilities to adapt treatment, and where effective treatment is not available, consumers could be warned. A unique 24-year time series, from an important drinking water reservoir in Saskatchewan, Canada, is used to develop forecasting models of odor using chlorophyll a, turbidity, total phosphorus, temperature, and the following odor producing algae taxa: Anabaena spp., Aphanizemenon spp., Oscillatoria spp., Chlorophyta, Cyclotella spp., and Asterionella spp. We demonstrate, using linear regression and random forest models, that odor events can be forecast at 0-26 week time lags, and that the models are able to capture a significant increase in threshold odor number in the mid-1990s. Models with a fortnight time-lag show a high predictive capacity (R-2 = 0.71 for random forest; 0.52 for linear regression). Predictive skill declines for time lags from 0 to 15 weeks, then increases again, to R-2 values of 0.61 (random forest) and 0.48 (linear regression) at a 26-week lag. The random forest model is also able to provide accurate forecasting of TON levels requiring treatment 12 weeks in advance-93% true positive rate with a 0% false positive rate. Results of the random forest model demonstrate that phytoplankton taxonomic data outperform chlorophyll a in terms of predictive importance.

Knaack J.S. et al. Performance of a Novel High Throughput Method for the Determination of VX in Drinking Water Samples // Anal. Chem. 2013. Vol. 85, № 5. P. 2611–2616.

VX (O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate) is a highly toxic organophosphorus nerve agent, and even low levels of contamination in water can be harmful. Measurement of low concentrations of VX in aqueous matrixes is possible using an immunomagnetic scavenging technique and detection using liquid chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry. Performance of the method was characterized in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-grade water preserved with sodium omadine, an antimicrobial agent, and sodium thiosulfate, a dechlorinating agent, over eight analytical batches with quality control samples analyzed over 10 days. The minimum reportable level was 25 ng/L with a linear dynamic range up to 4.0 ?g/L. The mean accuracies for two quality control samples containing VX at concentrations of 0.250 and 2.00 ?g/L were 102 ± 3% and 103 ± 6%, respectively. The stability of VX was determined in five tap water samples representing a range of water quality parameters and disinfection practices over a 91 day period. In preserved tap water samples, VX recovery was between 81 and 92% of the fortified amount, 2.0 ?g/L, when analyzed immediately after preparation. Recovery of VX decreased to between 31 and 45% of the fortified amount after 91 days, indicating hydrolysis of VX. However, the preservatives minimized the hydrolysis rate to close to the theoretical limit. The ability to detect low concentrations of VX in preserved tap water 91 days after spiking suggests applicability of this method for determining water contamination with VX and utility during environmental remediation.

Kot M., Castleden H., Gagnon G.A. Unintended consequences of regulating drinking water in rural Canadian communities: Examples from Atlantic Canada // Health & Place. 2011. Vol. 17, № 5. P. 1030–1037.

Studies that explore social capital and political will be in the context of safe drinking water provision in rural Canada are limited. This paper presents findings from a study that examines the capacity of rural Canadian communities to attain regulatory compliance for drinking water. Interviews were conducted with water operators and managers in ten rural communities across Atlantic Canada to identify the burden of compliance arising from the implementation of, and adherence to, drinking water regulations. This research identifies the operator as being particularly burdened by regulatory compliance, often resulting in negative consequences including job stress and a strained relationship with the community they serve. Findings indicate that while regulations are vital to ensuring safe drinking water, not all communities have the resources in place to rise to the challenge of compliance. As a result, some communities are being negatively impacted by these regulations, rather than benefit from their intended positive effect.

Kroll D. Monitoring from source to tap: The new paradigm for ensuring water security and quality // Sensing Technologies for Global Health, Military Medicine, Disaster Response, and Environmental Monitoring and Biometric Technology for Human Identification Viii / ed. Southern S.O. et al. 2011. Vol. 8029. P. 80290H.

A review. The threat of terrorist action targeting water supplies is often overlooked for the more historically obvious threats of an air attack or a dirty bomb. Studies have shown that an attack on water is simple to orchestrate, inexpensive and can result in mass casualties. The twin motivators of the terrorist threat to water along with consumer demands for safe and potable supplies has lead to a sea change in the drinking water industry. From a historical perspective, most monitoring in the distribution system as well as source water has been relegated to the occasional snapshot provided by grab sampling for a few limited parameters or the infrequent regulatory testing required by mandates such as the Total Coliform Rule. New technologies are being deployed to ameliorate the threat from both intentional and accidental water contamination. The threat to water and these new technologies are described as well as needs and requirements for new sensors to improve the monitoring structure.

Kumar J., Bansal A. Photocatalysis by Nanoparticles of Titanium Dioxide for Drinking Water Purification: A Conceptual and State-of-Art Review // Materials Science Forum. 2013. Vol. 764. P. 130–150.

To overcome the water pollution problems, and to meet stringent environmental regulations, scientist and researchers have been focusing on the development of new water purification processes. One such group of new technologies is advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Among the AOPs, titanium dioxide photocatalysis has been widely studied on lab scale by the researchers for decontamination of drinking water. In the present chapter, a conceptual as well as state-of-art review of titanium dioxide photocatalysis for water purification has been discussed.

Liu X. et al. Adsorption removal of cesium from drinking waters: A mini review on use of biosorbents and other adsorbents // Bioresource Technology. 2014. Vol. 160. P. 142–149.

Radiocesium (Cs) removal from waters becomes an emerging issue after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster, during which a total of approximately 3.3 ? 1016 Bq Cs was released to contaminate the environment. This mini-review provided a summary on literature works to develop efficient adsorbent for removing Cs from waters. Adsorbent made of raw and modified minerals, composites particles, and biosorbents that are highly specific to Cs in the presence of other alkali and alkali earth metals were summarized. Development of Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles on Cs removal and its potential use in drinking waterworks was discussed. This review is a unique report for adsorption removal of Cs from contaminated waters.

Lucentini L. et al. Chemical analysis of the quality of water for human consumption: Proposal for the revision of the performance requirements in the Drinking Water Directive 98/83/EC // TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 2013. Vol. 45. P. 37–47.

The following is a proposal for the revision of method-performance characteristics for the chemical analysis of water intended for human consumption under the Drinking Water Directive (DWD) 98/83/EC. According to the proposal, the EN ISO/IEC 17025 Standard should be introduced into the Directive, and the performance characteristics, measurement uncertainty (MU) and limit of quantification (LOQ) should replace or complement those currently in use (i.e. trueness, precision and limit of detection). Minimum performance characteristics for MU and LOQ are also suggested for each chemical parameter.

MacDonald D.D. et al. Designing monitoring programs for water quality based on experience in Canada I. Theory and framework // TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 2009. Vol. 28, № 2. P. 204–213.

We have developed a systematic process, based on experience in Canada, for designing monitoring programs that provide the information needed to make informed decisions on the management of aquatic ecosystems. This process includes eight steps that, together, enable water managers to define the goals of the data-collection program, design a monitoring program that directly supports these goals, and interpret the resultant data in a manner that facilitates effective management of the human activities that affect water resources. While this process is broadly applicable to designing a monitoring program, we explicitly developed it to support assessment of the status and trends in water-quality conditions and management decisions based on such information.

Matilainen A., Vepsalainen M., Sillanpaa M. Natural organic matter removal by coagulation during drinking water treatment: A review // Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 2010. Vol. 159, № 2. P. 189–197.

A review. Natural org. matter (NOM) is found in all surface, ground and soil waters. An increase in the amt. of NOM has been obsd. over the past 10-?20 years in raw water supplies in several areas, which has a significant effect on drinking water treatment. The presence of NOM causes many problems in drinking water and drinking water treatment processes, including (i) neg. effect on water quality by causing color, taste and odor problems, (ii) increased coagulant and disinfectant doses (which in turn results in increased sludge vols. and prodn. of harmful disinfection byproducts)?, (iii) promoted biol. growth in distribution system, and (iv) increased levels of complexed heavy metals and adsorbed org. pollutants. NOM can be removed from drinking water by several treatment options, of which the most common and economically feasible processes are considered to be coagulation and flocculation followed by sedimentation?/flotation and sand filtration. Most of the NOM can be removed by coagulation, although, the hydrophobic fraction and high molar mass compds. of NOM are removed more efficiently than hydrophilic fraction and the low molar mass compds. Thus, enhanced and?/or optimized coagulation, as well as new process alternatives for the better removal of NOM by coagulation process has been suggested. In the present work, an overview of the recent research dealing with coagulation and flocculation in the removal of NOM from drinking water is presented.

