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Биогеохимические чтения памяти В.В.Ковальского

Журнальные статьи

Baldocchi D. Measuring fluxes of trace gases and energy between ecosystems and the atmosphere - the state and future of the eddy covariance method // Global Change Biology. 2014. Vol. 20, № 12. P. 3600–3609.

The application of the eddy covariance flux method to measure fluxes of trace gas and energy between ecosystems and the atmosphere has exploded over the past 25 years. This opinion paper provides a perspective on the contributions and future opportunities of the eddy covariance method. First, the paper discusses the pros and cons of this method relative to other methods used to measure the exchange of trace gases between ecosystems and the atmosphere. Second, it discusses how the use of eddy covariance method has grown and evolved. Today, more than 400 flux measurement sites are operating world-wide and the duration of the time series exceed a decade at dozens of sites. Networks of tower sites now enable scientists to ask scientific questions related to climatic and ecological gradients, disturbance, changes in land use, and management. The paper ends with discussions on where the field of flux measurement is heading. Topics discussed include role of open access data sharing and data mining, in this new era of big data, and opportunities new sensors that measure a variety of trace gases, like volatile organic carbon compounds, methane and nitrous oxide, and aerosols, may yield.

Barry G. Terrestrial ecosystem loss and biosphere collapse // Management of Environmental Quality. 2014. Vol. 25, № 5. P. 542–563.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a measurable terrestrial ecosystem boundary to answer the question: what extent of landscapes, bioregions, continents, and the global Earth System must remain as connected and intact core ecological areas and agro-ecological buffers to sustain local and regional ecosystem services as well as the biosphere commons?. Design/methodology/approach: This observational study reviews planetary boundary, biosphere, climate, ecosystems, and ecological tipping point science. It presents a refinement to planetary boundary science to include a measurable terrestrial ecosystem boundary based on landscape ecology and percolation theory. The paper concludes with discussion of the urgency posed by ecosystem collapse. Findings: A new planetary boundary threshold is proposed based on ecology’s percolation theory: that across scales 60 percent of terrestrial ecosystems must remain, setting the boundary at 66 percent as a precaution, to maintain key biogeochemical processes that sustain the biosphere and for ecosystems to remain the context for human endeavors. Strict protection is proposed for 44 percent of global land, 22 percent as agro-ecological buffers, and 33 percent as zones of sustainable human use. Research limitations/implications: It is not possible to carry out controlled experiments on Earth’s one biosphere, removing landscape connectivity to see long-term effects results upon ecological well-being. Practical implications: Spatially explicit goals for the amount and connectivity of natural and agro-ecological ecosystems to maintain ecological connectivity across scales may help in planning land use, including protection and placement of ecological restoration activities. Originality/value: This paper proposes the first measureable and spatially explicit terrestrial ecosystem loss threshold as part of planetary boundary science.

Beutel M. et al. Effects of hypolimnetic oxygen addition on mercury bioaccumulation in Twin Lakes, Washington, USA // Science of The Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 496. P. 688–700.

Twin Lakes, located on the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Indian Reservation in eastern Washington, USA, include North Twin Lake (NT) and South Twin Lake (ST). The mesotrophic, dimictic lakes are important recreational fishing sites for both warm-water bass and cold-water trout. To improve summertime cold-water habitat for trout in NT, dissolved oxygen (DO) addition to the hypolimnion, using liquid oxygen as an oxygen gas source, started in 2009. This study assessed mercury (Hg) in the water column, zooplankton and fish, and related water quality parameters, in Twin Lakes from 2009 to 2012. Because methylmercury (MeHg) buildup in lake bottom water is commonly associated with hypolimnetic anoxia, hypolimnetic oxygenation was hypothesized to reduce Hg in bottom waters and biota in NT relative to ST. Oxygen addition led to significantly higher DO (mean hypolimnetic DO: 2–8 mg/L versus < 1 mg/L) and lower MeHg (peak mean hypolimnetic MeHg: 0.05–0.2 ng/L versus 0.15–0.4 ng/L) in North Twin. In North Twin, years with higher DO (2009 and 2011) exhibited lower MeHg in bottom waters and lower total Hg in zooplankton, inferring a positive linkage between oxygen addition and lower bioaccumulation. However, when comparing between the two lakes, Hg levels were significantly higher in zooplankton (total Hg range: 100–200 versus 50–100 ?g/kg dry weight) and trout (spring 2010 stocking cohort of eastern brook trout mean total Hg: 74.9 versus 49.9 ?g/kg wet weight) in NT relative to ST. Lower Hg bioaccumulation in ST compared to NT may be related to bloom dilution in chlorophyll-rich bottom waters, a vertical disconnect between the location of zooplankton and MeHg in the water column, and high binding affinity between sulfide and MeHg in bottom waters.

Bowling D.R. et al. Ecological processes dominate the 13C land disequilibrium in a Rocky Mountain subalpine forest // Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 2014. Vol. 28, № 4. P. 352–370.

Fossil fuel combustion has increased atmospheric CO2 by ? 115 ?mol mol-1 since 1750 and decreased its carbon isotope composition (?13C) by 1.7-2‰ (the 13C Suess effect). Because carbon is stored in the terrestrial biosphere for decades and longer, the ?13C of CO2 released by terrestrial ecosystems is expected to differ from the ?13C of CO 2 assimilated by land plants during photosynthesis. This isotopic difference between land-atmosphere respiration (?R) and photosynthetic assimilation (?A) fluxes gives rise to the 13C land disequilibrium (D). Contemporary understanding suggests that over annual and longer time scales, D is determined primarily by the Suess effect, and thus, D is generally positive (?R > ?A). A 7 year record of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange was used to evaluate the seasonality of ?A and ?R, and the 13C land disequilibrium, in a subalpine conifer forest. A novel isotopic mixing model was employed to determine the ?13C of net land-atmosphere exchange during day and night and combined with tower-based flux observations to assess ?A and ?R. The disequilibrium varied seasonally and when flux-weighted was opposite in sign than expected from the Suess effect (D = -0.75 ± 0.21‰ or -0.88 ± 0.10‰ depending on method). Seasonality in D appeared to be driven by photosynthetic discrimination (? canopy) responding to environmental factors. Possible explanations for negative D include (1) changes in ?canopy over decades as CO2 and temperature have risen, and/or (2) post-photosynthetic fractionation processes leading to sequestration of isotopically enriched carbon in long-lived pools like wood and soil. Key Points Carbon isotope contents of photosynthesis and respiration differ Isotope fractionation of land photosynthesis dominates over the 13C Suess effect Biogeochemical C isotope models must include terrestrial ecological processes

Bowling D.R. et al. Ecological processes dominate the 13C land disequilibrium in a Rocky Mountain subalpine forest // Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 2014. Vol. 28, № 4. P. 352–370.

Fossil fuel combustion has increased atmospheric CO2 by ? 115 ?mol mol-1 since 1750 and decreased its carbon isotope composition (?13C) by 1.7-2‰ (the 13C Suess effect). Because carbon is stored in the terrestrial biosphere for decades and longer, the ?13C of CO2 released by terrestrial ecosystems is expected to differ from the ?13C of CO 2 assimilated by land plants during photosynthesis. This isotopic difference between land-atmosphere respiration (?R) and photosynthetic assimilation (?A) fluxes gives rise to the 13C land disequilibrium (D). Contemporary understanding suggests that over annual and longer time scales, D is determined primarily by the Suess effect, and thus, D is generally positive (?R > ?A). A 7 year record of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange was used to evaluate the seasonality of ?A and ?R, and the 13C land disequilibrium, in a subalpine conifer forest. A novel isotopic mixing model was employed to determine the ?13C of net land-atmosphere exchange during day and night and combined with tower-based flux observations to assess ?A and ?R. The disequilibrium varied seasonally and when flux-weighted was opposite in sign than expected from the Suess effect (D = -0.75 ± 0.21‰ or -0.88 ± 0.10‰ depending on method). Seasonality in D appeared to be driven by photosynthetic discrimination (? canopy) responding to environmental factors. Possible explanations for negative D include (1) changes in ?canopy over decades as CO2 and temperature have risen, and/or (2) post-photosynthetic fractionation processes leading to sequestration of isotopically enriched carbon in long-lived pools like wood and soil. Key Points Carbon isotope contents of photosynthesis and respiration differ Isotope fractionation of land photosynthesis dominates over the 13C Suess effect Biogeochemical C isotope models must include terrestrial ecological processes

Brett M.J., Baldini J.U.L., Grocke D.R. Environmental controls on stable isotope ratios in New Zealand Podocarpaceae: Implications for palaeoclimate reconstruction // Global and Planetary Change. 2014. Vol. 120. P. 38–45.

