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Экологическая безопасность и охрана окружающей среды

Журнальные статьи

Bone J. et al. From Chemical Risk Assessment to Environmental Quality Management: The Challenge for Soil Protection // Environmental Science & Technology. 2011. Vol. 45, № 1. P. 104–110. "

The 40 years that have passed since the beginning of the ‘environmental revolution’ has seen a large increase in development of policies for the protection of environmental media and a recognition by the public of the importance of environmental quality. There has been a shift from policy in reaction to high profile events, then to control of releases to single environmental media, and to the present position of moving toward integrated management of all environmental media at present. This development has moved away from classical chemical risk assessment toward environmental holism, including recognition of the ecological value of these media. This work details how policy developments have taken place for air and water, with examples from the USA and EU, in order to compare this with policy development regarding soil. Soil, with quite different policy frameworks and distinct uses, understanding, and threats compared to other environmental media, is currently attracting attention regarding the need for its protection independent of use. Challenges for soil policy are identified and evaluated, and recommendations on how these challenges can be overcome are discussed with relevance to water and air protection policy.

Chen Y. et al. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China // Science of the Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 470. P. 1140–1150.

The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice-wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant standards; but excess application caused trace element accumulations in the environmental media.

Cheng Y. et al. Ambient organic carbon to elemental carbon ratios: Influence of the thermal-optical temperature protocol and implications // Science of the Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 468. P. 1103–1111.

Ambient organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) ratios are strongly associated with not only the radiative forcing due to aerosols but also the extent of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. An inter-comparison study was conducted based on fine particulate matter samples collected during summer in Beijing to investigate the influence of the thermal-optical temperature protocol on the OC to EC ratio. Five temperature protocols were used such that the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) and EUSAAR (European Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research) protocols were run by the Sunset carbon analyzer while the IMPROVE (the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network)-A protocol and two alternative protocols designed based on NIOSH and EUSAAR were run by the DRI analyzer. The optical attenuation measured by the Sunset carbon analyzer was more easily biased by the shadowing effect, whereas total carbon agreed well between the Sunset and DRI analyzers. The ECIMPROVE-A (EC measured by the IMPROVE-A protocol; similar hereinafter) to ECNIOSH ratio and the ECIMPROVE-A to ECEUSAAR ratio averaged 1.36 +/- 0.21 and 0.91 +/- 0.10, respectively, both of which exhibited little dependence on the biomass burning contribution. Though the temperature protocol had substantial influence on the DC to EC ratio, the contributions of secondary organic carbon (SOC) to OC, which were predicted by the EC-tracer method, did not differ significantly among the five protocols. Moreover, the SOC contributions obtained in this study were comparable with previous results based on field observation (typically between 45 and 65%), but were substantially higher than the estimation provided by an air quality model (only 18%). The comparison of SOC and WSOC suggests that when using the transmittance charring correction, all of the three common protocols (i.e., IMPROVE-A, NIOSH and EUSAAR) could be reliable for the estimation of SOC by the EC-tracer method. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Datte P. et al. Managing Nif Safety Equipment in a High Neutron and Gamma Radiation Environment // Health Physics. 2013. Vol. 104, № 6. P. 589–596.

maximum annual yield of 1,200 MJ. Several infrastructure support systems will be exposed to varying high yield shots over the facility's 30-y life span. In response to this potential exposure, analysis and testing of several facility safety systems have been conducted. A detailed MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) model has been developed for the NIF facility, and it includes most of the major structures inside the Target Bay. The model has been used in the simulation of expected neutron and gamma fluences throughout the Target Bay. Radiation susceptible components were identified and tested to fluences greater than 10(13) (n cm(-2)) for 14 MeV neutrons and gamma-ray equivalent. The testing includes component irradiation using a Co-60 gamma source and accelerator-based irradiation using 4- and 14- MeV neutron sources. The subsystem implementation in the facility is based on the fluence estimates after shielding and survivability guidelines derived from the dose maps and component tests results. This paper reports on the evaluation and implementation of mitigations for several infrastructure safety support systems, including video, oxygen monitoring, pressure monitors, water sensing systems, and access control interfaces found at the NIF.