Meng S. et al. Basic science of water: Challenges and current status towards a molecular picture // Nano Res. 2015. Vol. 8, № 10. P. 3085–3110.

Rapid developments in both fundamental science and modern technology that target water-related problems, including the physical nature of our planet and environment, the origin of life, energy production via water splitting, and water purification, all call for a molecular-level understanding of water. This invokes relentless efforts to further our understanding of the basic science of water. Current challenges to achieve a molecular picture of the peculiar properties and behavior of water are discussed herein, with a particular focus on the structure and dynamics of bulk and surface water, the molecular mechanisms of water wetting and splitting, application-oriented research on water decontamination and desalination, and the development of complementary techniques for probing water at the nanoscale.

Moss G.A. Water and health: A forgotten connection? // Perspectives in Public Health. 2010. Vol. 130, № 5. P. 227–232.

There are frequent and doom-laden messages concerning impending water shortages but the consequential negative effects on the availability of waters for healing and the factors underlying the decline in the use of water therapies in some parts of the world are ignored. This article reviews the evidence for the medicinal uses of water, past and present, showing how ancient Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Celtic and Hebrew societies all used water for medicinal purposes, sometimes in conjunction with herbal medicine. Water treatments consisted of hydrotherapy (techniques of therapeutic bathing and use of water), balneotherapy (therapeutic bathing in medicinal and thermal springs) and thalassotherapy (the therapeutic use of ocean bathing and marine products) and these treatments continue to be used to the present day although their use in the Anglo-Saxon world is diminised. Factors in this decline are the lack of research funding and the availability of allopathic medicine. In ancient society, the factors underlying the efficacious healing properties of water may have been ignored and its benefits instead attributed to divine sources. Latterday science, however, from the 19th century to the present, has isolated those factors in water that have health-giving properties.

Nahar M.S., Zhang J. Impact of natural water chemistry on public drinking water in Japan // Environmental Earth Sciences. 2013. Vol. 69, № 1. P. 127–140.

Drinking water from Japan (Toyama, Kumamoto, Osaka, and Tokyo Prefecture) and France (Volvic water) was evaluated for taste and health properties using an index based on major and trace mineral content and organoleptic components. Although various reports point to calcium (Ca2+) as a key ingredient imparting good taste and magnesium (Mg2+) and sulfate (SO4 (2-)) as causing unpleasant taste in drinking water, recent sensory threshold experiments have indicated that other major ions and minerals directly or indirectly contribute to good taste, including potassium (K), silica (SiO2), and phosphorous (P). The present study examined major and trace constituents in water to accurately quantify water taste, flavor, and health effects in good-tasting (Volvic, Toyama, and Kumamoto water) and average-tasting water (Osaka and Tokyo water). Trace metal, volatile organic carbon, non-purgeable organic carbon and total inorganic carbon levels were evaluated as parameters influencing the sensory properties of the drinking water. All of the representative good-tasting water contained higher amounts of tasty minerals (Ca2+, K+, SiO2) and lower amounts of unsavory, rough (Mg2+ and SO4 (2-)), and bitter (Cl-) minerals. Stiff diagrams of the water samples indicated that good-tasting water was generally bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) type. Seasonal variations in physicochemical parameters did not change the order of abundance of cations and anions but did affect the concentration of various ions present in the water. Trace metals also affected water flavor. Mn facilitates acetaldehyde formation and Fe is associated with polyphenolic oxidation and formation of organoleptic flavor constituents. Trihalomethanes (THMs) may also cause unpleasant drinking water flavors or odors. THMs concentrations for all samples were below 5.7 mu g/L, meeting the safety and taste requirements for good drinking water. The Japanese samples were compared against Volvic water, which was used as a standard for good-tasting water. Total dissolved solids concentrations were below 300 mg/L for all specimens, in compliance with World Health Organization guidelines. The results are discussed on the basis of the balance between inorganic major ions and trace minerals and THMs concentration thresholds.

Navarini L., Rivetti D. Water quality for Espresso coffee // Food Chemistry. 2010. Vol. 122, № 2. P. 424–428.

Espresso coffee extn. is the most common brewing method in Italy and it is becoming very popular in many other countries around the world. Water (including its ionic content) is an essential ingredient and its role in Espresso brewing must be taken into due consideration. It is well known that water treatment is necessary to remove possible off-?flavors deriving from the disinfection performed at municipal waterworks as well as to prevent expensive professional Espresso coffee machine from scaling problems. However, there is little awareness of the direct effect of water compn. on the quality of coffee beverages, particularly for Espresso coffee. In this paper, the state of the art is reviewed with emphasis of water?/coffee components interaction during the brewing process. The role played by alky. and selected cations on sensory properties of Espresso coffee is discussed.

Odonkor S.T., Ampofo J.K. Escherichia coli as an indicator of bacteriological quality of water: an overview // Microbiology Research. 2013. Vol. 4, № 1. P. 2.

A review. Monitoring the microbiol. quality of drinking water relies largely on examn. of indicator bacteria such as coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. E. coli is a member of the faecal coliform group and is a more specific indicator of faecal pollution than other faecal coliforms. Two key factors have led to the trend toward the use of E. coli as the preferred indicator for the detection of faecal contamination, not only in drinking water, but also in other matrixes as well: first, the finding that some faecal coliforms were non faecal in origin, and second, the development of improved testing methods for E. coli. The faecal coliform definition has also been revised to coincide better with the genetic make-?up of its members and now includes newly identified environmental species. As a result, faecal coliforms are increasingly being referred to as thermotolerant coliforms. This, combined with improved detection methods for E. coli, has started a trend toward the use of E. coli in place of thermotolerant coliforms as a more reliable indicator of faecal pollution in drinking water. At present, E. coli appears to provide the best bacterial indication of faecal contamination in drinking water. This is based on the prevalence of thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms in temperate environments as compared to the rare incidence of E. coli, the prevalence of E. coli in human and animal faeces as compared to other thermotolerant coliforms, and the availability of affordable, fast, sensitive, specific and easier to perform detection methods for E. coli.

Pettersson L.G.M. Radiation chemistry: Radical water // Nature Chemistry. 2013. Vol. 5, № 7. P. 553–554.

Radiation of sufficient energy can knock out a tightly bound core-electron from the inner shell of a water molecule, leaving behind a short-lived, highly excited state. Now, through electron spectroscopy and theoretical simulations, these states have been observed to undergo previously unconsidered proton-mediated processes in solution.

Platikanov S. et al. Influence of minerals on the taste of bottled and tap water: A chemometric approach // Water Research. 2013. Vol. 47, № 2. P. 693–704.

Chemometric analysis was performed on two sets of sensory data obtained from two separate studies. Twenty commercially-available bottled mineral water samples (from the first study) and twenty-five drinking tap and bottled water samples (from the second study) were blind tasted by trained panelists. The panelists expressed their overall liking of the water samples by rating from 0 (worst flavor) to 10 (best flavor). The mean overall score was compared to the physicochemical properties of the samples. Thirteen different physicochemical parameters were considered in both studies and, additionally, residual chlorine levels were assessed in the second study. Principal component analysis performed on the physicochemical parameters and the panelists' mean scores generated models that. explain most of the total data variance. Moreover, partial least squares regression of the panelists' sensory evaluations of the physicochemical data helped elucidate the main features underlying the panelists' ratings. The preferred bottled and tap water samples were associated with moderate (relatively to the parameters mean values) contents of total dissolved solids and with relatively high concentrations of HCO3-, SO42-, Ca2+ and Mg2+ as well as with relatively high pH values. High concentrations of Na+, K+ and Cl- were scored low by many of the panelists, while residual chlorine did not affect the ratings, but did enable the panel to distinguish between bottled mineral water and tap water samples.

Popkin B.M., D’Anci K.E., Rosenberg I.H. Water, hydration, and health // Nutrition Reviews. 2010. Vol. 68, № 8. P. 439–458.

This review examines the current knowledge of water intake as it pertains to human health, including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, and the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, and human performance and functioning. Water represents a critical nutrient, the absence of which will be lethal within days. Water's importance for the prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases has received more attention recently because of the shift toward consumption of large proportions of fluids as caloric beverages. Despite this focus, there are major gaps in knowledge related to the measurement of total fluid intake and hydration status at the population level; there are also few longer-term systematic interventions and no published randomized, controlled longer-term trials. This review provides suggestions forways to examinewater requirements and encourages more dialogue on this important topic.