Stable isotope ratios of various proxies are widely used for palaeoclimate reconstruction, and it is often assumed that isotope ratios reflect vegetation abundance or type. However, very little research exists on the isotopic equilibration of extant biomes under variable environmental conditions. In this study, carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from leaves of various Podocarpaceae genera, endemic to New Zealand, are linked to environmental parameters from the Land Environments New Zealand model. The dominant influence on stable isotope ratios within the majority of Podocarpaceae studied here is vapour pressure deficit (VPD). A simple latitudinal trend does not exist, and neither temperature nor rainfall (decoupled from VPD) controls the stable isotope ratios. The results suggest that modern spatial heterogeneity in VPD affects the stable isotope values of vegetation, and that historic VPD variability would change the stable isotope ratios of Podocarpaceae without necessitating a change in vegetation type, density, or productivity. This represents an alternative model for temporal isotope change within geochemical proxies and reinforces the need for increased stable isotopic research in modern plant ecosystems to better understand modern, and eventually palaeoclimatic processes affecting the terrestrial biosphere.

Chakraborty S. et al. Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: A biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment // Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2014. Vol. 100. P. 61–68.

Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p?0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe–Mn, Fe–Cu, Fe–Cr, Fe–Zn, Cr–Cu, Cu–Mn, and Cd–Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd–Pb, Ni–Pb, and Zn–Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p?0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence.

Combe M. et al. Two perspectives on the coupled carbon, water and energy exchange in the planetary boundary layer // Biogeosciences. 2015. Vol. 12, № 1. P. 103–123.

Understanding the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere is key to modelling boundary-layer meteorology and cloud formation, as well as carbon cycling and crop yield. In this study we explore these interactions in the exchange of water, heat and CO2 in a cropland-atmosphere system at the diurnal and local scale. To that end, we couple an atmospheric mixed-layer model (MXL) to two land-surface schemes developed from two different perspectives: while one land-surface scheme (A-gs) simulates vegetation from an atmospheric point of view, the other (GECROS) simulates vegetation from a carbon-storage point of view. We calculate surface fluxes of heat, moisture and carbon, as well as the resulting atmospheric state and boundary-layer dynamics, over a maize field in the Netherlands, on a day for which we have a rich set of observations available. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding the role of upper-atmosphere conditions like subsidence in comparison to the role of surface forcings like soil moisture. We show that the atmospheric-oriented model (MXL-A-gs) outperforms the carbon storage-oriented model (MXL-GECROS) on this diurnal scale. We find this performance is partly due to the difference of scales at which the models were made to run. Most importantly, this performance strongly depends on the sensitivity of the modelled stomatal conductance to water stress, which is implemented differently in each model. This sensitivity also influences the magnitude of the surface fluxes of CO2, water and heat (surface control) and subsequently impacts the boundary-layer growth and entrainment fluxes (upper atmosphere control), which alter the atmospheric state. These findings suggest that observed CO2 mole fractions in the boundary layer can reflect strong influences of both the surface and upper-atmosphere conditions, and the interpretation of CO2 mole fraction variations depends on the assumed land-surface coupling. We illustrate this with a sensitivity analysis where high subsidence and soil moisture depletion, typical for periods of drought, have competing and opposite effects on the boundary-layer height h. The resulting net decrease in h induces a change of 12 ppm in the late-afternoon CO2 mole fraction. Also, the effect of such high subsidence and soil moisture depletion on the surface Bowen ratio are of the same magnitude. Thus, correctly including such two-way land-surface interactions on the diurnal scale can potentially improve our understanding and interpretation of observed variations in atmospheric CO2, as well as improve crop yield forecasts by better describing the water loss and carbon gain.

Dutta M.K. et al. Biogeochemical dynamics of exogenous methane in an estuary associated to a mangrove biosphere; The Sundarbans, NE coast of India // Marine Chemistry. 2015. Vol. 170. P. 1–10.

The distribution, sources and fate of dissolved CH4 were monitored in a mangrove associated estuary of the Sundarbans from January 2011 to December 2012. This tropical estuary was polyhaline (salinity range between 19.06±4.33 and 27.09±0.59), well mixed and net heterotrophic. Average dissolved CH4 concentrations in estuarine surface and bottom waters were 69.90 and 56.17nM, respectively, showing a very high degree of super-saturation (?2869±571%). Dissolved CH4 was significantly correlated with salinity but not with other physicochemical and biological properties of the estuarine water, indicating its exogenous origin. Average dissolved CH4 concentration in sediment pore water was 53.4 times higher than estuarine water, suggesting significant CH4 influx from the sediment to the estuary via advective and diffusive transports. Average advective and diffusive CH4 fluxes from intertidal and sub-tidal sediments were 159.52 and 8.45?molm-2d-1, respectively. The average dissolved CH4 oxidation rate in the estuarine water column was 20.59nmolL-1d-1. Being highly supersaturated with respect to atmospheric equilibrium the estuary acts as a source of 0.093Gg CH4 annually to the atmosphere with an average flux of 8.88?molm-2d-1. In the estuarine CH4 cycle the advective flux and CH4 oxidation were recorded as the predominant input and output processes, respectively. Finally, a box model representing the CH4 biogeochemical cycle in this estuarine mangrove habitat derived a CH4 export flux from the estuary to the adjacent continental shelf of 0.485Ggyr-1.

Fantle M.S., Tipper E.T. Calcium isotopes in the global biogeochemical Ca cycle: Implications for development of a Ca isotope proxy // Earth-Science Reviews. 2014. Vol. 129. P. 148–177.

At the Earth's surface, calcium (Ca) is a critical element at a variety of scales: it is soluble in natural waters, a biological nutrient, and a major constituent of the dominant mineral sink for carbon in the ocean (CaCO3). There is a 4‰ variation in the Ca isotopic composition (44Ca/40Ca expressed as ?44Ca) of various Ca reservoirs on Earth, suggesting Ca isotopes as a promising tracer of Ca cycling in both the present and the past. Fifteen years of high precision Ca isotope measurements has revealed much about the behavior of Ca isotopes in the Earth surface environment, but there remain fundamental questions concerning how Ca isotopes are used to elucidate the marine and terrestrial Ca cycles. The current work presents a data compilation of over 70 published Ca isotope studies, totaling over 2600 measurements presented on a common delta scale, that includes data on rivers and groundwater, dust, soils and soil pore fluids, vegetation, rainwater, silicate minerals/rocks, and authigenic marine minerals (carbonates, sulfates, and phosphates, both modern and ancient).The data compilation suggests that: (1) there is a significant difference between carbonate (0.60‰) and silicate ?44Ca (0.94‰); (2) riverine ?44Ca (0.88‰) does not simply reflect the compiled carbonate ?44Ca; and (3) terrestrial vegetation exhibits the largest range of Ca isotopic compositions ~3.5‰ in the terrestrial setting. We discuss these observations in the context of the global Ca cycle, exploring the extent to which seawater ?44Ca variability is feasible and how we can achieve accurate reconstructions of seawater ?44Ca over geologic time scales.The current study presents simple mass balance models that quantify the leverage of inputs to change the Ca isotopic composition of the ocean, as this directly impacts the manner in which Ca isotopes are interpreted. Although Ca fractionates isotopically in the modern system during continental cycling, the ?44Ca range of riverine inputs to the ocean is considerably smaller than the variability observed in putative seawater proxies such as nannofossil ooze and marine barite. In the terrestrial realm, plants exhibit a wide ?44Ca range and there is evidence that Ca fluxes via biomass degradation are significant at the catchment scale. We therefore assess the ability of the continental biosphere to influence riverine, and consequently seawater, ?44Ca. A steady state biosphere has little leverage to alter riverine ?44Ca, except in cases where the ?44Ca of the recycling flux is isotopically distinct from the ?44Ca of the uptake flux. A non-steady state biosphere can substantially impact both soil and riverine ?44Ca, driving exchangeable Ca either heavier or lighter depending on the magnitude of the recycling flux relative to the uptake flux. Based on estimates of the size of the global biosphere (~1.5·1015mol Ca), we suggest a decaying biosphere has the potential to impact riverine ?44Ca by tenths of a permil over time scales <10ka. At catchment scales, transient isotope effects related to biosphere cycling of Ca can be sizeable (order 1-2‰) in soils, and variable over time, suggesting Ca as a useful tracer of biosphere dynamics.In the marine realm, we evaluate the effect of a variable fractionation factor accompanying global removal of Ca from the ocean on seawater ?44Ca and suggest methods by which such a mechanism can be recognized in the rock record. Experimental data suggest that there is considerable leverage (<1‰) in the fractionation factor to change seawater ?44Ca; the simulations presented demonstrate that when changes in the global fractionation factor drive seawater ?44Ca variability, the isotopic composition of the output flux is not representative of seawater ?44Ca evolution. This behavior is distinct from seawater ?44Ca variability driven by the ?44Ca of the weathering flux and by Ca mass flux imbalances into and out of the ocean. Thus, the successful application of a Ca isotope proxy for reconstructin

Gallagher M.E. et al. Controls on the oxidative ratio of net primary production in agricultural ecosystems // Biogeochemistry. 2014. Vol. 121, № 3. P. 581–594.