Dillon J.T. Implementing an Operational Program for Determining the Radiological Status of Material and Equipment // Health Physics. 2013. Vol. 104, № 6. P. 623–632. "

National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has implemented a protocol for evaluating and releasing material and equipment that is potentially "volumetrically contaminated" as a result of neutron activation and shown not to be "distinguishable from background." This protocol is an important element of the National Ignition Facility's operational program as the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, requires DOE approval of the process used to release volumetrically contaminated personal property and establishes a dose constraint of 10 mu Sv y(-1) (1 mrem y(-1)) for clearance of such items. The protocol uses process and historical knowledge to determine when material and equipment may be potentially impacted and field measurements to verify it has been impacted (i.e., is distinguishable from background). Material and equipment that do not meet the distinguishable-from-background criterion are considered to be non-impacted and outside the scope of the Order and may be released from radiological control. This paper provides the technical basis and methodology for determining whether or not there is radioactivity distinguishable from background in the evaluated material and equipment and documents that the measurement sensitivity exceeds the unrestricted release criteria specified in the American National Standards Institute report N13.12-1999, Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance. Pending DOE approval, this protocol could be used as the basis for releasing materials and equipment that exceed the distinguishable-from-background criterion and are below the specified threshold for unrestricted release.

Dunn G. et al. A comparative analysis of current microbial water quality risk assessment and management practices in British Columbia and Ontario, Canada // Science of the Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 468. P. 544–552.

Bacteria, protozoa and viruses are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and may pose threats to water quality for both human and ecosystem health. Microbial risk assessment and management in the water sector is a focus of governmental regulation and scientific inquiry; however, stark gaps remain in their application and interpretation. This paper evaluates how water managers practice microbial risk assessment and management in two Canadian provinces (BC and Ontario). We assess three types of entities engaged in water management along the source-to-tap spectrum (watershed agencies, water utilities, and public health authorities). We analyze and compare the approaches used by these agencies to assess and manage microbial risk (including scope, frequency, and tools). We evaluate key similarities and differences, and situate them with respect to international best practices derived from literatures related to microbial risk assessment and management We find considerable variability in microbial risk assessment frameworks and management tools in that approaches 1) vary between provinces; 2) vary within provinces and between similar types of agencies; 3) have limited focus on microbial risk assessment for ecosystem health and 4) diverge considerably from the literature on best practices. We find that risk assessments that are formalized, routine and applied system-wide (i.e. from source-to-tap) are limited. We identify key limitations of current testing methodologies and looking forward consider the outcomes of this research within the context of new developments in microbial water quality monitoring such as tests derived from genomics and metagenomics based research. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Feng Z. et al. Modeling sediment-related enterococci loading, transport, and inactivation at an embayed nonpoint source beach // Water Resources Research. 2013. Vol. 49, № 2. P. 693–712. "

Enterococci are the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended fecal indicator bacteria for assessing recreational marine water quality. Traditional methods of enterococci analyses are time consuming, resulting in delays in issuing beach closures. Models can potentially circumvent these delays by forecasting times when beaches should be closed. The objective of this study is to develop an innovative coupled microbe-hydrodynamic-morphological model. The unique feature of this model is its capability of simulating the release of microbes attached to coastal beach sands as a result of combined wave and tidal forcing. A nearshore process model (XBeach) was coupled with a microbe transport-decay equation. This equation included source functions that accounted for microbial release from mobilized sand, groundwater flow, entrainment through pore water diffusion, rainfall-runoff loading, and a fate function that accounted for solar inactivation effects. The model successfully simulated observed spatial and temporal patterns of enterococci in the beach water, including the reproduction of diel and tidal fluctuations and the rapid decrease of enterococci levels from the waterline to offshore. Primary processes for enterococci loading to the water column included wave-induced sediment resuspension and tidal washing for the entrainment of enterococci from the pore water in the intertidal zone. Diffusion was the major mechanism to transport enterococci from the intertidal zone to offshore. Sunlight inactivation was a key process to reduce enterococci levels during the day and to produce the diurnal cycles. Rainfall runoff was found to be an intermittent source of enterococci to beach water, whereas groundwater exchange was of secondary importance. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the processes and coefficients related to enterococci loading have quasi-linear characteristics, whereas model results of enterococci levels were sensitive to both diffusion and sunlight inactivation coefficients, showing high nonlinearity and spatial and temporal dependence. Citation: Feng, Z., A. Reniers, B. K. Haus, and H. M. Solo-Gabriele (2013), Modeling sediment-related enterococci loading, transport, and inactivation at an embayed nonpoint source beach, Water Resour. Res., 49, doi: 10.1029/2012WR012432.