Porcelli N., Judd S. Chemical cleaning of potable water membranes: The cost benefit of optimisation // Water Research. 2010. Vol. 44, № 5. P. 1389–1398.

A study of the variability in chem. cleaning factors on permeability recovery for potable water microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) systems has been carried out employing a cost model simulating plant fouling and cleaning regimes. The impact of a range of operating and cleaning factors on operating cost variation was computed using algorithms describing operational and cleaning factor relationships with permeability recovery data measured from bench scale tests on fibers sampled from full-?scale operational plants. The model proceeded through sequencing of the cleaning and backwashing operations to generate transmembrane pressure (TMP)?, and so head loss, transients. A no. of cleaning scenarios were considered for each plant, based on employing either a threshold TMP or fixed chem. cleaning intervals. The resulting TMP profiles were then converted to operational costs. The effect of the variability in permeability recovery on annual operating costs was calcd. for each of the simulations. It was evident that significant operating cost redns. were possible from optimization of the cleaning protocol. Cost benefit varied according to facets of plant design and operation; the innate variability in permeability recovery precluded the correlation of cleaning efficacy with fouling characteristics.

Postigo C., Richardson S.D. Transformation of pharmaceuticals during oxidation/disinfection processes in drinking water treatment // Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2014. Vol. 279. P. 461–475.

Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants of concern and are widespread in the environment. While the levels of these substances in finished drinking waters are generally considered too low for human health concern, there are now concerns about their disinfection by-products (DBPs) that can form during drinking water treatment, which in some cases have been proven to be more toxic than the parent compounds. The present manuscript reviews the transformation products of pharmaceuticals generated in water during different disinfection processes, i.e. chlorination, ozonation, chloramination, chlorine dioxide, UV, and UV/hydrogen peroxide, and the main reaction pathways taking place. Most of the findings considered for this review come from controlled laboratory studies involving reactions of pharmaceuticals with these oxidants used in drinking water treatment.

Pradeep T., Anshup. Noble metal nanoparticles for water purification: A critical review // Thin Solid Films. 2009. Vol. 517, № 24. P. 6441–6478.

Water is one of the essential enablers of life on earth. Beginning with the origin of the earliest form of life in seawater, it has been central to the evolution of human civilizations. Noble metals have been similarly associated with the prosperity of human civilizations through their prominent use in jewellery and medical applications. The most important reason for the use of noble metals is the minimal reactivity at the bulk scale, which can be explained by a number of concepts such as electrochemical potential, relativisitic contraction, molecular orbital theory, etc. Recently, water quality has been associated with the development index of society. A number of chemical and biological contaminants have endangered the quality of drinking water. An overview of important events during last 200 years in the area of drinking water purification is presented. Realizing the molecular nature of contamination in drinking water, significant progress has been made to utilize the chemistry of nanomaterials for water purification. This article summarizes recent efforts in the area of noble metal nanoparticle synthesis and the origin of their reactivity at the nanoscale. The application of noble metal nanoparticle based chemistry for drinking water purification is summarized for three major types of contaminants: halogenated organics including pesticides, heavy metals and microorganisms. Recent efforts for the removal, as well as ultralow concentration detection of such species, using noble metal nanoparticles are summarized. Important challenges during the commercialization of nano-based products are highlighted through a case study of pesticide removal using noble metal nanoparticles. Recent efforts in drinking water purification using other forms of nanomaterials are also summarized. The article concludes with recent investigations on the issue of nanotoxicity and its implications for the future.

Pressman J.G. et al. Concentration, Chlorination, and Chemical Analysis of Drinking Water for Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Health Effects Research: U.S. EPA’s Four Lab Study // Environmental Science & Technology. 2010. Vol. 44, № 19. P. 7184–7192.

The US EPA's Four Lab Study involved participation of researchers from 4 national Labs. and Centers of the Office of Research and Development along with collaborators from the water industry and academia. The study evaluated toxicol. effects of complex disinfection byproduct (DBP) mixts., with an emphasis on reproductive and developmental effects that have been assocd. with DBP exposures in some human epidemiol. studies. This paper describes a procedure for producing chlorinated drinking water conc. for animal toxicol. expts., comprehensive identification of >100 DBPs, and quantification of 75 priority and regulated DBPs. In the research reported here, complex mixts. of DBPs were produced by concg. a natural source water with reverse osmosis membranes, followed by addn. of bromide and treatment with Cl. By concg. natural org. matter in the source water first and disinfecting with Cl afterward, DBPs (including volatiles and semivolatiles) were formed and maintained in a water matrix suitable for animal studies. DBP levels in the chlorinated conc. compared well to those from EPA's Information Collection Rule (ICR) and a nationwide study of priority unregulated DBPs when normalized by total org. C (TOC)?. DBPs were relatively stable over the course of the animal studies (125 days) with multiple chlorination events (every 5-?14 days)?, and a significant portion of total org. halogen was accounted for through a comprehensive identification approach. DBPs quantified included regulated DBPs, priority unregulated DBPs, and addnl. DBPs targeted by the ICR. Many DBPs are reported for the first time, including previously undetected and unreported haloacids and haloamides. The new concn. procedure not only produced a concd. drinking water suitable for animal expts., but also provided a greater TOC concn. factor (136?)?, enhancing the detection of trace DBPs that are often below detection using conventional approaches.

Rahman M.F. et al. Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Drinking Water: Part II. Turbidity, Particles and Organics Removal from Lake Huron Water // Ozone-Science & Engineering. 2010. Vol. 32, № 5. P. 295–304.

Pre-coagulation ozonation has been reported to be effective in drinking water treatment processes. Limited data are available on the impact of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) on Lake Huron water which serves as a primary source of drinking water for many communities around the Great Lakes region. Impact of ozone/hydrogen peroxide based AOP on Lake Huron water was studied. The results show that AOPs can achieve higher particles removal in finished water and deliver improved filtered water turbidity compared to the conventional treatment process. Sharp decline in ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) was observed immediately following AOP treatment while only minimal overall decrease in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was achieved.

Richardson S.D. Water Analysis: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues // Analytical Chemistry. 2009. Vol. 81, № 12. P. 4645–4677.

This biennial review covers developments in water analysis for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2007?2008. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2009 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current policy is to limit reviews to a maximum of 250 significant references and to mainly focus on new trends. Even with a more narrow focus, only a small fraction of the quality research publications could be discussed. This was especially true this year with all the growth in the pharmaceutical area, where my entire allotment of 250 references could have been used in this one section alone. As a result, as with the previous review on water analysis in 2007 (1), this review will not be comprehensive but will highlight new areas and discuss representative papers in the areas of focus. I write a similar review article on environmental mass spectrometry, which also focuses on emerging contaminants (2). That review article is somewhat different from this one, in that it focuses on mass spectrometry methods and applications, and includes measurements of air, soil/sediments, and biological samples, in addition to water. This review on water analysis focuses only on water measurements and applications but includes other methodologies besides mass spectrometry.

Richardson S.D., Ternes T.A. Water Analysis: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues // Anal. Chem. 2011. Vol. 83, № 12. P. 4614–4648.

This biennial review covers developments in water analysis for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2011–2013. Analytical Chemistry’s policy is to limit reviews to a maximum of 250 significant references and to mainly focus on new trends. As a result, only a small fraction of the quality research publications could be discussed. I am excited to again have Thomas Ternes join me this year to cover the section on Pharmaceuticals and Hormones. Thomas coauthored the previous 2011 Review on Water Analysis,(1) and as before, this Review is so much better with his contribution. We welcome any comments you have on this Review.

Richardson S.D., Ternes T.A. Water Analysis: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues // Analytical Chemistry. 2014. Vol. 86, № 6. P. 2813–2848.

This biennial review covers developments in water analysis for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2011–2013. Analytical Chemistry’s policy is to limit reviews to a maximum of 250 significant references and to mainly focus on new trends. As a result, only a small fraction of the quality research publications could be discussed. I am excited to again have Thomas Ternes join me this year to cover the section on Pharmaceuticals and Hormones. Thomas coauthored the previous 2011 Review on Water Analysis,(1) and as before, this Review is so much better with his contribution.

Roche S.M. et al. Drinking water consumption patterns in Canadian communities (2001-2007) // Journal of Water and Health. 2012. Vol. 10, № 1. P. 69–86.