Ecosystem-, biome-, and global-level oxidative ratio (OR) estimates are used to understand ecosystem gas exchange processes, and assess the sizes of the terrestrial biosphere and ocean carbon sinks, and the mechanisms controlling them. We have developed analytical methods to measure the OR of terrestrial carbon stocks from biomass chemistry that give accurate and precise estimates of ecosystem atmosphere-biosphere gas flux OR. Here we apply these techniques to agricultural ecosystems to address two uncertainties: (1) whether changing crop species distribution can change ecosystem OR, and (2) whether nutrient status can change ecosystem OR. Analyzing the top three crops in the U.S. (soybean, corn, wheat), we showed differences between the OR of net primary production (ORab) of legumes (1.109 ± 0.003) versus grass crops (corn: 1.028 ± 0.001; wheat: 1.033 ± 0.001). Our preliminary estimate of the average U.S. agriculture ORab is 1.058 in 2010, and extrapolations indicate that the U.S. agricultural ORab has increased from 1.040 in 1930, likely due to shifts in agricultural land use (e.g. oat acreage decreases while soybean acreage increases over time). We also observed that increasing nitrogen fertilization rate led to only a small increase in ORab. Taken together, our results indicate that it is possible for biome-level ORab to vary over time and space. The largest driver of ORab variation in this study was variation in crop distribution, which changed ORab by an order of magnitude more than variations in nitrogen fertilizer application.

Gandhi N. et al. Fish Mercury Levels Appear to Be Increasing Lately: A Report from 40 Years of Monitoring in the Province of Ontario, Canada // Environmental Science & Technology. 2014. Vol. 48, № 10. P. 5404–5414.

Recent mercury levels and trends reported for North America suggest a mixed (positive/negative) outlook for the environmental mercury problem. Using one of the largest consistent monitoring data sets in the world, here we present long-term and recent mercury trends in Walleye, Northern Pike, and Lake Trout from the Province of Ontario, Canada, which contains about one-third of the world’s fresh water and covers a wide geographical area (1.5 and 3 times larger than France and Germany, respectively). Overall, the results indicate that the fish mercury levels either declined (0.01–0.07 ?g/g decade) or remained stable between the 1970s and 2012. The rates of mercury decline were substantially greater (mostly 0.05–0.31 ?g/g decade) during the 1970s/80s possibly in response to reductions in mercury emissions. However, Walleye and Pike levels have generally increased (0.01–0.27 ?g/g decade) in recent years (1995–2012), especially for northern Ontario (effect sizes for differences between the two periods ranged from 0.39 to 1.04). Proportions of Walleye and Pike locations showing a flat or increasing trend increased from 26–44% to 59–73% between the 1970s/80s and 1995–2012. Mercury emissions in North America have declined over the last few decades, and as such it is logical to expect recovery in fish mercury levels; however, other factors such as global emissions, climate change, invasive species, and local geochemistry are likely affecting the response time and magnitude.

Gandois L. et al. Use of geochemical signatures, including rare earth elements, in mosses and lichens to assess spatial integration and the influence of forest environment // Atmospheric Environment. 2014. Vol. 95. P. 96–104.

In order to assess the influence of local environment and spatial integration of Trace Metals (TM) by biomonitors, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V and Zn and some rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been measured in lichens and mosses collected in three French forest sites located in three distinct mountainous areas, as well as in the local soil and bedrock, and in both bulk deposition (BD) and throughfall (TF). Similar enrichment factors (EF) were calculated using lichens and mosses and local bedrock for most elements, except for Cs, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Cu which were significantly (KW, p < 0.05) more enriched in mosses. Similar REE ratios were measured in soils, bedrock, lichens and mosses at each study sites, indicating a regional integration of atmospheric deposition by both biomonitors. Both TM signature and REE composition of mosses revealed that this biomonitor is highly influenced by throughfall composition, and reflect atmospheric deposition interaction with the forest canopy. This explained the higher enrichment measured in mosses for elements which concentration in deposition were influenced by the canopy, either due to leaching (Mn), direct uptake (Ni), or dry deposition dissolution (Pb, Cu, Cs)+J3

Hammerschmidt C.R., Gustin M.S., Bennett J. Mercury biogeochemical cycling and processes: Implications for human and ecosystem health // Science of the Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 496. P. 635–635.

This Special Section of Science of the Total Environment contains papers from the 11th International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant, held in Edinburgh, Scotland in 2013. The overarching theme of these papers is human exacerbation of mercury (Hg) biogeochemical cycling and distribution. Included papers discuss aspects of the biogeochemical cycle of Hg and their foci overlap at least two-to-three of the five total environment spheres — lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and anthroposphere. Studies that focused on at least three spheres were given primary consideration. Field studies were given priority over laboratory studies. By definition, total environment studies are multidisciplinary. In addition, these papers have findings with implications for environmental quality, and either ecological or human health. Three papers focus on human exposure to Hg. The Karimi et al. paper examines a connection between human exposure to multiple nutrients and Hg as a result of consumption of specific types of seafood. Baumann et al. provide new information for seafood consumers to consider with regard to Hg in shark fin soup. Rodrigues et al. investigate the human bioaccessibility of Hg in urban, industrial, and mining-area soils as a result of particle inhalation and soil ingestion. Another three papers focus on impacts to the Hg cycle associated with human land disturbance. One developed a method for estimating Hg emissions associated with artisanal mining (Seccatore et al.). Another describes Hg contamination of an area due to zinc and Hg emissions, and releases to the global atmospheric Hg pool (Wu et al.). The third by Mazur et al. experimentally investigates the effect of different forest-harvesting prescriptions on gaseous Hg emissions from forest soils. The final three papers examine either the biogeochemical cycling or distribution of Hg in surface waters. Beutel et al. investigated the effects of experimental hypolimnetic oxygenation on methylmercury in lake water and biota. Sharif et al. describe the transformation and fate of Hg species in an estuarine plume. Duan et al. report on differences in the concentration of Hg in streams and forest soil between northern and southern China, which are related to modeled differences of atmospheric Hg deposition.

Harden C.P. The human-landscape system: challenges for geomorphologists // Physical Geography. 2014. Vol. 35, № 1. P. 76–89.

Deliberately or indirectly, most of the terrestrial surface has been affected by the actions of human beings. For that reason, geomorphologists have needed to broaden their scope of inquiry to encompass the human-landscape system. Four themes related to human actions emerge in recent research in geomorphology: (1) human impacts on geomorphic systems, (2) human-landscape feedbacks, (3) geomorphic hazards and (4) stratigraphic markers of anthropogenic origin. The importance of humans as geomorphic agents challenges geomorphologists and their collaborators to move beyond unidirectional cause-and-effect (human impacts), and develop new research frameworks that better integrate the ongoing interactions between people and landscapes.

Hungate B.A. et al. Nitrogen inputs and losses in response to chronic CO2 exposure in a subtropical oak woodland // Biogeosciences. 2014. Vol. 11, № 12. P. 3323–3337.

Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may alter the nitrogen (N) content of ecosystems by changing N inputs and N losses, but responses vary in field experiments, possibly because multiple mechanisms are at play. We measured N fixation and N losses in a subtropical oak woodland exposed to 11 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We also explored the role of herbivory, carbon limitation, and competition for light or nutrients in shaping the response of N fixation to elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter gaseous N losses, but lower recovery and deeper distribution in the soil of a long-term 15N tracer indicated that elevated CO2 increased leaching losses. Elevated CO2 had no effect on nonsymbiotic N fixation, and had a transient effect on symbiotic N fixation by the dominant legume. Elevated CO2 tended to reduce soil and plant concentrations of iron, molybdenum, phosphorus, and vanadium, nutrients essential for N fixation. Competition for nutrients and herbivory likely contributed to the declining response of N fixation to elevated CO2. These results indicate that positive responses of N fixation to elevated CO 2 may be transient and that chronic exposure to elevated CO 2 can increase N leaching. Models that assume increased fixation or reduced N losses with elevated CO2 may overestimate future N accumulation in the biosphere.

Inagaki F., Orphan V. Exploration of Subseafloor Life and the Biosphere Through IODP (2003-2013). 2014. ser. Developments in Marine Geology, Vol. 7. P. 39 - 52

The scientific drilling of marine subsurface environments has offered unique opportunities to explore how life persists and evolves in the Earth's interior. There are very few natural environments on the surface of the earth where life is absent; however, there are predicted constraints and limits to life associated with some deep subseafloor environments. The deep subseafloor biosphere is vast in scale and differs both physically and chemically from the Earth's surface biosphere. The processes that mediate genetic and metabolic evolution of life in the subseafloor may be very different from those well-studied systems on the Earth's surface. Research on the deep subseafloor biosphere is anticipated to have the potential to impact major scientific and societal questions such as energy creation, climate change, and the process of microbial evolution on Earth over geologic time.

Johnson M.O. et al. Insights into biogeochemical cycling from a soil evolution model and long-term chronosequences // Biogeosciences. 2014. Vol. 11, № 23. P. 6873–6894.