Finck P.J., Wigeland R.A., Hill R.N. Reactor-Based Management of Used Nuclear Fuel: Assessment of Major Options // Health Physics. 2011. Vol. 100, № 1. P. 46–53. "

This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U. S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms). Health Phys. 100(1):46-53; 2011

Fuma S. et al. Derivation of hazardous doses for amphibians acutely exposed to ionising radiation // Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2012. Vol. 103, № 1. P. 15–19. "

Derivation of effect benchmark values for each taxonomic group, which has been difficult due to lack of experimental effects data, is required for more adequate protection of the environment from ionising radiation. Estimation of effects doses from nuclear DNA mass and subsequent species sensitivity distribution (SSD) analysis were proposed as a method for such a derivation in acute irradiation situations for assumed nuclear accident scenarios. As a case study, 5% hazardous doses (HD(5)s), at which only 5% of species are acutely affected at 50% or higher lethality, were estimated on a global scale. After nuclear DNA mass data were obtained from a database, 50% lethal doses (LD(50)s) for 4.8 and 36% of the global Anura and Caudata species, respectively, were estimated by correlative equations between nuclear DNA mass and LD(50)s. Differences between estimated and experimental LD(50)s were within a factor of three. The HD55 obtained by the SSD analysis of these estimated LD(50)s data were 5.0 and 3.1 Gy for Anura and Caudata, respectively. This approach was also applied to the derivation of regional HD5s. The respective HD(5)s were 6.5 and 3.2 Gy for Anura and Caudata inhabiting Japan. This HD(5) value for the Japanese Anura was significantly higher than the global value, while Caudata had no significant difference in global and Japanese HD(5)s. These results suggest that this approach is also useful for derivation of regional benchmark values, some of which are likely different from the global values. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hill R.N., Nutt W.M., Laidler J.J. Advanced Reactors and Associated Fuel Cycle Facilities: Safety and Environmental Impacts // Health Physics. 2011. Vol. 100, № 1. P. 20–31. "

The safety and environmental impacts of new technology and fuel cycle approaches being considered in current U. S. nuclear research programs are contrasted to conventional technology options in this paper. Two advanced reactor technologies, the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), are being developed. In general, the new reactor technologies exploit inherent features for enhanced safety performance. A key distinction of advanced fuel cycles is spent fuel recycle facilities and new waste forms. In this paper, the performance of existing fuel cycle facilities and applicable regulatory limits are reviewed. Technology options to improve recycle efficiency, restrict emissions, and/or improve safety are identified. For a closed fuel cycle, potential benefits in waste management are significant, and key waste form technology alternatives are described. Health Phys. 100(1):20-31; 2011

Jia G., Jia J. Determination of radium isotopes in environmental samples by gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry: a review of analytical methodology // Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2012. Vol. 106. P. 98–119. "

Radium (Ra) isotopes are important from the viewpoints of radiation protection and environmental protection. Their high toxicity has stimulated the continuing interest in methodology research for determination of Ra isotopes in various media. In this paper, the three most routinely used analytical techniques for Ra isotope determination in biological and environmental samples, i.e. low-background gamma-spectrometry, liquid scintillation counting and alpha-spectrometry, were reviewed, with emphasis on new methodological developments in sample preparation, preconcentration, separation, purification, source preparation and measurement techniques. The accuracy, selectivity, traceability, applicability and minimum detectable activity (MDA) of the three techniques were discussed. It was concluded that the MDA (0.1 mBq L-1) of the alpha-spectrometry technique coupled with chemical separation is about two orders of magnitude lower than that of low-background HPGe gamma-spectrometry and LSC techniques. Therefore, when maximum sensitivity is required, the alpha-spectrometry technique remains the first choice. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Johnston J.E., Sun Q., Gibson J.M. Updating Exposure Models of Indoor Air Pollution Due to Vapor Intrusion: Bayesian Calibration of the Johnson-Ettinger Model // Environmental Science & Technology. 2014. Vol. 48, № 4. P. 2130–2138. "

The migration of chlorinated volatile organic compounds from groundwater to indoor air-known as vapor intrusion-is an important exposure pathway at sites with contaminated groundwater. High-quality screening methods to prioritize homes for monitoring and remediation are needed, because measuring indoor air quality in privately owned buildings is often logistically and financially infeasible. We demonstrate an approach for improving the accuracy of the Johnson-Ettinger model (JEM), which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends as a screening tool in assessing vapor intrusion risks. We use Bayesian statistical techniques to update key Johnson-Ettinger input parameters, and we compare the performance of the prior and updated models in predicting indoor air concentrations measured in 20 homes. Overall, the updated model reduces the root mean squared error in the predicted concentration by 66%, in comparison to the prior model. Further, in 18 of the 20 homes, the mean measured concentration is within the 90% confidence interval of the concentration predicted by the updated model. The resulting calibrated model accounts for model uncertainty and variability and decreases the false negatives rate; hence, it may offer an improved screening approach, compared to the current EPA deterministic approach.