A pooled analysis of seven cross-sectional studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, Waterloo and Hamilton Regions, Ontario and Vancouver, East Kootenay and Northern Interior Regions, British Columbia (2001 to 2007) was performed to investigate the drinking water consumption patterns of Canadians and to identify factors associated with the volume of tap water consumed. The mean volume of tap water consumed was 1.2 L/day, with a large range (0.03 to 9.0 L/day). In-home water treatment and interactions between age and gender and age and bottled water use were significantly associated with the volume of tap water consumed in multivariable analyses. Approximately 25% (2,221/8,916) of participants were classified as bottled water users, meaning that 75% or more of their total daily drinking water intake was bottled. Approximately 48.6% (4,307/8,799) of participants used an in-home treatment method to treat their tap water for drinking purposes. This study provides a broader geographic perspective and more current estimates of Canadian water consumption patterns than previous studies. The identified factors associated with daily water consumption could be beneficial for risk assessors to identify individuals who may be at greater risk of waterborne illness.

Roig B. et al. Analytical issues in monitoring drinking-water contamination related to short-term, heavy rainfall events // TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 2011. Vol. 30, № 8. P. 1243–1251.

A review. Heavy rainfall events, increasing in frequency and intensity with climate change, impact on the quality of the water resource used for drinking-?water prodn. Small-?scale water suppliers are particularly sensitive because of their management and the related difficulties of adapting treatment to variations. Decision-?support systems, based on monitoring and anal. tools, need to be developed to improve crisis-?management procedures related to such events. After presenting the issues related to heavy rainfall events, the article summarizes the tools currently used for quality control of drinking water within this framework, the need for developments and other requirements.

Rylander R. Magnesium in drinking water – a case for prevention? // Journal of Water and Health. 2014. Vol. 12, № 1. P. 34 - 40 .

Studies in many countries have demonstrated a relationship between drinking water mineral content and the risk of death in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Particularly strong relationships have been found for magnesium and it has been suggested that magnesium be added to drinking water. The aim of this article is to evaluate the validity of this suggestion by reviewing information on possible causative agents. Major epidemiological studies on the drinking water content of calcium, magnesium, and hardness were analysed regarding exposure specificity, confounding factors, dose-response relationships and biological plausibility. Intervention experiments were analysed. The risk of death in CVD was related to the content of Ca, Mg and HCO3?. The data demonstrate that Ca and Mg need to be considered together, and that HCO3? could play a role by intervening with the body acid load. There is no evidence to justify the addition of magnesium only to drinking water for preventive purposes. The data suggest that Ca and Mg could be administered together but no data are available regarding the relative proportions for an optimal effect.

Sacher F. Wie wird unser Trinkwasser uberwacht?: Neue Nachweismethoden // Chemie in unserer Zeit. 2013. Vol. 47, № 3. P. 148–156.

A review. Drinking water surveillance is always affected by scientific findings and innovation in anal. instrumentation. State-?of-?the-?art drinking water monitoring will take advantage of these developments to safe-?guard water quality. Recent trends in modern drinking water labs. are increasing automation, the introduction of high-?end instrumentation and new procedures for anal. of chem. and microbiol. contaminants, the appearance of new (emerging) parameters, the introduction of effect-?related anal. methods (biotests) and online systems for operational control and early-?warning purposes.

Sankar M.U. et al. Biopolymer-reinforced synthetic granular nanocomposites for affordable point-of-use water purification // Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2013. Vol. 110, № 21. P. 8459–8464.

Creation of affordable materials for constant release of silver ions in water is one of the most promising ways to provide microbially safe drinking water for all. Combining the capacity of diverse nanocomposites to scavenge toxic species such as arsenic, lead, and other contaminants along with the above capability can result in affordable, all-inclusive drinking water purifiers that can function without electricity. The critical problem in achieving this is the synthesis of stable materials that can release silver ions continuously in the presence of complex species usually present in drinking water that deposit and cause scaling on nanomaterial surfaces. Here we show that such constant release materials can be synthesized in a simple and effective fashion in water itself without the use of electrical power. The nanocomposite exhibits river sand-like properties, such as higher shear strength in loose and wet forms. These materials have been used to develop an affordable water purifier to deliver clean drinking water at US $2.5/y per family. The ability to prepare nanostructured compositions at near ambient temperature has wide relevance for adsorption-based water purification.

Santana M.V.E., Zhang Q., Mihelcic J.R. Influence of Water Quality on the Embodied Energy of Drinking Water Treatment // Environmental Science & Technology. 2014. Vol. 48, № 5. P. 3084–3091.

Urban water purifn. facilities rely on energy intensive processes to provide safe, reliable, water to consumers. Influent water quality changes may alter purifn. facility operations and assocd. energy use or embodied energy. This work estd. the effect of raw water quality on operational embodied energy of drinking water with Tampa, Florida, as case study. Water quality and water purifn. data were obtained from the David L Tippin Water Treatment Facility. Life cycle energy anal. was conducted to calc. treatment chem. embodied energy values. Statistical methods (Pearson correlation, linear regression, relative importance) detd. the effect of water quality on purifn. facility operation and embodied energy. Results showed raw water quality was responsible for ?14.5?% of total operational embodied energy, mainly due to changes in treatment chem. doses. The method used in this work can be applied to other urban drinking water contexts to det. whether drinking water source quality control or treatment process modification will significantly minimize drinking water purifn. embodied energy.

Sipos L. et al. Sensory Evaluation and Electronic Tongue for Sensing Flavored Mineral Water Taste Attributes // Journal of Food Science. 2013. Vol. 78, № 10. P. S1602–S1608.

In this article a trained sensory panel evaluated 6 flavored mineral water samples. The samples consisted of 3 different brands, each with 2 flavors (pear-lemon grass and josta berry). The applied sensory method was profile analysis. Our aim was to analyze the sensory profiles and to investigate the similarities between the sensitivity of the trained human panel and an electronic tongue device. Another objective was to demonstrate the possibilities for the prediction of sensory attributes from electronic tongue measurements using a multivariate statistical method (Partial Least Squares regression [PLS]). The results showed that the products manufactured under different brand name but with the same aromas had very similar sensory profiles. The panel performance evaluation showed that it is appropriate (discrimination ability, repeatability, and panel consensus) to compare the panel's results with the results of the electronic tongue. The samples can be discriminated by the electronic tongue and an accurate classification model can be built. Principal Component Analysis BiPlot diagrams showed that Brand A and B were similar because the manufacturers use the same aroma brands for their products. It can be concluded that Brand C was quite different compared to the other samples independently of the aroma content. Based on the electronic tongue results good prediction models can be obtained with high correlation coefficient (r(2) > 0.81) and low prediction error (RMSEP < 13.71 on the scale of the sensory evaluation from 0 to 100). Practical Application Total of 6 flavored mineral water samples were evaluated by a trained sensory panel and an electronic tongue device. Results showed that the products manufactured with the same aromas had very similar sensory profiles. We obtained a good prediction model to predict different sensory attributes based on the electronic tongue results. This highlights that electronic tongue instruments can be applied successfully in the bottled water industry.

Snyder S.A. Emerging Chemical Contaminants: Looking for Greater Harmony // Journal - American Water Works Association. 2014. Vol. 106. P. 38–52.

This article provides historical and current perspectives of the methods used and policies instituted to monitor and address the daunting list of chemical contaminants in water; progress is steadily made, but there is more work to be done.

Stoquart C. et al. Hybrid Membrane Processes using activated carbon treatment for drinking water: A review // Journal of Membrane Science. 2012. Vol. 411-412. P. 1–12.

A review concerning alternative hybrid membrane process (HMP; low pressure membrane filtration in conjunction with activated carbon [AC]?) layouts for drinking water purifn. under biol. or adsorption modes, discussing expected performance with respect to water quality and membrane fouling, is given. Topics covered include: HMP (alternative layouts [HMP with AC pretreatment, HMP with integrated AC treatment, HMP with AC post-?treatment]?, alternative operational configurations)?; HMP performance (overview [disinfection and particulate matter, dissolved pollutants]?, with pre- or integrated AC treatment [effluent quality and operating conditions impact]?, with AC post-?treatment [effluent quality and operating conditions impact]?)?; fouling in HMP (role of powd. AC (PAC) in membrane fouling [PAC effect on clean water permeability, PAC effect on membrane fouling in presence of natural org. matter]?, fouling mitigation [HMP with pre- or integrated AC treatment, HMP with AC post-?treatment]?)?; discussion and conclusions; and supplementary information (published performance of HMP with integrated AC treatment: adsorption and biol. modes; with AC pretreatment: adsorption and biol. modes)?.