Despite the importance of soil processes for global biogeochemical cycles, our capability for predicting soil evolution over geological timescales is poorly constrained. We attempt to probe our understanding and predictive capability of this evolutionary process by developing a mechanistic soil evolution model, based on an existing model framework, and comparing the predictions with observations from soil chronosequences in Hawaii. Our soil evolution model includes the major processes of pedogenesis: mineral weathering, percolation of rainfall, leaching of solutes, surface erosion, bioturbation, the effects of vegetation in terms of organic matter input and nutrient cycling and can be applied to various bedrock compositions and climates. The specific properties the model simulates over timescales of tens to hundreds of thousand years are, soil depth, vertical profiles of elemental composition, soil solution pH and organic carbon distribution. We demonstrate with this model the significant role that vegetation plays in accelerating the rate of weathering and hence soil profile development. Comparisons with soils that have developed on Hawaiian basalts reveal a remarkably good agreement with Na, Ca and Mg profiles suggesting that the model captures well the key components of soil formation. Nevertheless, differences between modelled and observed K and P are substantial. The fact that these are important plant nutrients suggests that a process likely missing from our model is the active role of vegetation in selectively acquiring nutrients. This study therefore indirectly indicates the valuable role that vegetation can play in accelerating the weathering and thus release of these globally important nutrients into the biosphere.

Kautzleben H., Muller A. Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863-1945) - From mineral to noosphere // Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2014. Vol. 147, № PA. P. 4–10.

The year 2013 marked the 150th anniversary of the birth of the great Russian scientist Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863-1945). Vernadsky is considered to be one of the architects of geochemistry and the founder of biogeochemistry. He defined the scientific and philosophical terms biosphere and noosphere, is the intellectual pioneer of the environmental sciences and is the leading protagonist of sustainable development. He was the first geoscientist to merge biological and geological sciences to emphasize the complexity of natural processes and interactions. Despite being regarded as one of the greatest scientists in Russia, his enormous achievements have only recently been recognized internationally.The following biographical-historical account was compiled by the Geoscience Working Group of the Leibniz-Sozietat based in Berlin, Germany. The project paid particular attention to Vernadsky's achievements in mineralogy and geochemistry and his importance in the development of geochemistry in Germany.Vernadsky started his scientific career as a mineralogist but soon dedicated himself to studying the distribution and migration of chemical elements in the Earth's crust. He soon recognized the role of living matter in transforming and utilizing solar energy and as a geological agent, studied the importance of living matter in the chemical evolution of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. He established biogeochemistry as a new scientific discipline and was the first scientist to promote research into the geochemistry of the hydrosphere and, therewith, of marine geochemistry. In the last years of his life he developed concepts regarding the geological impact of mankind, proposing that mankind is a geological factor affecting and changing the natural environment. He was also an extraordinary manager of science and teaching. Together with a large group of colleagues, he revolutionized university teaching and academic research and guided successful students including Fersman, Chlopin, and Vinogradov. He influenced science internationally by undertaking visits to Germany, Italy, Austria and France. Important impacts on the development of geochemistry in Germany were Vernadsky's and Fersman's presentations at the Russische Naturforscherwoche (Russian natural science week) in Berlin in 1927. As a result of this meeting, the German edition of Vernadsky's Essays in Geochemistry was published, the first German textbook in geochemistry.

Korobova E., Romanov S. Ecogeochemical exploration of noosphere in light of ideas of V.I. Vernadsky // Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2014. Vol. 147, № PA. P. 58–64.

The main goal of the study is to show theoretical and practical significance of fundamental biogeochemical ideas of V.I. Vernadsky for a study of geochemical structure of noosphere as a modern stage of biosphere and their basic importance for ecogeochemical exploration. Three phases of the noosphere development followed by a corresponding change in geochemical structure of biosphere and spatial distribution of the endemic diseases are believed to be separated. Peculiarity of spatial distribution of biological reactions as a respond to the existing and newly formed geochemical heterogeneity may be demonstrated on example of thyroid diseases in the Chernobyl impact zones.

Korobova E.M. et al. Iodine deficiency in soils and evaluation of its impact on thyroid gland diseases in areas subjected to contamination after the Chernobyl accident // Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2014. Vol. 142. P. 82–93.

Geochemical and medical data on iodine deficiency and radioiodine "attack" after the Chernobyl accident were analyzed for the areas of Belarus Republic and Bryansk Oblast' of the Russian Federation. A concept that the spatial structure of modern iodine biogeochemical provinces is formed due to superposition of the natural and technogenic geochemical fields of this chemical element in biosphere is developed. The soil map, and the reconstructed radioiodine contamination have been used to evaluate soil iodine status and radioiodine attack capacity for particular settlements and regions and to create a combined health risk map for the Bryansk Oblast'. Obtained cartographic estimates were based on the real soil data and compared with medical data. The proposed approach helps to identify the areas of existing or possible negative biological effects with different health risk levels that might be helpful in eco-geochemical monitoring preventive steps and countermeasures.

Lebrun J.D. et al. Essential metal contents in indigenous gammarids related to exposure levels at the river basin scale: Metal-dependent models of bioaccumulation and geochemical correlations // Science of The Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 466-467. P. 100–108.

Biomonitoring, assumed to be an integrative measurement of the chemical exposure of aquatic organisms, is not straightforward for essential metals because they can be actively regulated by animals. Although increasing bioaccumulation with exposure levels is a crucial endpoint for the development of biomonitors, it is rarely verified in real environments, where the metal concentrations are rather low and vary little. This study was designed at the scale of a river basin to assess the ability of Gammarus pulex indigenous populations to accumulate Cu, Zn and Mn in realistic exposure conditions. During two annual campaigns, water and gammarids were collected at various sites contrasted in terms of physicochemistry and contamination. The results show significant relationships between metal concentrations in animals and in freshwaters established by conceptual models of bioaccumulation, but with patterns specific to each metal (base level, internal regulation and maximal accumulation). In particular, a saturation process of Cu accumulation occurs at environmental exposure levels, unlike Mn and Zn. Statistical analyses performed from field data show that Cu and Zn bioaccumulations may be influenced by a complex combination of geochemical variables, unlike Mn. We conclude that G. pulex is a useful candidate to monitor metal bioavailability in freshwaters due to its responsiveness to low exposures of surrounding environments. Nevertheless, a reliable quantification of bioavailability of essential metals requires characterizing some geochemical effects on metal bioaccumulation.

Lin H.-T. et al. Dissolved hydrogen and methane in the oceanic basaltic biosphere // Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2014. Vol. 405. P. 62–73.

The oceanic basaltic crust is the largest aquifer on Earth and has the potential to harbor substantial subsurface microbial ecosystems, which hitherto remains largely uncharacterized and is analogous to extraterrestrial subsurface habitats. Within the sediment-buried 3.5 Myr old basaltic crust of the eastern Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, the circulating basement fluids have moderate temperature (~65 °C) and low to undetectable dissolved oxygen and nitrate concentrations. Sulfate, present in high concentrations, is therefore expected to serve as the major electron acceptor in this subsurface environment. This study focused on the availability and potential sources of two important electron donors, methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2), for the subseafloor biosphere. High integrity basement fluids were collected via fluid delivery lines associated with Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits (CORKs) that extend from basement depths to outlet ports at the seafloor. Two new CORKs installed during IODP 327 in 2010, 1362A and 1362B, were sampled in 2011 and 2013. The two CORKs are superior than earlier style CORKs in that they are equipped with coated casing and polytetrafluoroethylene fluid delivery lines, reducing the interaction between casing materials with the environment. Additional samples were collected from an earlier style CORK at Borehole 1301A.The basement fluids are enriched in H2 (0.05-1.8 ?mol/kg), suggesting that the ocean basaltic aquifer can support H2-driven metabolism. The basement fluids also contain significant amount of CH4 (5-32 ?mol/kg), revealing CH4 as an available substrate for subseafloor basaltic habitats. The ?13C values of CH4 from the three boreholes ranged from -22.5 to -58‰, while the ?2H values ranged from -316 to 57‰. The isotopic compositions of CH4 and the molecular compositions of hydrocarbons suggest that CH4 in the basement fluids is of both biogenic and abiotic origins, varying among sites and sampling times. The ?2H values of CH4 in CORK 1301A fluid samples are much more positive than found in all other marine environments investigated to date and are best explained by the partial microbial oxidation of biogenic CH4. In conclusion, our study shows that CH4 and H2 are persistently available to fuel the deep biosphere and that CH4 is both produced and potentially consumed by microorganisms in the oceanic basement.

Luo Y. et al. Mercury concentrations in forest soils and stream waters in northeast and south China // Science of The Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 496. P. 714–720.

Atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) is generally higher in China than in North America and Europe. Transport and methylation of Hg deposited in forest ecosystems may cause health risks to humans. We collected water samples from 117 small streams, and soil samples from 25 sites in forested areas in northeast and south China during 2011–2013 to investigate the spatial distribution of Hg. Results showed that Hg concentration in surface soil (0–5 cm in depth) was generally higher in south China (97.8 ± 36.0 ?g/kg) than that in the northeast (44.0 ± 14.1 ?g/kg). In contrast, the Hg concentration in stream water was higher in northeast China (17.2 ± 11.0 ng/L) than that in the south (6.2 ± 6.4 ng/L). Hg concentrations in surface soil were positively correlated with Hg concentrations in the overlying litter Oe/Oa horizon (r2 = 0.84). Hg concentrations in stream water were positively correlated to DOC (dissolved organic carbon) concentrations (r2 = 0.43) and to the Hg concentration in the litter Oe/Oa horizon (r2 = 0.69). Because the litter Oe/Oa horizon represents Hg accumulated by foliage, the positive correlations indicate that atmospheric Hg deposition was an important factor affecting Hg concentrations in soils and stream water.