Krupskaya L.T., Zvereva V.P. Evaluation of the effect of wastes from tin ore processing on environmental objects (Khrustalnenskii mining and processing plant) // Contemporary Problems of Ecology. 2011. Vol. 4, № 6. P. 588–593.

The effect of wastes from tin ore processing on environmental objects is evaluated. Measures aimed at providing environmental and social safety are proposed.

Lee C.S. et al. Occurrence of human enteric viruses at freshwater beaches during swimming season and its link to water inflow // Science of the Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 472. P. 757–766.

beaches along with monitoring fecal indicators and environmental parameters. During the 2009 swimming season, water samples were collected from three inland freshwater beaches in Ohio, USA. Of the total samples, 40% (26/65) and 17% (11/65) were positive for HAdV and HEnV respectively, but HNoV GI/GII were not detected. There was no significant association among the detected human enteric viruses (HAdV and HEnV) and fecal bacteria indicators (Escherichia coli and Bacteroides) by Spearman correlation and principal component analyses. Logistic regression analysis also revealed that the odds of finding HAdV or HEnV was not influenced by levels of fecal bacteria indicators. However, there was a 14-fold increase in the odds HEnV detection for each 1-log increase in daily water inflow (m(3)/s) into freshwater beach reservoirs (adjusted odds ratio = 14.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.19-171). In summary, the viral occurrence at the freshwater beaches was not readily explained by the levels of fecal bacteria indicators, but appeared to be more related to water reservoir inflows. These results suggest that hydrological data must be considered in future epidemiology efforts aimed at characterizing beach water safety. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Maraccini P.A., Ferguson D.M., Boehm A.B. Diurnal Variation in Enterococcus Species Composition in Polluted Ocean Water and a Potential Role for the Enterococcal Carotenoid in Protection against Photoinactivation // Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2012. Vol. 78, № 2. P. 305–310. "

A laboratory microcosm experiment established that the pigmented E. casseliflavus isolate and a pigmented E. faecalis isolate recovered from the field site decay slower than a nonpigmented E. faecalis isolate in a solar simulator in simulated, clear seawater. This further supports the idea that the yellow carotenoid pigment in Enterococcus provides protection under sunlit conditions. The findings are in accordance with previous work with other carotenoid-containing nonphotosynthetic and photosynthetic bacteria that suggests that the carotenoid is able to quench reactive oxygen species capable of causing photoinactivation and photostress. The results suggest that using enterococcal species composition as a microbial source tracking tool may be hindered by the differential environmental persistence of pigmented and nonpigmented enterococci.

Martin B.T. et al. Extrapolating ecotoxicological effects from individuals to populations: a generic approach based on Dynamic Energy Budget theory and individual-based modeling // Ecotoxicology. 2013. Vol. 22, № 3. P. 574–583. "

Individual-based models (IBMs) predict how dynamics at higher levels of biological organization emerge from individual-level processes. This makes them a particularly useful tool for ecotoxicology, where the effects of toxicants are measured at the individual level but protection goals are often aimed at the population level or higher. However, one drawback of IBMs is that they require significant effort and data to design for each species. A solution would be to develop IBMs for chemical risk assessment that are based on generic individual-level models and theory. Here we show how one generic theory, Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, can be used to extrapolate the effect of toxicants measured at the individual level to effects on population dynamics. DEB is based on first principles in bioenergetics and uses a common model structure to model all species. Parameterization for a certain species is done at the individual level and allows to predict population-level effects of toxicants for a wide range of environmental conditions and toxicant concentrations. We present the general approach, which in principle can be used for all animal species, and give an example using Daphnia magna exposed to 3,4-dichloroaniline. We conclude that our generic approach holds great potential for standardized ecological risk assessment based on ecological models. Currently, available data from standard tests can directly be used for parameterization under certain circumstances, but with limited extra effort standard tests at the individual would deliver data that could considerably improve the applicability and precision of extrapolation to the population level. Specifically, the measurement of a toxicant's effect on growth in addition to reproduction, and presenting data over time as opposed to reporting a single EC50 or dose response curve at one time point.

Misra S.K. et al. The complexity of nanoparticle dissolution and its importance in nanotoxicological studies // Science of the Total Environment. 2012. Vol. 438. P. 225–232. "

Dissolution of nanoparticles (NPs) is an important property that alters their abundance and is often a critical step in determining safety of nanoparticles. The dissolution status of the NPs in exposure media (i.e. whether they remain in particulate form or dissolve - and to what extent), strongly affects the uptake pathway, toxicity mechanisms and the environmental compartment in which NPs will have the highest potential impact. A review of available dissolution data on NPs demonstrates there is a range of potential outcomes depending on the NPs and the exposure media. For example two nominally identical nanoparticles, in terms of size and composition, could have totally different dissolution behaviours, subject to different surface modifications. Therefore, it is imperative that toxicological studies are conducted in conjunction with dissolution of NPs to establish the true biological effect of NPs and hence, assist in their regulation. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Monte L. Characterisation of a nonlinear Leslie matrix model for predicting the dynamics of biological populations in polluted environments: Applications to radioecology // Ecological Modelling. 2013. Vol. 248. P. 174–183.