Sultan J., Gabryelski W. Structural Identification of Highly Polar Nontarget Contaminants in Drinking Water by ESI-FAIMS-Q-TOF-MS // Anal. Chem. 2006. Vol. 78, № 9. P. 2905–2917.

Drinking water is a complex mixture that contains thousands of naturally occurring and anthropogenic contaminants. Liquid chromatography?mass spectrometry (LC?MS) methods have gained a tremendous popularity in monitoring nonvolatile, highly polar, and thermally labile components in drinking water. It is well recognized, however, that there are difficulties or limitations of LC?MS methods associated with (1) significant resources (time and effort) involved in sample preparation (preconcentration, fractionation, separation), (2) low screening capacity for target contaminants, and (3) insufficient capabilities for structural identification (elucidation) of nontarget contaminants. Consequently, LC?MS methods are mainly used for the detection of target contaminants (compounds identified in drinking water before), seldom for the structural identification of abundant nontarget pollutants (unidentified pollutants in drinking water), and almost never for the structural identification of nontarget components at a trace level. The paper presents a new method of electrospray ionization high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry (ESI-FAIMS?MS), which can detect a large number of water pollutants in a quick and convenient fashion without preconcentration, fractionation, derivatization, or column separation. Most importantly, the method provides structural identification of nontarget contaminants including species present in drinking water at a sub-parts-per-billion concentration level. The identification of previously unknown contaminants was based on mass measurements of investigated ions and their fragments in mass and tandem mass spectrometry. Elemental compositions of these ions, determined by mass measurements, were used to link dissociation patterns of investigated species with their chemical structures. Characterization of nontarget contaminants of chlorine-treated drinking water by ESI-FAIMS?MS has revealed many previously unknown disinfection byproducts. The most intriguing compound, from a group of highly polar hydroxycarboxylic acids discovered in the study, was the most abundant component of drinking water, glycolic acid. Glycolic acid (toxic to kidneys and associated with a moderate maternal toxicity) has never been considered as a drinking water contaminant, despite the fact that it is present in drinking water at a higher concentration (high ppm) than concentrations of highly polar water pollutants that had attracted most attention in the past. The process of structural elucidation of discovered pollutants, including ultratrace contaminants representing a variety of carboxylic acids, will be presented in detail. The structural identification of highly polar contaminants in drinking water presented in the paper is rarely reported in the literature. The key experimental feature of the ESI-FAIMS?MS method is FAIMS separation, which significantly improves the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry.

te Kulve H. et al. Context Matters: Promises and Concerns Regarding Nanotechnologies for Water and Food Applications // NanoEthics. 2013. Vol. 7, № 1. P. 17–27.

Expectations in the form of promises and concerns contribute to the sense-making and valuation of emerging nanotechnologies. They add up to what we call 'de facto assessments' of novel socio-technical options. We explore how de facto assessments of nanotechnologies differ in the application domains of water and food by examining promises and concerns, and their relations in scientific discourse. We suggest that domain characteristics such as prior experiences with emerging technologies, specific discursive repertoires and user-producer relationships, play a key role in framing expectations of nanotechnology-enabled options. The article concludes by suggesting that domain-specific discourses may lead to undesirable lock-ins into specific de facto assessments pre-structuring anticipatory strategies of actors.

Tesh S.J., Scott T.B. Nano-Composites for Water Remediation: A Review // Advanced Materials. 2014. Vol. 26, № 35. P. 6056–6068.

As global populations continue to increase, the pressure on water supplies will inevitably intensify. Consequently the international need for more efficient and cost effective water remediation technologies will also rise. The introduction of nano-technology into the industry may represent a significant advancement and zero-valent iron nano-particles (INPs) have been thoroughly studied for potential remediation applications. However, the application of water dispersed INP suspensions is limited and somewhat contentious on the grounds of safety, whilst INP reaction mechanisms, transport properties and ecotoxicity are areas still under investigation. Theoretically, the development of nano-composites containing INPs to overcome these issues provides the logical next step for developing nano-materials that are better suited to wide application across the water industry. This review provides an overview of the range of static, bulk nano-composites containing INPs being developed, whilst highlighting the limitations of individual solutions, overall classes of technology, and lack of comparative testing for nano-composites. The review discusses what further developments are needed to optimize nano-composite water remediation systems to subsequently achieve commercial maturity.

Towler E. et al. Modeling hydrologic and water quality extremes in a changing climate: A statistical approach based on extreme value theory // Water Resources Research. 2010. Vol. 46, № 11. P. W11504.

Although information about climate change and its implications is becoming increasingly available to water utility managers, additional tools are needed to translate this information into secondary products useful for local assessments. The anticipated intensification of the hydrologic cycle makes quantifying changes to hydrologic extremes, as well as associated water quality effects, of particular concern. To this end, this paper focuses on using extreme value statistics to describe maximum monthly flow distributions at a given site, where the nonstationarity is derived from concurrent climate information. From these statistics, flow quantiles are reconstructed over the historic record and then projected to 2100. This paper extends this analysis to an associated source water quality impact, whereby the corresponding risk of exceeding a water quality threshold is examined. The approach is applied to a drinking water source in the Pacific Northwest United States that has experienced elevated turbidity values correlated with high streamflow. Results demonstrate that based on climate change information from the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment report, the variability and magnitude of extreme streamflows substantially increase over the 21st century. Consequently, the likelihood of a turbidity exceedance increases, as do the associated relative costs. The framework is general and could be applied to estimate extreme streamflow under climate change at other locations, with straightforward extensions to other water quality variables that depend on extreme hydroclimate.

Valusova E. et al. Water treatment using activated carbon supporting silver and magnetite // Water Science and Technology. 2012. Vol. 66, № 12. P. 2772–2778.

Recent efforts in water purification have led to the development of novel materials whose unique properties can offer effective biocidal capabilities with greater ease of use and at lower cost. In this study, we introduce a novel procedure for the preparation of activated carbon (charcoal) composite in which magnetite and silver are incorporated (MCAG); we also describe the use of this material for the disinfection of surface water. The formation process of magnetic MCAG composite was studied using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the high sorption efficiency of AgNO3 to magnetic activated carbon. The antimicrobial capabilities of the prepared MCAG were examined and the results clearly demonstrate their inhibitory effect on total river water bacteria and on Pseudomonas koreensis and Bacillus mycoides cultures isolated from river water. The bacterial counts in river water samples were reduced by five orders of magnitude following 30 min of treatment using 1 g l(-1) of MCAG at room temperature. The removal of all bacteria from the surface water samples implies that the MCAG material would be a suitable disinfectant for such waters. In combination with its magnetic character, MCAG would be an excellent candidate for the simple ambulatory disinfection of surface water.

Vega C., Abascal J.L.F., Debenedetti P.G. Physics and chemistry of water and ice // Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 2011. Vol. 13, № 44. P. 19660-19662.

Water in its various forms is fascinating to all of us, either when walking on a glacier on high mountains, when swimming in the sea, or simply when looking at clouds. We all know that we must drink water every day, so no explanation is needed for the fact that we need water to stay alive. We learned in school that water is a molecule made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Since water is important and simple, one would expect that basically everything is known about water, both in its liquid and in its solid form, ice. We certainly know quite a bit about water, but our understanding of its properties, both as a pure substance and as a solvent, is far from complete. It is impossible to cover in just one issue the vast amount of current research on water. In this special issue devoted to the physics and chemistry of water and ice, several examples of ongoing research on water are presented, offering a glimpse on the many questions that remain to be understood about this molecule.

Vinceti M. et al. The need for a reassessment of the safe upper limit of selenium in drinking water // Science of The Total Environment. 2013. Vol. 443. P. 633–642.