Malanson G.P. Biosphere-human feedbacks: A physical geography perspective // Physical Geography. 2014. Vol. 35, № 1. P. 50–75.

Biogeography has many connections to people but fewer to human geography. Biogeography is connected to the four dimensions of anthropogenic global change, but most of this research is tied to land-use change. Biogeographers have studied several ways in which land use affects the patterns and dynamics of organisms, mostly in reference to remnants of habitat destruction, but the human dimensions of this relationship are more explicit in changing habitat quality. How biogeography affects land use is also studied, but research on topics such as ecosystem services needs more contributions from geographers. Feedbacks between people and the other organisms with which we live, with more fully linked models, are a general subject in which biogeographers can contribute to progress in the human dimensions of global change.

Martin R.F., Wulser P.-A. Niobium and tantalum in minerals: Siderophile, chalcophile or lithophile, and polyvalent // Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2014. Vol. 147, Part A. P. 16–25.

Most geoscientists are convinced that minerals of both niobium and tantalum contain those elements in the 5 + state only. In fact, there are several well-documented minerals containing Nb0, Nb2 +, Nb4 + and Nb5 +, and tantalum follows a similar pattern. Both elements can exhibit a siderophile, a chalcophile and a lithophile character, as well illustrated empirically, and as documented via XANES and XPS spectra. Of the XPS spectra that we report here on ferroniobium of metallurgical grade, pyrochlore, samarskite, niocalite, synthetic edgarite (FeNb3S6) and NbTe2, only the samarskite and niocalite contain only one valence state of Nb (5 +). Vladimir Vernadsky understated the situation when he placed Nb and Ta in the “dispersed” category. Columbite-group minerals are most unusual in exhibiting variable mutual disorder involving (Nb,Ta) and (Fe,Mn). Oddly, samples must be heated to become ordered. We raise the possibility that at the stage of primary crystallization, the relevant magmas contained mixed valences of Nb, Ta, Fe and Mn, which made a disordered distribution along the octahedrally coordinated cations energetically more acceptable. Owing to the relative insolubility of members of this solid-solution series in the ambient aqueous fluid, they have remained metastably frozen in a partly or completely disordered state.

Mazur M. et al. Gaseous mercury fluxes from forest soils in response to forest harvesting intensity: A field manipulation experiment // Science of The Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 496. P. 678–687.

Forest harvesting leads to changes in soil moisture, temperature and incident solar radiation, all strong environmental drivers of soil–air mercury (Hg) fluxes. Whether different forest harvesting practices significantly alter Hg fluxes from forest soils is unknown. We conducted a field-scale experiment in a northern Minnesota deciduous forest wherein gaseous Hg emissions from the forest floor were monitored after two forest harvesting prescriptions, a traditional clear-cut and a clearcut followed by biomass harvest, and compared to an un-harvested reference plot. Gaseous Hg emissions were measured in quadruplicate at four different times between March and November 2012 using Teflon dynamic flux chambers. We also applied enriched Hg isotope tracers and separately monitored their emission in triplicate at the same times as ambient measurements. Clearcut followed by biomass harvesting increased ambient Hg emissions the most. While significant intra-site spatial variability was observed, Hg emissions from the biomass harvested plot (180 ± 170 ng m? 2 d? 1) were significantly greater than both the traditional clearcut plot (? 40 ± 60 ng m? 2 d? 1) and the un-harvested reference plot (? 180 ± 115 ng m? 2 d? 1) during July. This difference was likely a result of enhanced Hg2 + photoreduction due to canopy removal and less shading from downed woody debris in the biomass harvested plot. Gaseous Hg emissions from more recently deposited Hg, as presumably representative of isotope tracer measurements, were not significantly influenced by harvesting. Most of the Hg tracer applied to the forest floor became sequestered within the ground vegetation and debris, leaf litter, and soil. We observed a dramatic lessening of tracer Hg emissions to near detection levels within 6 months. As post-clearcutting residues are increasingly used as a fuel or fiber resource, our observations suggest that gaseous Hg emissions from forest soils will increase, although it is not yet clear for how long such an effect will persist.

McCormack M.L. et al. Sensitivity of four ecological models to adjustments in fine root turnover rate // Ecological Modelling. 2015. Vol. 297. P. 107–117.

Large uncertainties surrounding root-specific parameters limit model descriptions of belowground processes and ultimately hinder understanding of belowground carbon (C) dynamics and terrestrial biogeochemistry. Despite this recognized shortcoming, it is unclear which processes warrant attention in model development, given the computational cost of additional model complexity. Here, we tested the sensitivity of four models to adjustments in fine root turnover in forested systems: CENTURY, ED2, MC1, and LANDCARB. In general, faster root turnover rates resulted in lower total system carbon (C) and within model changes ranged from 1% to 38% following 100-year simulations. However, the underlying mechanisms driving these changes differed among models as some expressed lower net primary productivity (NPP) with faster turnover rates and others had similar NPP but large shifts in C allocation away from wood to fine roots. Based on these findings we expect that different model responses to changes in fine root turnover will be determined by (1) whether C is allocated to fine roots as fixed portion of NPP or to maintain a fixed biomass ratio between fine roots and leaves or stems and (2) whether soil nutrient and water uptake is a function of both resource availability and fine root biomass or based on resource availability alone. These results suggest that better constrained estimates of fine root turnover will represent a valuable improvement in many terrestrial biosphere models.

Mcmahon S., Parnell J. Weighing the deep continental biosphere // FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 2014. Vol. 87, № 1. P. 113–120.

There is abundant evidence for widespread microbial activity in deep continental fractures and aquifers, with important implications for biogeochemical cycling on Earth and the habitability of other planetary bodies. Whitman et al. (P Natl Acad Sci USA, 95, 1998, 6578) estimated a continental subsurface biomass on the order of 1016-1017 g C. We reassess this value in the light of more recent data including over 100 microbial population density measurements from groundwater around the world. Making conservative assumptions about cell carbon content and the ratio of attached and free-living microorganisms, we find that the evidence continues to support a deep continental biomass estimate of 1016-1017 g C, or 2-19% of Earth's total biomass.

Motuzova G.V. et al. Soil contamination with heavy metals as a potential and real risk to the environment // J. Geochem. Explor. 2014. Vol. 144. P. 241–246.

The heavy metal content (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni) in soils of natural landscapes and soils contaminated by these metals under technogenic and artificial conditions was investigated. Ecological hazards caused by heavy metal compounds in soils were evaluated. The concept of a real and potential risk to the ecosystem in addition to soil contamination with heavy metals was formulated. The ratio of weekly bound heavy metal content to the strongly bound content of metals was very informative parameter for the assessment of the ecological state of the polluted soils and evaluation of ameliorant effect to metal fixation in the soil.

Muller A. Viktor Moritz Goldschmidt (1888–1947) and Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863–1945): The father and grandfather of geochemistry? // Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2014. Vol. 147, Part A. P. 37–45.

Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863–1945) and Viktor Moritz Goldschmidt (1888–1947) are indisputably the two most important founders of and theoreticians within geochemistry. In 1910 Vernadsky provided the first definition of geochemistry, and therewith the basis of the scientific discipline concerned with the processes governing the distribution of the elements in the Earth System. In 1911, Goldschmidt, then 25 years younger, and commonly considered as the ‘Father of modern geochemistry’ in the western world, defended his Ph.D. thesis ‘Die Kontaktmetamorphose im Kristianiagebiet’ (The contact metamorphism in the Kristiania area). His thesis and his ‘Geologisch–petrographische Studien im Hochgebirge des sudlichen Norwegen’ (Geological and petrographic studies in the mountains of southern Norway) published in the following years were primarily dedicated to answering questions about the mineralogy and petrology of the area. With the foundation of the Raw Material Laboratory of Norway in 1917, of which he was the first director, Goldschmidt carried out a systematic program of chemical analysis of rocks, soils and minerals and, therewith, began to address fundamental questions about geochemical processes. Goldschmidt's lecture ‘Der Stoffwechsel der Erde’ (The metabolism of the Earth) published in 1922 subsequently opened the era of investigation of the distribution of the elements in the Earth's crust, meteorites and solar system and of the laws controlling this distribution. With this new approach, Goldschmidt followed the definition of process-controlled geochemistry which had been formulated by Vernadsky 12 years earlier. In this study the influence of Vernadsky on Goldschmidt's oeuvre has been analyzed by referring to private correspondence, biographical publications and other documents. The exchange of letters, hitherto largely unknown, proves that exchange of scientific ideas between the two men took place over a long period. Goldschmidt invited Vernadsky for several visits to Oslo in 1927 and to Gottingen in 1932. The exchange is documented in 38 surviving letters written between 1913 and 1939, justifying the conclusion that Goldschmidt's work was substantially inspired and influenced by Vernadsky, at least after 1922. However, Vernadsky's influence on Goldschmidt was mostly restricted to the theoretical background of geochemistry and the processes responsible for distribution of elements in the Earth's crust rather than analytical developments and documentation of element distributions.