This work is aimed at presenting and discussing a nonlinear Leslie model for predicting the effects of stressors on a biological population whose growth is limited by unfavourable factors such as the competition for the exploitation of the environmental resources. The model was applied to simulate the impact of ionising radiation on populations of mammals living in highly contaminated areas. After a brief review of the main properties of nonnegative matrices, it was demonstrated that the output of the suggested model is asymptotically stable. Analysis of the model results enlightened the importance of indirect systemic effects such as the enhanced capacity, under certain circumstances, of populations in more competitive conditions to resist the harmful influence of a stressor. The proposed model is simple and can be useful for understanding the behaviour of populations affected by radioactive and non-radioactive stressors. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pak M.S. Environmentalism Then and Now: From Fears to Opportunities, 1970-2010 // Environmental Science & Technology. 2011. Vol. 45, № 1. P. 5–9. "

The environmentalism movement can be traced back to the nineteenth century but its modern “phase” is anchored in the 1960s. While many philosophies have surfaced, a rough dichotomy distinguishes those seeking to maximize pristine conditions from others championing technological solutions for a better future. Dubbing these “Arcadians” and “Utilitarians”, Pak herein recounts their histories and tenets, ending with speculation on how society will proceed forthwith.

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Paperiello C.J. Essential Infrastructure: National Nuclear Regulation // Health Physics. 2011. Vol. 100, № 1. P. 77–85.

In order for nuclear power to expand to many countries that do not currently have it, it will be essential for these countries to have laws, regulations, guidance and organizations that can license or permit nuclear power plants and support nuclear facilities, ensure compliance by inspection, and enforce nuclear regulations. The viability of nuclear power worldwide depends on an extremely high level of safety everywhere, and compliance with a number of international treaties is required before supplier nations will provide the material, both hardware and software, to build and operate nuclear power plants. While infrastructure support can be obtained from the IAEA and other countries, an essential core of expertise must exist in the country seeking to establish domestic nuclear power generation. While some reliance can be placed on the safety reviews of standard reactor designs by the nuclear regulators in supplier nations, the certification of fuel design, the quality of instruments, and the matching of a new reactor to a proposed site in the importing nation will require site-specific reviews. National arrangements are also needed for emergency preparedness, environmental protection, fuel transportation and the storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive waste. If foreign contractors and consultants are engaged to perform much of the technical work for the regulatory body(s) that has to be performed by the importing nation, that nation must have a core cadre of technically knowledgeable regulators and an organization to provide management and oversight of the contractors and consultants. Consistency in national nuclear regulations, the deployment of standardized nuclear power plant designs and standardized supporting material infrastructure can promote the safe and secure worldwide growth in nuclear power. Health Phys. 100(1):77-85; 2011

Pawel D.J. Us Environmental Protection Agency Radiogenic Risk Projections: Uncertainty Analysis // Health Physics. 2013. Vol. 104, № 1. P. 26–40. "

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has updated its estimates of cancer risks due to low doses of ionizing radiation for the U. S. population, as well as their scientific basis. For the most part, these estimates were calculated using models recommended in the recent National Academy of Sciences' (BEIR VII) report on health effects from low levels of ionizing radiation. The new risk assessment includes uncertainty bounds associated with the projections for gender and cancer site-specific lifetime attributable risks. For most cancer sites, these uncertainty bounds were calculated using probability distributions for BEIR VII model parameter values, derived from a novel Bayesian analysis of cancer incidence data from the atomic bomb survivor lifespan study (LSS) cohort and subjective distributions for other relevant sources of uncertainty. This approach allowed for quantification of uncertainties associated with: 1) the effect of sampling variability on inferences drawn from the LSS cohort about the linear dose response and its dependence on temporal factors such as age-at-exposure, 2) differences in the radiogenic risks in the Japanese LSS cohort versus the U. S. population, 3) dosimetry errors, and 4) several other non-sampling sources. Some of the uncertainty associated with how risk depends on dose and dose rate was also quantified. For uniform whole-body exposures of low-dose gamma radiation to the entire population, EPA's cancer incidence risk coefficients and corresponding 90% uncertainty intervals (Gy(-1)) are 9.55 x 10(-2) (4.3 x 10(-2) to 1.8 x 10(-1)) for males and 1.35 x 10(-1) (6.5 x 10(-2) to 2.5 x 10(-1)) for females, where the numbers in parentheses represent an estimated 90% uncertainty interval. For many individual cancer sites, risk coefficients differ from corresponding uncertainty bounds by factors of about three to five, although uncertainties are larger for cancers of the stomach, prostate, liver, and uterus. Uncertainty intervals for many, but not all, cancer sites are similar to those given in BEIR VII, which were derived using a non-Bayesian approach. Health Phys. 104(1):26-40; 2013