Results of recent epidemiologic studies suggest the need to reassess the safe upper limit in drinking water of selenium, a metalloid with both toxicological and nutritional properties. Observational and experimental human studies on health effects of organic selenium compounds consumed through diet or supplements, and of inorganic selenium consumed through drinking water, have shown that human toxicity may occur at much lower levels than previously surmised. Evidence indicates that the chemical form of selenium strongly influences its toxicity, and that its biological activity may differ in different species, emphasizing the importance of the few human studies on health effects of the specific selenium compounds found in drinking water. Epidemiologic studies that investigated the effects of selenate, an inorganic selenium species commonly found in drinking water, together with evidence of toxicity of inorganic selenium at low levels in from in vitro and animal studies, indicate that health risks may occur at exposures below the current European Union and World Health Organization upper limit and guideline of 10 and 40 ?g/l, respectively, and suggest reduction to 1 ?g/l in order to adequately protect human health. Although few drinking waters are currently known to have selenium concentrations exceeding this level, the public health importance of this issue should not be overlooked, and further epidemiologic research is critically needed in this area.

Wang D. et al. UV/chlorine control of drinking water taste and odour at pilot and full-scale // Chemosphere. 2015. Vol. 136. P. 239–244.

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can be used to destroy taste and odour-causing compounds in drinking water. This work investigated both pilot- and full-scale performance of the novel ultraviolet (UV)/chlorine AOP for the destruction of geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and caffeine (as a surrogate) in two different surface waters. The efficiency of the UV/chlorine process at pH 7.5 and 8.5 was comparable to that of the UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) process under parallel conditions, and was superior at pH 6.5. Caffeine was found to be a suitable surrogate for geosmin and MIB, and could be used as a more economical alternative to geosmin or MIB spiking for site-specific full-scale testing.

Wise A., O’Brien K., Woodruff T. Are Oral Contraceptives a Significant Contributor to the Estrogenicity of Drinking Water? // Environmental Science & Technology. 2011. Vol. 45, № 1. P. 51–60.

A review is given. Recent obsd. feminization of aquatic animals has raised concerns about estrogenic compds. in water supplies and the potential for these chems. to reach drinking water. Public perception frequently attributes this feminization to oral contraceptives (OCs) in wastewater and raises concerns that exposure to OCs in drinking water may contribute to the recent rise in human reproductive problems. This paper reviews the literature regarding various sources of estrogens, in surface, source and drinking water, with an emphasis on the active mol. that comes from OCs. It includes discussion of the various agricultural, industrial, and municipal sources and outlines the contributions of estrogenic chems. to the estrogenicity of waterways and ests. that the risk of exposure to synthetic estrogens in drinking water on human health is negligible. This paper also provides recommendations for strategies to better understand all the potential sources of estrogenic compds. in the environment and possibilities to reduce the levels of estrogenic chems. in the water supply.

Wright E., Daurie H., Gagnon G.A. Development and validation of an SPE-GC-MS/MS taste and odour method for analysis in surface water // International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2014. Vol. 94, № 13. P. 1302–1316.

The goal of this research was to develop a robust method for taste and odour compounds that can be implemented by laboratories with mass spectrometers lacking chemical ionisation capabilities or specialised sample introduction hardware that are commonly used for taste and odour methods. Development, optimisation, and validation of a solid-phase extraction method using liquid injection and gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry detection with electron impact ionisation are described. Camphor was used as an internal standard, and through method development and robustness testing it was shown to extract similarly to other taste and odour compounds, making it a cost-effective alternative to deuterated analogs. The instrumental parameters and extraction procedure were fully optimised prior to assessing the method's linearity, precision, and accuracy. Using a 2000-fold enrichment factor, method recoveries for priority compounds geosmin (GSM) and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) were >90%. Excellent linearity was obtained from the reportable detection limits up to 200ng L-1 and precision %relative standard deviations were 8.5% and 10.9% for GSM and 2-MIB, respectively. Detection limits of 0.9 and 5.5ng L-1 for GSM and 2-MIB respectively were deemed fit-for-purpose in comparison to their odour thresholds. Validation data were also obtained for other commonly analysed taste and odour compounds, including 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine. The validated method was used to screen surface waters in Nova Scotia, Canada for presence of taste and odour compounds, highlighting the presence of GSM on the east coast of Canada.

Xiang Z. et al. Nano-TiO2 membrane adsorption reactor (MAR) for virus removal in drinking water // Chem. Eng. J. 2013. Vol. 230. P. 180–187.

In order to improve the removal efficiency of virus in drinking water, phage F2, which is similar to human enteric pathogenic virus, was used as the model virus to study the removal efficiency of virus in the water using nano-TiO2-membrane coupling system. The results showed that the adsorption of phage F2 by nanosized TiO2 could reach the adsorption equilibrium in 60 min, and the process could follow the Freundlich isotherm (q(e) = 27.4.c(e)(124)), which is assigned to multilayer adsorption. The kinetic studies showed that the pseudo second-order rate equation could fit the experimental data well. The chemical adsorption was the main mechanism, and the intra particle diffusion was the control step. As for the membrane systems, two different flat membranes PVDF (0.20 mu m) and PAN (0.05 mu m) were used, and the removal efficiency of phage F2 was 1.88-2.56 log and 4.78-5.95 log, respectively. As for the coupling systems of nanosized TiO2 and membrane (nano-TiO2-membrane adsorption reactor), the removal efficiency of phage F2 was 3.88 log and 6.40 log, respectively, which was mainly due to the adsorption of nanosized TiO2 and the effective filter cake layer formed on the surface of membrane during operation. The nano-TiO2-membrane adsorption reactor (MAR) achieved not only the high removal efficiency of virus, but also the effective separation and recycle of nanoparticles.

Yang Y. et al. The design of rapid turbidity measurement system based on single photon detection techniques // Optics and Laser Technology. 2015. Vol. 73. P. 44–49.

A new rapid turbidity measurement system has been developed to measure the turbidity of drinking water. To determinate the turbidity quantitatively, the total intensity of scattering light has been measured and quantified as number of photons by adopting the single photon detection techniques (SPDT) which has the advantage of high sensitivity. On the basis of SPDT, the measurement system has been built and series of experiments have been carried out. Combining then the 90 degrees Mie scattering theory with the principle of SPDT, a turbidity measurement model has been proposed to explain the experimental results. The experimental results show that a turbidity, which is as low as 0.1 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units), can be measured steadily within 100 ms. It also shows a good linearity and stability over the range of 0.1-400 NTU and the precision can be controlled within 5% full scale. In order to improve its precision and stability, some key parameters, including the sampling time and incident light intensity, have been discussed. It has been proved that, to guarantee an excellent system performance, a good compromise between the measurement speed and the low power consumption should be considered adequately depending on the practical applications.

York A.M. et al. Household bottled water consumption in Phoenix: a lifestyle choice // Water International. 2011. Vol. 36, № 6. P. 708–718.

The demand for bottled water has grown tremendously in recent years, together with concern about its environmental impacts. The authors surveyed individuals in Phoenix, Arizona about their water consumption behaviour, socio-demographic characteristics, perception of water quality and trust in the government's willingness to respond to water quality issues. Using a logit model, the authors then tested the relationship between the respondents' characteristics and bottled water consumption for cooking and drinking in the home. Our results indicate that bottled water consumption reflects lifestyle choice not environmental concerns.

Zhang J. et al. Assessing the extent of altruism in the valuation of community drinking water quality improvements // Water Resour. Res. 2013. Vol. 49, № 10. P. 6286–6297.

Improvements in publically provided goods and services, like community drinking water treatment, have values to people arising from their self-interest, but may as well have value from their altruistic concerns. The extent to which the value is altruistic versus self-interested is an important empirical issue for policy analysis because the benefits to improving drinking water quality may be larger than previously thought. We conducted an internet survey across Canada to identify both self-interested willingness-to-pay and altruistic willingness-to-pay obtained through hypothetical responses to a series of stated choice tasks and actual self-protection data against health risks from tap water. We use the information on self-protection to identify altruistic WTP. We find significant differences between self-interested and altruistic WTP: the latter can be three times greater than the former. Whether benefits of water protection are actually larger, however, depends on whether the altruism is paternalistic or nonpaternalistic.

Zhang J. et al. Effects and Mechanism of Pre-ozonation on Sand Filtration Performance // Ozone-Science & Engineering. 2011. Vol. 33, № 1. P. 66–73.

Diatoms were shown to be responsible for clogging the sand filtration tanks in the waterworks of Beijing treating reservoir source water. The effect of pre-ozonation on the performance of the sand filter was investigated using a continuous-flow (200 L h-1) pilot experimental system. At the optimum ozone dose of 1.0 mg L-1, the filter run time was prolonged 2.7-2.8-fold, the number of 2-5 m diameter particles decreased from 353-829 ml-1 to 53-269 ml-1 and the turbidity in the filtrate decreased from 0.2 NTU to 0.1 NTU. Laboratory tests showed that ozone was able to break the cells of the diatoms, including Fragilaria sp., Diatoma sp. and Navicula sp., into smaller particles, and the optimum ozone dose was also 1.0 mg L-1. Decomposition of algae is likely to be the main reason for the significantly improved performance of filtration.