Muller A., Seltmann R. Thematic issue: 150th anniversary of the birth of the Russian scientist Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863–1945) // Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2014. Vol. 147, Part A. P. 1–3.

This collection of scientific and philosophical contributions covers, however, only a small part of Vernadsky’s interests and influence and should be considered as an introduction and inspiration for future research. We hope you will enjoy reading these articles.

Nancharaiah Y.V., Lens P.N.L. Selenium biomineralization for biotechnological applications // Trends in Biotechnology. 2015. Vol. 33, № 6. P. 323–330.

Selenium (Se) is not only a strategic element in high-tech electronics and an essential trace element in living organisms, but also a potential toxin with low threshold concentrations. Environmental biotechnological applications using bacterial biomineralization have the potential not only to remove selenium from contaminated waters, but also to sequester it in a reusable form. Selenium biomineralization has been observed in phylogenetically diverse microorganisms isolated from pristine and contaminated environments, yet it is one of the most poorly understood biogeochemical processes. Microbial respiration of selenium is unique because the microbial cells are presented with both soluble (SeO42– and SeO32–) and insoluble (Se0) forms of selenium as terminal electron acceptor. Here, we highlight selenium biomineralization and the potential biotechnological uses for it in bioremediation and wastewater treatment.

Nemtinov V.A. et al. Construction of concentration fields of elements in 3D in groundwater of an industrial hub using GIS technologies // Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2014. Vol. 147, Part A. P. 46–51.

Developing the scientific heritage of V.I. Vernadsky, the founder of hydrogeochemistry, and based on his research studies in the Tambov region (Russia) the authors have established a methodological approach to access information about hydrological, geochemical, and industrial objects located on the territory of an industrial hub using GIS technology. This approach allows (1) the generation of a spatial information model of an industrial hub, where all objects are geo-referenced, (2) the creation of retrievable data on water quality in an industrial hub, and (3) the presentation of data processing results in the form of concentration fields of elements or their compounds. The data for the model were obtained from several sources including raster maps of an industrial hub and attribute data about industrial and natural objects over a five year period. Typical components, which define the chemical composition of groundwater of the area, are increased hardness, excessive iron content and increased mineralization (dry residue). Analysis of operating conditions of observation wells located on the territory of an industrial hub and evaluation of contamination spread in the aquifer within the mining lease are carried out using the following models: a geo-filtration model, which allows obtaining pressure distribution values at the injection wells, and a geo-migratory model, which helps in forecasting the spread of industrial wastewater in the aquifer. These models allow estimating the size of contamination spread areas and validity of applied methods of industrial waste utilization.

Norra S. The biosphere in times of global urbanization // Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2014. Vol. 147, Part A. P. 52–57.

Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky introduced the concept of the biosphere into Geochemistry. This sphere comprises the biological processes responsible for the distribution of chemical elements on Earth. Already when Vernadsky developed the concept of the biosphere he was aware of the important impact human beings have on the distribution of chemical elements in the Earth's system. However, since that time the meaning of human beings for the global element fluxes dramatically increased that becomes visible in the enormous urbanization process the Earth currently is facing. In this scientific-philosophical assay contributed to the 150th anniversary of the birthday of Vernadsky, the process of urbanization is discussed from the view point of the biosphere. Today, more than half of the world's population lives in urban systems, and this portion is growing. Urbanization has become a geological factor since the need for geological resources for urbanization is shaping the Earth's surface and relocating chemical elements on a global scale. Since human beings are part of Vernadsky's biosphere also urban systems are part of the biosphere. This human induced development of the biosphere caused subspheres such as the agrosphere and the astysphere, the first comprises fluxes of chemical elements due to agricultural activities, the second refers to fluxes caused by urban systems. With the progress of the global urbanization the astysphere will expand its influence. This is accompanied by severe consequences for the global environment such as the climate change. According to Vernadsky, the scientific thought of societal man is transforming the biosphere into the noosphere. This noosphere describes the fluxes of chemical elements when human ideas and inventions become realized. Thus, goal-oriented human processes such as urbanization and management of environmental challenges caused by global urbanization and climate change accelerating the extension of the noosphere.

Ostberg S. et al. Three centuries of dual pressure from land use and climate change on the biosphere // Environmental Research Letters. 2015. Vol. 10, № 4.

Human land use and anthropogenic climate change (CC) are placing mounting pressure on natural ecosystems worldwide, with impacts on biodiversity, water resources, nutrient and carbon cycles. Here, we present a quantitative macro-scale comparative analysis of the separate and joint dual impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and CC on the terrestrial biosphere during the last ca. 300 years, based on simulations with a dynamic global vegetation model and an aggregated metric of simultaneous biogeochemical, hydrological and vegetation-structural shifts. We find that by the beginning of the 21st century LULCC and CC have jointly caused major shifts on more than 90% of all areas now cultivated, corresponding to 26% of the land area. CC has exposed another 26% of natural ecosystems to moderate or major shifts. Within three centuries, the impact of LULCC on landscapes has increased 13-fold. Within just one century, CC effects have caught up with LULCC effects.

Parkes R.J. et al. A review of prokaryotic populations and processes in sub-seafloor sediments, including biosphere: Geosphere interactions // Marine Geology. 2014. Vol. 352. P. 409–425.

A general review of the sub-seafloor biosphere is presented. This includes an update and assessment of prokaryotic cell distributions within marine sediments, current deepest 1922m, and the impact of this on global sub-seafloor biomass estimates. These global estimates appear relatively robust to different calculation approaches and our updated estimate is 5.39?1029 cells, taking into consideration new data from very low organic matter South Pacific Gyre sediments. This is higher than other recent estimates, which is justified as several sediments, such as gas hydrate deposits and oil reservoirs, can have elevated cell concentrations. The proposed relationship between elevated cell concentrations and Milankovitch Cycles in sequential diatom rich layers at some sites, demonstrates not only a dynamic deep biosphere, but also that the deep biosphere is an integral part of Earth System Processes over geological time scales. Cell depth distributions vary in different oceanographic provinces and this is also reflected in contrasting biodiversity. Despite this there are some clear common, sub-seafloor prokaryotes, for Bacteria these are the phyla Chloroflexi, Gammaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes and the candidate phylum JS1, and for Archaea uncultivated lineages within the phylum Crenarchaeota (Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group and Marine Benthic Group B), Euryarchaeota (SAGMEG, Marine Benthic Group-D/Thermoplasmatales associated groups) and Thaumarchaeota (Marine Group I). In addition, spores, viruses and fungi have been detected, but their importance is not yet clear. Consistent with the direct demonstration of active prokaryotic cells, prokaryotes have been enriched and isolated from deep sediments and these reflect a subset of the total diversity, including spore formers that are rarely detected in DNA analyses.Activities are generally low in deep marine sediments (~10,000 times lower than in near-surface sediments), however, depth integrated activity calculations demonstrate that sub-surface sediments can be responsible for the majority of sediment activity (up to 90%), and hence, are biogeochemically important. Unlike near-surface sediments, competitive metabolisms can occur together and metabolism per cell can be 1000 times lower than in culture, and below the lowest known maintenance energies. Consistent with this, cell turnover times approach geological time-scales (100-1000s of years). Prokaryotic necromass may be an important energy and carbon source, but this is largely produced in near-surface sediments as cell numbers rapidly decrease. However, this and deposited organic matter may be activated at depth as temperatures increase. At thermogenic temperatures methane and other hydrocarbons, plus H2, acetate and CO2 may be produced and diffuse upwards to feed the base of the biosphere (e.g. Nankai Trough and Newfoundland Margin). Temperature activation of minerals may also result in oxidation of sulphides and the formation of electron acceptors, plus H2 from low temperature (~55°C) serpentenisation and water radiolysis. New mineral surface formation from fracturing, weathering and subduction etc. can also mechanochemically split water producing both substrates (H2) and oxidants (O2 and H2O2) for prokaryotes. These and other biosphere:geosphere interactions may be important for sustaining a globally significant sub-seafloor biosphere.

Pollman C.D., Axelrad D.M. Mercury bioaccumulation factors and spurious correlations // Science of The Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 496. P. vi – xii.

While bioaccumulation factors (BAF) – the ratio of biota contaminant concentrations (Cbiota) to aqueous phase contaminant concentrations (Cw) – are useful in evaluating the accumulation of mercury (Hg) and other contaminants for various trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems, reduction of the underlying relationship between Cbiota and Cw to a single ratio (BAF) has inherent risks, including spurious correlation. Despite a long and rich history of remonstrations in the literature, several very recent publications evaluating Hg-related BAFs have suffered from false conclusions based on spurious correlation, and thus it seems that periodic reminders of the causes and risks of these errors are required. Herein we cite examples and explanations for unsupported conclusions from publications where authors using BAF-Cw relationships fail to recognize the underlying statistical significance (or lack thereof) of direct relationships between Cw and Cbiota. This fundamental error leads to other problems, including ascribing mechanistic significance (e.g., mechanisms related to biota contaminant uptake) to “inverse” BAF-Cw relationships that reflect nothing more than regressing the log transformed inverse of Cw (i.e., negative log) against itself (i.e., positive log transformed), and using such regression models of BAF-Cw relationships that appear significant for predictive purposes, but are misleading. Spurious correlation arising in the analysis of BAF relationships can potentially appear in more subtle forms as well, including regressing variables such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that are correlated with Cw. We conclude that conducting a direct analysis by examining the relationship between Cbiota and Cw (or Cbiota and other variables) rather than evaluating a ratio (BAF) is less ambiguous and subject to error, more easily interpreted, and would lead to more supportable conclusions.