Pokhrel L.R., Dubey B. Evaluation of developmental responses of two crop plants exposed to silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles // Science of the Total Environment. 2013. Vol. 452. P. 321–332. "

The increasing applications of different nanomaterials in the myriad of nano-enabled products and their potential for leaching have raised considerable environmental, health and safety (EHS) concerns. As systematic studies investigating potential anomalies in the morphology and anatomy of crop plants are scarce, herein we report on the developmental responses of two agriculturally significant crop plants, maize (Zea mays L) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L), upon in vitro exposure to nanoparticles of citrate-coated silver (Citrate-nAg) and zinc oxide (nZnO). Analyses involve histology of the primary root morphology and anatomy using light microscopy, metal biouptake, moisture content, rate of germination, and root elongation. Comparative toxicity profiles of the ionic salts (AgNO3 and ZnSO4) are developed. Notably, we uncover structural changes in maize primary root cells upon exposure to Citrate-nAg, nZnO, AgNO3, and ZnSO4, possibly due to metal biouptake, suggesting potential for functional impairments in the plant growth and development Citrate-nAg exposure results in lower Ag biouptake compared to AgNO3 treatment in maize. Microscopic evidence reveals 'tunneling-like effect' with nZnO treatment, while exposure to AgNO3 leads to cell erosion in maize root apical meristem. In maize, a significant change in metaxylem count is evident with Citrate-nAg, AgNO3, and ZnSO4 treatment, but not with nZnO treatment (p > 0.1). In both maize and cabbage, measures of germination and root elongation reveal lower nanoparticle toxicity compared to free ions. As moisture data do not support osmotically-induced water stress hypothesis for explaining toxicity, we discuss other proximate mechanisms including the potential role of growth hormones and transcription factors. These findings highlight previously overlooked, anatomically significant effects of metal nanoparticles, and recommend considering detailed anatomical investigations in tandem with the standard developmental phytotoxicity assays (germination and root elongation) as the latter ones appear less sensitive for screening plant responses to nanomaterial insults. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy et al.Identification of Proteins Secreted into the Medium by Human Lymphocytes Irradiated in Vitro with or Without Adaptive Environments//Health physics.2012.v.102.is.1.p.39-53

There is increasing evidence to support the hypothesis of adaptive response, a phenomenon in which protection arises from a low-dose radiation (<0.1 Gy) against damage induced by subsequent exposure to high-dose radiation. The molecular mechanisms underlying such protection are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to fill this knowledge gap. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was used to characterize global protein expression profiles in the medium collected from human lymphocyte cultures given sham irradiation (0 Gy) or a priming low dose of 0.03 Gy (13)7Cs gamma rays 4 h prior to a challenging dose of 1 Gy Cs-137 gamma rays. Adaptive response was determined by decreased micronucleus frequencies in lymphocytes receiving low dose irradiation prior to high dose irradiation compared to those receiving only high dose irradiation. Adaptive response was found in these experiments. Proteomic analysis of media revealed: (a) 55 proteins with similar abundance in both groups; (b) 23 proteins in both groups, but 7 of them were high abundance in medium with adaptive environment, while 16 high abundance proteins were in medium without adaptive environment; (c) 17 proteins in medium with adaptive environment only; and (d) 8 proteins in medium without adaptive environment only. The results provide a foundation for improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects of low dose radiation that, in turn, will have an important impact on radiation risk estimation. Hence, these studies are highly relevant to radiation protection due to an increased use of low dose radiation in daily life (e. g., medical diagnosis or airport safety) or an unavoidable exposure to low level background radiation. Health Phys. 102(1):39-53; 2012

Roberson J.A. What’s Next after 40 Years of Drinking Water Regulations? // Environmental Science & Technology. 2011. Vol. 45, № 1. P. 154–160. "

The quality of drinking water in the United States has continued to improve over the past 40 years. The formation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1971, the passage of the initial Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA, PL 93-523) in 1974, and the passage of the 1996 SDWA Amendments (PL 104-208) represent significant progress in drinking water quality. While the widespread adoption of filtration and disinfection in the early 1900s virtually eliminated waterborne typhoid fever, some residual risks still remained 40 years ago. These national regulatory developments compelled USEPA and the drinking water community to address these remaining risks in drinking water and optimize risk reduction for the public.