Амелин В.Г., Большаков Д.С., Третьяков А.В. Разделение и определение полярных пестицидов в грунтовых, поверхностных и питьевых водах методом капиллярного электрофореза // Журнал аналитической химии. 2012. Т. 67. № 11. С. 1005-1026.

Выбраны оптимальные условия разделения и определения методом капиллярного электрофореза пестицидов следующих классов: арилоксикарбоновых кислот, сим-триазинов, триазинонов, хлор-ацетамидов, производных мочевины, неоникотиноидов, карбаматов, триазолов, дитиокарбаматов, имидазолов, бензимидазолов, фосфорорганических соединений. Предложены методики определения пестицидов в поверхностных, грунтовых и питьевых водах после концентрирования их методом твердофазной экстракции на концентрирующих патронах Oasis” HLB 3cc/60 mg. Степень извлечения пестицидов составила 80?95%. Нижние границы определяемых содержаний пестицидов в воде с учетом концентрирования составили 0.2?1 мкг/л. Относительное стандартное отклонение результатов анализа не превышает 0.1.

Галимова А.Р., Тунакова Ю.А. Поступление, содержание и воздействие высоких концентраций металлов в питьевой воде на организм // Вестник Казанского технологического университета. 2013. Т. 16. № 20. С. 165-169.

Представлен литературный обзор основных физико-химических свойств, путей поступления металлов в питьевую воду из систем централизованного хозяйственно-питьевого водоснабжения и опасности поступления металлов в организм водным путем.

Гиберт К.К., Карасев А.К. и др. Направленность биологического действия питьевой воды // Гигиена и санитария. 2015. Т. 94. № 3. С. 101-105.

Выполнены исследования размерных параметров пероксидных ассоциатов в питьевых водах, выполняющих регуляторные функции в клеточном метаболизме, которые определяют характер биологической реакции организма человека на питьевую воду. Направленность действия пероксидных ассоцитов типа ?[(НО 2 -(*)...ОН -(*)(Н 2О) Т р)] q, где (Н 2О) T q - ассоциат с тетрагональной структурой (пентамер Вольрафена - лед VI), q - степень ассоциации, р - параметр ионной координации) на клеточные структуры организма связывается с их квантовыми свойствами, определяющими макроскопические параметры волновых пакетов электронов. Результаты исследований подтвердили адресность нелокального поступления электронов на определенные клеточные структуры организма, которая определяется структурным подобием центров конденсации электронов в клетках систем и органов организма с параметрами волновых пакетов электронов в ассоциатах. Методология оценки направленности биологического действия питьевой воды на системы организма на основе анализа вариаций ритма сердца при неконтактном воздействии воды на организм человека и ее связи с размерными параметрами и активностью пероксидных ассоциатов в питьевой воде может быть предложена для проведения скрининговых исследований качества питьевой воды, учитывающих как индивидуальные особенности реакций систем организма на питьевую воду, так и ее групповое действие.

Гиберт К.К., Стехин А.А., Яковлева Г.В., Сульина Ю.С. и др. Сохранение электронодонорных свойств питьевой воды // Гигиена и санитария. 2015. Т. 94. № 3. С. 97-100.

В исследовании выполнена экспериментальная оценка долговременных структурно-физических изменений фазы ассоциированной воды в питьевой воде, обработанной в гипомагнитныхусловиях по технологии, предусматривающей конверсию орто-пара-изомеров воды в присутствии катализатора - триплетного кислорода. По результатам измерений параметров образующихся наноассоциатов в воде обнаружен ряд закономерностей, позволяющих определить механизмы влияния гипомагнитной обработки на каталитические свойства воды и долговременную стабильность ее активированного состояния, обеспечивающего длительное поддержание высокой биологической активности питьевой воды. В частности, в гипомагнитных условиях обработки формируется более плотная упаковка аморфного льда VI в составе пероксидных ассоциатов, служащих своеобразным резервуаром атмосферных газов. В подобном резервуаре реализуются более высокие по сравнению с нормальными геофизическими условиями давления, что стимулирует газофазные реакции с образованием димеров и тримеров кислорода, существующих в двух электронно-активных конфигурациях с энергиями связи 0,3 и ~ 0,2 эВ, обеспечивающих фазовую модуляцию, приводящую к конденсации из окружающей среды дополнительных электронов на парамагнитном кислороде, что обеспечивает длительное поддержание электрон-донорной способности воды и ее электрически неравновесного состояния.

Донецкова А.А., Сквалецкий Е.Н., Пелагеин А.А. Анализ содержания макроэлементов в питьевых водах // Проблемы региональной экологии. 2011. № 5. С. 10-14.

Охарактеризовано качество подземных питьевых вод по общим показателям по санитарным нормам и правилам на водозаборах Оренбургской области. Показаны возможные проблемы состояния здоровья населения, связанные с потреблением некачественной питьевой воды.

Елипашева Е.В., Максимова Т.В. и др. Ионохроматографическое определение некоторых токсичных анионов в воде централизованных систем питьевого водоснабжения и природных водах // Вода: химия и экология. 2011. № 1. С. 61-65.

Для ионохроматографического анализа вод централизованных систем питьевого водоснабжения и природных вод на содержание токсичных ионов F-, ClO2 -, Br-, NO3 - и HPO4 2- предлагается использовать жидкостный хроматограф LC-20 AD SP. Рекомендуемая методика характеризуется высокой избирательностью, широким диапазоном определяемых содержаний аналитов, низкими пределами обнаружения. Относительная погрешность не превышает 10 %.

Корнева Д.А., Куров Л.Н. Адсорбционная очистка - эффективный метод очистки сточных вод и подготовки воды для хозяйственно - питьевого водопользования // Успехи современного естествознания. 2011. № 7. С. 129.

Коронкевич Н.И., Барабанова Е.А., и др. Водообеспеченность и антропогенная нагрузка на водные ресурсы России в сравнении с другими странами // Вестник РФФИ. 2013. №2. С. 64-73.

Показано место России по обеспеченности водными ресурсами (в основном ресурсами речного стока), антропогенной нагрузке на них, а также эффективности использования воды среди стран «большой восьмерки». 19 стран, репрезентативных для суждения о мировом водном хозяйстве, и мира в целом.

Красовский Г.Н., Рахманин Ю.А., Егорова Н.А. Гигиеническое обоснование оптимизации интегральной оценки питьевой воды по индексу качества воды // Гигиена и санитария. 2015. Т. 94. № 5. С. 5-10.

Настоящее исследование посвящено теоретическим вопросам оптимизации интегральной оценки состава и свойств питьевой воды с использованием индекса качества воды (ИКВ) и учетом в нем всех 4-х гигиенических критериев ее качества - санитарно-токсикологического, микробиологического, радиационного и органолептического. Приводится последовательность анализа исходных данных лабораторных исследований питьевой воды, включающая выбор приоритетных показателей, распределение их на 4 группы в соответствии с гигиеническими критериями, расчеты отношений реальных значений показателей (С) к их гигиеническим ПДК и итоговый расчет ИКВ. Подчеркивается значимость классов опасности веществ и необходимость особого внимания к веществам-канцерогенам в интегральной оценке качества воды. Для преодоления неэквивалентности вкладов в оценку качества воды факторов, измеряемых в разных единицах, часто несопоставимых по влиянию на здоровье человека, используются принципы комбинированного действия на уровнях ниже ПДК: С/ПДК показателей однонаправленного действия суммируются (например, веществ-канцерогенов), из показателей с независимым действием выбираются наиболее значимые с наибольшими величинами С/ПДК, кроме того, используются уравновешивающие коэффициенты К, определенные по методу Дельфи, с максимальным значением 5 для канцерогенов и минимальным значением 1 для веществ, влияющих на органолептические свойства воды. Приводится схема итогового расчета ИКВ.

Кузнецова И.А., Фигурина Т.И., Шадрина С.Ю. Пути обеспечения населения Вологодской области безопасной питьевой водой с использованием методологии оценки риска // Гигиена и санитария. 2011. № 1. С. 48-51.