Ray R. et al. Biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in a tropical mangrove ecosystem, east coast of India // Marine Chemistry. 2014. Vol. 167. P. 33–43.

Like many coastal systems, nitrogen is the critical limiting factor for mangrove net production. This study used a box model approach to assess the nitrogen budget in the Sundarban mangrove ecosystem, which acts as a sink for atmospheric nitrogen in terms of NOx, NH3, N2, and water column dissolved inorganic nitrogen. The coupling of biosphere and atmosphere in terms of atmospheric NOx and NH3 uptake showed that uptake of ammonia (130?106molyr-1) was about six fold as large as that of NOx, (22?106molyr-1). The nitrogen stored by the processes such as plant uptake of NOx, NH3 from the atmosphere, nitrogen fixation (5?109molyr-1), and sediment water exchange (8?106molyr-1) was about two times as large as that of recycled nitrogen from litter (3?109molyr-1), and could account 74% of the nitrogen required for mangrove net production. Most of the nitrogen was conserved in the living biomass (living biomass: 118?103molha-1 versus soil: 3?103molha-1). The loss of nitrogen was 23% of the total amount that was conserved from the external sources in the Sundarban mangrove system. Thus, the coastal ecosystem like Sundarban mangroves could retain only 0.2% (8?106mol) of the annual river flux of nitrogen to the coastal waters and nitrogen is generally conserved within the system.

Rodrigues S.M. et al. Oral bioaccessibility and human exposure to anthropogenic and geogenic mercury in urban, industrial and mining areas // Science of The Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 496. P. 649–661.

The objective of this study was to characterize the link between bioaccessibility and fractionation of mercury (Hg) in soils and to provide insight into human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne soil particles and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing soil. Mercury in soils from mining, urban and industrial areas was fractionated in organometallic forms; mobile; semi-mobile; and non-mobile forms as well as HCl-extractable Hg. The in vitro bioaccessibility of Hg was obtained by extracting soils with (1) a simulated human gastric fluid (pH 1.5), and (2) a simulated human lung fluid (pH 7.4). Total soil Hg concentrations ranged from 0.72 to 1.8 mg kg? 1 (urban areas), 0.28 to 94 mg kg? 1 (industrial area) and 0.92 to 37 mg kg? 1 (mining areas). Both organometallic Hg as well as 0.1 M HCl extractable Hg were lower (< 0.5% of total Hg) than Hg extracted by gastric fluid (up to 1.8% of total Hg) and lung fluid (up to 12% of total Hg). In addition, Hg extracted by lung fluid was significantly higher in urban and industrial soils (average 5.0–6.6% of total Hg) compared to mining soils. Such differences were related to levels of mobile Hg species in urban and industrial soils compared to mining soils. These results strengthen the need to measure site-specific Hg fractionation when determining Hg bioaccessibility. Results also show that ingestion and/or inhalation of Hg from soil particles can contribute up to 8% of adult total Hg intake when compared to total Hg intake via consumption of contaminated fish and animal products from contaminated areas.

Sehar S. et al. Analysis of elemental concentration using ICP-AES and pathogen indicator in drinking water of Qasim Abad, District Rawalpindi, Pakistan // Environ. Monit. Assess. 2013. Vol. 185, № 2. P. 1129–1135.

The present study was conducted to investigate drinking water quality (groundwater) from water samples taken from Qasim Abad, a locality of approximately 5,000 population, situated between twin cities Rawalpindi and Islamabad in Pakistan. The main sources of drinking water in this area are water bores which are dug upto the depth of 250–280 ft in almost every house. The study consists of the determination of physico-chemical properties, trace metals, heavy metals, rare earth elements and microbiological quality of drinking water. The data showed the variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows: pH 6.75 to 8.70, electrical conductivity 540 to 855 ?S/cm, total dissolved solids 325.46 to 515.23 ppm and dissolved oxygen 1.50 to 5.64 mg/L which are within the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. The water samples were analysed for 30 elements (aluminium, iron, magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, molybdenum, titanium, chromium, nickel, tungsten, silver, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, gallium, mercury, lanthanum, niobium, neodymium, lead, selenium, samarium, tin, vanadium and zirconium) by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The organic contamination was detected in terms of most probable number (MPN) of faecal coliforms. Overall, elemental levels were lower than the recommended values but three water bores (B-1, B-6, B-7) had higher values of iron (1.6, 2.206, 0.65 ppm), two water bores (B-1, B-6) had higher values of aluminium (0.95, 1.92 ppm), respectively, and molybdenum was higher by 0.01 ppm only in one water bore (B-11). The total number of coliforms present in water samples was found to be within the prescribed limit of the WHO except for 5 out of 11 bore water samples (B-2, B-3, B-4, B-8, B-11), which were found in the range 5–35 MPN/100 mL, a consequence of infiltration of contaminated water (sewage) through cross connection, leakage points and back siphoning.

Sharif A. et al. Fate of mercury species in the coastal plume of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay, SW France) // Science of The Total Environment. 2014. Vol. 496. P. 701–713.

Because mercury (Hg) undergoes significant biogeochemical processes along the estuarine-coastal continuum, the objective of this work was to investigate the distribution and reactivity of methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and gaseous Hg (DGM) in plume waters of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay). Vertical profiles, spatial and tidal variability of Hg species concentrations were evaluated during two campaigns (April 2007 and May 2010) characterized by significant plume extents over the coastal zone. Incubations with isotopically enriched tracers were performed on bulk and filtered waters under sunlight or dark conditions to investigate processes involved in Hg methylation, demethylation and reduction rates. Total Hg(II) concentrations were more dispersed in April 2007 (5.2 ± 4.9 pM) than in May 2010 (2.5 ± 1.1 pM) while total MeHg concentrations were similar for both seasons and averaged 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.18 ± 0.11 pM, respectively. DGM concentrations were also similar between the two campaigns, averaging 0.26 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.09 pM, respectively. Methylation yields remained low within the estuarine plume (< 0.01–0.4% day? 1) while MeHg was efficiently demethylated via both biotic and abiotic pathways (2.3–55.3% day? 1), mainly photo-induced. Hg reduction was also effective in these waters (0.3–43.5% day? 1) and was occurring in both light and dark conditions. The results suggest that the plume is overall a sink for MeHg with integrated net demethylation rates, ranging from 2.0–3.7 g (Hg) d? 1, in the same range than the estimated MeHg inputs from the estuary (respectively, 0.9 and 3.5 g (Hg) d? 1). The large evasion of DGM from the plume waters to the atmosphere (8.8–26.9 g (Hg) d? 1) may also limit HgT inputs to coastal waters (33–69 g (Hg) d? 1). These processes are thus considered to be most significant in controlling the fate of Hg transferred from the river to the coastal zone.

Song Z., Muller K., Wang H. Biogeochemical silicon cycle and carbon sequestration in agricultural ecosystems // Earth-Science Reviews. 2014. Vol. 139. P. 268–278.

Global agricultural ecosystems, the largest biospheric sources of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), may turn into considerable net carbon (C) sinks through adopting management strategies advised by research. As C sequestration is usually coupled with the silicon (Si) cycle, strategic manipulation of the biogeochemical Si cycle in agricultural ecosystems offers a not yet fully explored possibility to enhance C sequestration. This review summarizes current knowledge of C sequestration coupled with the Si cycle and its management in agricultural ecosystems. Carbon sequestration is coupled with the Si cycle through many processes including dynamics of phytoliths and aggregates, and silicate weathering at different temporal and spatial scales. Cultivation of deep rooting crops, erosion mitigation with buffer strips, fertilization of Si-rich materials are some of the potential management strategies to increase both crop production and C sequestration coupled with the Si cycle. Further questions such as identifying the controlling factors of bioavailable Si pools and C sequestration, and quantifying the cost-efficiency of different management strategies to manipulate the Si cycle with the aim to enhance C sequestration should be investigated.

Staudigel H., Furnes H., Smits M. Deep biosphere record of in situ oceanic lithosphere and ophiolites // Elements. 2014. Vol. 10, № 2. P. 121–126.

Volcanic glass from pillow lavas and hyaloclastites displays distinctive alteration textures that suggest the activity of boring microbes. Analogous textures are common in volcanic sections of the seafloor, in ophiolites, and in greenstone belts up to 3.5 Ga in age. While the origin of such trace fossils remains poorly understood, they offer much potential for investigating processes in the present-day, deep-ocean, crustal biosphere and their role in biogeochemical cycles.