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Saint-Pierre S., Kidd S. Wna’s Worldwide Overview on Front-End Nuclear Fuel Cycle Growth and Health, Safety and Environmental Issues // Health Physics. 2011. Vol. 100, № 1. P. 39–45. "

This paper presents the WNA's worldwide nuclear industry overview on the anticipated growth of the front-end nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mining to conversion and enrichment, and on the related key health, safety, and environmental (HSE) issues and challenges. It also puts an emphasis on uranium mining in new producing countries with insufficiently developed regulatory regimes that pose greater HSE concerns. It introduces the new WNA policy on uranium mining: Sustaining Global Best Practices in Uranium Mining and Processing-Principles for Managing Radiation, Health and Safety and the Environment, which is an outgrowth of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) cooperation project that closely involved industry and governmental experts in uranium mining from around the world. Health Phys. 100(1):39-45; 2011

Scholz-Starke B. et al. The response of soil organism communities to the application of the insecticide lindane in terrestrial model ecosystems // Ecotoxicology. 2013. Vol. 22, № 2. P. 339–362. "

The EU plant protection regulation 1107/2009/EC defines the requirements for active ingredients to be approved, specifically including the assessment of effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. According to that, semi-field methods are expected to be more important in the near future. Therefore, a higher-tier experiment suitable to assess the risk for soil organisms was conducted to further develop the TME (terrestrial model ecosystems) methodology in a dose-response design with the persistent insecticidal model compound lindane (gamma-HCH). The effects of lindane on soil communities such as collembolans, oribatid mites, nematodes, soil fungi and plant biomass were determined in 42 TME. Intact TME-soil cores (diameter 300 mm, height 400 mm) from undisturbed grassland were stored outdoor under natural climatic conditions. Lindane was applied in five concentrations between 0.032 mg active ingredients (ai)/kg dry soil and 3.2 mg ai/kg dry weight soil, six-fold replicated each. Twelve TME served as untreated controls. Abundance and community structures of oribatids, collembolans, enchytraeids, nematodes and fungi were recorded. Oribatid mites' community responded 3 months after treatment, although they were not significantly affected by the overall treatment regimen. Collembolans in total and species-specific abundance as well as the community endpoints (principal response curves, diversity measures) were adversely affected by moderate dosages of lindane. Effects were transient between 3 and 5 months after treatment with a recovery within 1 year. No significant effects could be detected for enchytraeids, nematodes and fungi. The study design and the obtained results allow for calculations of no observed effect concentrations below the highest treatment level for populations and for soil communities as defined entities, as well as effective concentrations. The paper discusses the limits of effect detection in the light of achievable coefficients of variation and by means of minimum detectable differences. Outdoor TME are useful to analyze and assess functional and structural endpoints in soil organisms' communities and their possible recovery after pesticide treatment within 1 year.

Steinhauser G., Brandl A., Johnson T.E. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts // Science of the Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 470. P. 800–817.

The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sun M.-M. et al. Characterization of the Proteomic Profiles of the Brown Tide Alga Aureoumbra lagunensis under Phosphate- and Nitrogen-Limiting Conditions and of Its Phosphate Limitation-Specific Protein with Alkaline Phosphatase Activity // Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2012. Vol. 78, № 6. P. 2025–2033.

The persistent bloom of the brown tide alga Aureoumbra lagunensis has been reported in coastal embayments along southern Texas, but the molecular mechanisms that sustain such algal bloom are unknown. We compared the proteome and physiological parameters of A. lagunensis grown in phosphate (P)-depleted, P- and nitrogen (N)-depleted, and nutrient-replete cultures. For the proteomic analysis, samples from three conditions were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Because of the paucity of genomic resources in this species, a de novo cross-species protein search was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins, which revealed their involvement in several key biological processes, such as chlorophyll synthesis, antioxidative protection, and protein degradation, suggesting that A. lagunensis may adopt intracellular nutrient compensation, extracellular organic nutrient regeneration, and damage protection to thrive in P-depleted environments. A highly abundant P limitation-specific protein, tentatively identified as a putative alkaline phosphatase, was further characterized by enzyme activity assay on nondenaturing gel and confocal microscopy, which confirmed that this protein has alkaline phosphatase activity, is a cytoplasmic protein, and is closely associated with the cell membrane. The abundance, location, and functional expression of this alkaline phosphatase all indicate the importance of organic P utilization for A. lagunensis under P limitation and the possible role of this alkaline phosphatase in regenerating phosphate from extra- or intracellular organic phosphorus. "