Проблема снабжения населения качественной питьевой водой является приоритетной в обеспечении санитарно-эпидемиологического благополучия населения Вологодской области и предупреждении заболеваемости. Проведенный мониторинг результатов лабораторного контроля качества питьевой воды и оценка риска для здоровья позволили предложить комплекс мероприятий по оптимизации условий питьевого водоснабжения в Вологодской области. Использование технологии оценки риска в практике организации Госсанэпиднадзора позволяет обосновать систему мероприятий по организации хозяйственно-питьевого водоснабжения населения и вносить научно обоснованные предложения в разрабатываемые региональные и местные программы.

Мазунина Д.Л. Негативные эффекты марганца при хроническом поступлении в организм с питьевой водой // Экология человека. 2015. № 3. С. 25-31.

В обзоре рассмотрены негативные эффекты повышенного содержания марганца, поступающего в организм с питьевой водой и представляющего потенциальную опасность для здоровья населения. Приведены данные отечественных и зарубежных исследователей о воздействии марганца на функциональное состояние центральной нервной системы, систему крови и процессы кроветворения, процесс нервно-мышечной проводимости, структуру костной ткани, всасывающую способность кишечника, выделительную систему (почки), жировой и углеводный обмен, состояние системы клеточного иммунитета и неспецифической резистентности. Показано, что при одновременном поступлении марганца и ряда других металлов (никеля, хрома, свинца) с питьевой водой возрастает опасность развития негативных эффектов со стороны критических органов и систем. Доказана связь хронического воздействия марганца, поступающего с питьевой водой, с ростом заболеваемости населения в явных и скрытых формах. Установление механизмов токсического действия марганца на критические органы и системы позволяет определять показатели, изменение которых в биологических средах организма дает возможность более точно и в ранние сроки определить предпатологические состояния, возникшие в результате вредного воздействия факторов среды обитания, в том числе марганца.

О.Е.Тутельян, С.И.Кувшинников и др. Результаты межлабораторных сравнительных испытаний по определению суммарных активностей альфа- и бета- излучающих радионуклидов в питьевых водах с использованием контрольных проб // АНРИ (Научно-информационный журнал по радиационной экологии). 2013. №2. С.14-21.

В работе рассмотрены результаты межлабораторных сравнительных испытаний (МСИ) по определению суммарных активностей альфа- и бета- излучающих радионуклидов в природных (питьевых) водах, проведенных в РФ в 2012 г. Оценены возможные факторы (методики выполнения измерений, процедуры пробоподготовки, калибровка аппаратуры с помощью радиоизотопных стандартов и др.), влияющие на достоверность результатов. Предложены мероприятия, направленные на повышение качества радиационного контроля питьевых вод

Онищенко Г.Г. О состоянии и мерах по обеспечению безопасности хозяйственно-питьевого водоснабжения населения российской федерации // Гигиена и санитария. 2010. № 3. С. 4-7.

Сохранение здоровья нации, снижение уровня смертности и увеличение продолжительности жизни являются важнейшими условиями решения проблемы обеспечения национальной безопасности. Российская Федерация полностью поддерживает усилия мирового сообщества, направленные на охрану водных объектов и предупреждение распространения заболеваний, связанных с водой. Несмотря на то что Россия - крупнейшая водная держава и располагает 1/5 общемировых ресурсов питьевой воды, положение в этой сфере по-прежнему серьезное. Одним из неблагоприятных факторов хозяйственно-питьевого водоснабжения населения является дефицит питьевой воды в ряде субъектов Российской Федерации: Костромской, Калужской, Псковской областях, Республике Северная Осетия-Алания и др. Для улучшения обеспечения населения страны доброкачественной питьевой водой Роспотребнадзор постоянно проводит работу над совершенствованием правовой и нормативной базы, устанавливающей санитарно-эпидемиологические требования к питьевой воде и питьевому водоснабжению.

Рахманин Ю.А., Красовский Г.Н. и др. 100 лет законодательного регулирования качества питьевой воды. Ретроспектива, современное состояние и перспективы // Гигиена и санитария. 2014. Т. 93. № 2. С. 5-18.

Рассматривается история развития законодательных требований к регулированию качества питьевой воды в разных странах и международных организациях в период с 1912 г. до нашего времени. В сравнительном плане анализируется современное состояние нормативных баз РФ, ВОЗ, ЕС, Финляндии, Великобритании, Сингапура, Австралии, Японии, Китая, Нигерии, США и Канады в области обеспечения благоприятных условий питьевого водопользования населения. Отмечается значительный прогресс в нормировании содержания биогенных элементов и химических загрязнений питьевой воды при отсутствии единых требований к составу и свойствам питьевой воды в общемировом масштабе, что связано с необходимостью учета национальных особенностей питьевого водоснабжения в пределах отдельных государств. Как перспективные направления совершенствования регулирования качества питьевой воды отмечаются: разработка новых нормативов приоритетных водных загрязнений, периодический пересмотр нормативов при появлении новых научных данных о биологическом действии веществ, использование концепции риска, гармонизация нормативных величин и оценка возможности введения в практику еще одного критерия благоприятности условий водопользования населения - биоэнергетического состояния воды.

Сергеев Г.М., Елипашева Е.В. и др. Ионометрическое определение хлоридов в питьевых водах различной минерализации // Известия высших учебных заведений. Химия и химическая технология. 2011. Т. 54. № 12. С. 18-21.

Разработана унифицированная методика ионометрического определения хлорид-ионов в питьевых водах различной минерализации (0,1 - 3,5 г/л) с использованием хлорид-селективных электродов различных фирм. Рекомендуемая методика по точности не уступает методикам ГОСТ (аргентометрическое и меркуриметрическое титрование), отличаясь от последних высокой производительностью и возможностью автоматизации.

Смирнова В.О., Семенова Т.В. и др. Контроль токсичности подземных вод питьевого назначения Тюменской области // Известия высших учебных заведений. Нефть и газ. 2013. № 1. С. 109-114.

Показана возможность использования биотестирования для контроля токсичности подземных вод питьевого назначения Тюменской области.

Тунакова Ю.А., Файзуллин Р.И., Валиев В.С. Расчет вероятности поступления металлов в организм с потребляемой питьевой водой // Гигиена и санитария. 2015. Т. 94. № 5. С. 62-65.

В действующих методических рекомендациях «Руководство по оценке риска для здоровья населения при воздействии химических веществ, загрязняющих окружающую среду» Р регламентируется определение количественных и/или качественных характеристик вредных эффектов для здоровья населения от воздействия факторов среды обитания. Мы предложили дополнить методические подходы, представленные в Р, оценкой вероятности поступления загрязняющих веществ в организм с питьевой водой, которая тем больше, чем выше кратность превышения фактических концентраций веществ по сравнению с их фоновыми концентрациями. В статье предложена методика расчета вероятностей превышения фактических концентраций катионов металлов над фоновыми в пробах потребляемой населением питьевой воды, которые отбирались в конечных точках потребления, (в домах и квартирах), для учета вторичного загрязнения при прохождении по водоводам и разводящим путям. Исследования проводились на примере Казани, разделенной на зоны. Расчет вероятностей проводился с помощью теоремы Байеса.

Унгуряну Т.Н. Риск для здоровья населения при комплексном действии веществ, загрязняющих питьевую воду // Экология человека. 2011. № 3. С. 14-20.

Выполнено поперечное исследование для изучения факторов экспозиции у населения г. Новодвинска Архангельской области. В модель оценки риска от химических веществ, загрязняющих питьевую воду, включены три пути экспозиции: пероральный, ингаляционный и кожный контакт с водой. Оценивался неканцерогенный и канцерогенный риск для здоровья. Установлено: значения суммарных коэффициентов опасности для приоритетных контаминантов питьевой воды на уровне медианы, 90-го процентиля (Perc) и максимальных концентраций не превышают верхней границы референтного уровня. Cуммарный индивидуальный канцерогенный риск, рассчитанный на уровне 90-го Perc и максимальных концентраций канцерогенов, превышает допустимое значение. Основной вклад в суммарный канцерогенный риск (TCR) вносит хлороформ. Вклад ингаляционного пути в TCR, обусловленный хлороформом, составляет 89,2 %, перорального - 8,2 % и накожного - 2,5 %. Таким образом, отсутствует потенциальный риск развития общетоксических эффектов для здоровья от контаминантов питьевой воды. Канцерогенный риск, обусловленный хлороформом, является настораживающим.

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