Tollefsen K.E., Nizzetto L., Huggett D.B. Presence, fate and effects of the intense sweetener sucralose in the aquatic environment // Science of the Total Environment. 2012. Vol. 438. P. 510–516. "

Sucralose (1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-b-D-fructo-furanosyl 4-chloro-4-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranoside), sold under the trade name Splenda (R), has been detected in municipal effluents and surface waters in the United States and Europe. The environmental presence of sucralose has led to interest in the possibility of toxic effects in non-target species. This review presents an environmental risk assessment of sucralose based on available data concerning its presence, fate and effects in the environment. Sucralose, which is made by selective chlorination of sucrose, is a highly stable compound, which undergoes negligible metabolism in mammals, including humans, and displays a low biodegradation potential in the environment. This intense sweetener is highly soluble in water, displays a low bioaccumulation potential and a low sorption potential to soil and organic matter, and thus is predominantly present in the water column. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) for sucralose, based on measured data in surface waters, was determined to be 10 mu g/L Aquatic toxicity studies using standardized, validated protocols used in regulatory decision making indicate that sucralose does not alter survival, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms (such as plants, algae, crustaceans and fish) at concentrations >9000 times higher than those detected in the environment. Some studies, using non-standardized protocols, have reported behavioral and other non-traditional responses in aquatic organisms, but the relevance of these findings for assessing adverse effects on individuals and populations will require further investigation. In terms of traditional risk assessment, the proposed predicted no effect concentration for aquatic organisms (PNEC) was determined to be 0.93 mg/L, based on the lowest no effect concentration (NOEC) from a validated chronic study with mysid shrimp and an application factor of 100. The resultant PEC/PNEC quotient was determined to be well below 1 (PEC/PNEC = 0.08), thus indicating a limited risk to the environment using traditional ecological risk assessment approaches. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tuovinen T.S. et al. Soil-to-plant transfer of elements is not linear: Results for five elements relevant to radioactive waste in five boreal forest species // Science of the Total Environment. 2011. Vol. 410. P. 191–197. "

Element-specific concentration ratios (CRs) assuming that plant uptake of elements is linear are commonly used in radioecological modelling to describe the soil-to-plant transfer of elements. The goal of this study was to investigate the validity of the linearity assumption in boreal forest plants, for which only limited relevant data are available. The soil-to-plant transfer of three essential (Mo, Ni, Zn) and two non-essential (Pb, U) elements relevant to the safety of radioactive waste disposal was studied. Three understory species (blueberry, narrow buckler fern and May lily) and two tree species (Norway spruce and rowan) were included. Examining CRs as a function of soil concentration showed that CR was not constant but decreased with increasing soil concentrations for all elements and plant species. A non-linear equation fitted fairly well with the empirical data; the R(2)-values for this equation were constantly higher than those for the linear fit. The difference between the two fits was most evident at low soil concentrations where the use of constant CRs underestimated transfer from soil to plants. Site-specific factors affected the transfer of Mo and Ni. The results suggested that systematic variation with soil concentrations explains a part of the large variation of empirically determined CRs, and the accuracy of modelling the soil-to-plant transfer might be improved by using non-linear methods. Non-linearity of soil-to-plant transfer has been previously reported for a few different species, elements and environments. The present study systematically tested the linearity assumption for five elements (both essential and non-essential) and in five boreal forest species representing different growth traits and phylogenies. The data supported non-linearity in all cases. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhang X. et al. Emergency Drinking Water Treatment during Source Water Pollution Accidents in China: Origin Analysis, Framework and Technologies // Environmental Science & Technology. 2011. Vol. 45, № 1. P. 161–167. "

China has suffered frequent source water contamination accidents in the past decade, which has resulted in severe consequences to the water supply of millions of residents. The origins of typical cases of contamination are discussed in this paper as well as the emergency response to these accidents. In general, excessive pursuit of rapid industrialization and the unreasonable location of factories are responsible for the increasing frequency of accidental pollution events. Moreover, insufficient attention to environmental protection and rudimentary emergency response capability has exacerbated the consequences of such accidents. These environmental accidents triggered or accelerated the promulgation of stricter environmental protection policy and the shift from economic development mode to a more sustainable direction, which should be regarded as the turning point of environmental protection in China. To guarantee water security, China is trying to establish a rapid and effective emergency response framework, build up the capability of early accident detection, and develop efficient technologies to remove contaminants from water.

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