Stoeck T. et al. A morphogenetic survey on ciliate plankton from a mountain lake pinpoints the necessity of lineage-specific barcode markers in microbial ecology // Environmental Microbiology. 2014. Vol. 16, № 2. P. 430–444.

Analyses of high-throughput environmental sequencing data have become the 'gold-standard' to address fundamental questions of microbial diversity, ecology and biogeography. Findings that emerged from sequencing are, e.g. the discovery of the extensive 'rare microbial biosphere' and its potential function as a seed-bank. Even though applied since several years, results from high-throughput environmental sequencing have hardly been validated. We assessed how well pyrosequenced amplicons [the hypervariable eukaryotic V4 region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene] reflected morphotype ciliate plankton. Moreover, we assessed if amplicon sequencing had the potential to detect the annual ciliate plankton stock. In both cases, we identified significant quantitative and qualitative differences. Our study makes evident that taxon abundance distributions inferred from amplicon data are highly biased and do not mirror actual morphotype abundances at all. Potential reasons included cell losses after fixation, cryptic morphotypes, resting stages, insufficient sequence data availability of morphologically described species and the unsatisfying resolution of the V4 SSU rRNA fragment for accurate taxonomic assignments. The latter two underline the necessity of barcoding initiatives for eukaryotic microbes to better and fully exploit environmental amplicon data sets, which then will also allow studying the potential of seed-bank taxa as a buffer for environmental changes.

Stueken E.E. et al. The evolution of the global selenium cycle: Secular trends in Se isotopes and abundances // Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2015. Vol. 162. P. 109–125.

The Earth’s surface has undergone major transitions in its redox state over the past three billion years, which have affected the mobility and distribution of many elements. Here we use Se isotopic and abundance measurements of marine and non-marine mudrocks to reconstruct the evolution of the biogeochemical Se cycle from ?3.2 Gyr onwards. The six stable isotopes of Se are predominantly fractionated during redox reactions under suboxic conditions, which makes Se a potentially valuable new tool for identifying intermediate stages from an anoxic to a fully oxygenated world. ?82/78Se shows small fractionations of mostly less than 2‰ throughout Earth’s history and all are mass-dependent within error. In the Archean, especially after 2.7 Gyr, we find an isotopic enrichment in marine (+0.37 ± 0.27‰) relative to non-marine samples (?0.28 ± 0.67‰), paired with increasing Se abundances. Student t-tests show that these trends are statistically significant. Although we cannot completely rule out the possibility of volcanic Se addition, these trends may indicate the onset of oxidative weathering on land, followed by non-quantitative reduction of Se oxyanions during fluvial transport. The Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event (GOE) is not reflected in the marine ?82/78Se record. However, we find a major inflection in the secular ?82/78Se trend during the Neoproterozoic, from a Precambrian mean of +0.42 ± 0.45‰ to a Phanerozoic mean of ?0.19 ± 0.59‰. This drop probably reflects the oxygenation of the deep ocean at this time, stabilizing Se oxyanions throughout the water column. Since then, reduction of Se oxyanions has likely been restricted to anoxic basins and diagenetic environments in sediments. In light of recent Cr isotope data, it is likely that oxidative weathering before the Neoproterozoic produced Se oxyanions in the intermediate redox state SeIV, whereas the fully oxidized species SeVI became more abundant after the Neoproterozoic rise of atmospheric oxygen.

Wehrmann L.M., Ferdelman T.G. Biogeochemical Consequences of the Sedimentary Subseafloor Biosphere. 2014. ser.Developments in Marine Geology, Vol. 7. P. 217 - 252

The water buried with sediment comprises by volume a substantial portion of the Earth's ocean. We explore the biogeochemical consequences of microbial activity in this subseafloor sedimentary ocean, the geochemistry of those sediments, and the overall biogeochemical cycles affecting the ocean. Biogeochemical processes resulting from deep subseafloor microbial activity, principally driven by organic carbon deposition and burial, leave a fundamental imprint on the interstitial water composition, the lithogenic and biogenic components of marine sediments, for example, the formation of diagenetic carbonate phases. Such non-steady state diagenetic formation of minerals and alteration of primary components by secondary reactions of metabolic products can reveal changes of the environmental conditions in the overlying water column over geological time. Furthermore, the long-term biogeochemical evolution of deep subseafloor sediment basins will expectedly affect the redox state of the ocean over geological timescales.

Winkler R.-L. Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky — An outstanding historian of science and a pioneer of “the science of science” // Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2014. Vol. 147, Part A. P. 65–68.

The presented study examines and evaluates the work of the Russian natural scientist Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863–1945), one of the founders of the ‘science of science’. During his entire career Vernadsky's engagement with philosophical questions was strongly connected to his research as a natural scientist. The scientific background of his conceptual thinking in order to study the scientific work as a subject of ‘science of science’ from the viewpoint of natural science is discussed.

Wolf D., Muller A. Vladimir I. Vernadsky (1863-1945) and his “descriptive mineralogy” // Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2014. Vol. 147, № PA. P. 11–15.

The Russian geoscientist Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863-1945) widely known as the founder of biogeochemistry, the co-founder of geochemistry, and for authoring the concepts of the biosphere and the noosphere, began his scientific career as a mineralogist. His novel chemical-genetic perspective on the formation of minerals changed the objectives of the mineralogical sciences, but these ideas have until now been largely ignored. However, later on in his career, this novel perspective led Vernadsky to the recognition of the significance of the activity of organisms and humankind as important mineralogical and therewith geological force.

Xu B. et al. Global patterns of ecosystem carbon flux in forests: A biometric data-based synthesis // Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 2014. Vol. 28, № 9. P. 962–973.

Forest ecosystems function as a significant carbon sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, our understanding of global patterns of forest carbon fluxes remains controversial. Here we examined global patterns and environmental controls of forest carbon balance using biometric measurements derived from 243 sites and synthesized from 81 publications around the world. Our results showed that both production and respiration increased with mean annual temperature and exhibited unimodal patterns along a gradient of precipitation. However, net ecosystem production (NEP) initially increased and subsequently declined along gradients of both temperature and precipitation. Our results also indicated that ecosystem production increased during stand development but eventually leveled off, whereas respiration was significantly higher in mature and old forests than in young forests. The residual variation of carbon flux along climatic and age gradients might be explained by other factors such as atmospheric CO2 elevation and disturbances (e.g., forest fire, storm damage, and selective harvest). Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) was positively associated with net primary production (NPP), but the Rh-NPP relationship differed between natural and planted forests: Rh increased exponentially with NPP in natural forests but tended toward saturation with increased NPP in planted forests. Comparison of biometric measurements with eddy covariance observations revealed that ecosystem carbon balance derived from the latter generated higher overall NEP estimates. These results suggest that the eddy covariance observations may overestimate the strength of carbon sinks, and thus, biometric measurements need to be incorporated into global assessments of the forest carbon balance.

Zhu W. et al. Mercury vapor air-surface exchange measured by collocated micrometeorological and enclosure methods – Part I: Data comparability and method characteristics // Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2015. Vol. 15, № 2. P. 685–702.

Reliable quantification of air-biosphere exchange flux of elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) is crucial for understanding the global biogeochemical cycle of mercury. However, there has not been a standard analytical protocol for flux quantification, and little attention has been devoted to characterize the temporal variability and comparability of fluxes measured by different methods. In this study, we deployed a collocated set of micrometeorological (MM) and dynamic flux chamber (DFC) measurement systems to quantify Hg0 flux over bare soil and low standing crop in an agricultural field. The techniques include relaxed eddy accumulation (REA), modified Bowen ratio (MBR), aerodynamic gradient (AGM) as well as dynamic flux chambers of traditional (TDFC) and novel (NDFC) designs. The five systems and their measured fluxes were cross-examined with respect to magnitude, temporal trend and correlation with environmental variables. Fluxes measured by the MM and DFC methods showed distinct temporal trends. The former exhibited a highly dynamic temporal variability while the latter had much more gradual temporal features. The diurnal characteristics reflected the difference in the fundamental processes driving the measurements. The correlations between NDFC and TDFC fluxes and between MBR and AGM fluxes were significant (0.8, 0.05), but the correlation between DFC and MM fluxes were from weak to moderate (combining double low line0.1-0.5). Statistical analysis indicated that the median of turbulent fluxes estimated by the three independent MM techniques were not significantly different. Cumulative flux measured by TDFC is considerably lower (42% of AGM and 31% of MBR fluxes) while those measured by NDFC, AGM and MBR were similar (<10% difference). This suggests that incorporating an atmospheric turbulence property such as friction velocity for correcting the DFC-measured flux effectively bridged the gap between the Hg0 fluxes measured by enclosure and MM techniques. Cumulated flux measured by REA was ?60% higher than the gradient-based fluxes. Environmental factors have different degrees of impacts on the fluxes observed by different techniques, possibly caused by the underlying assumptions specific to each individual method. Recommendations regarding the application of flux quantification methods were made based on the data obtained in this study.

Zhu Y.G. et al. Mineral weathering and element cycling in soil-microorganism-plant system // Science China Earth Sciences. 2014. Vol. 57, № 5. P. 888–896.

Soil is an essential part of the critical zone, and soil-microbe-plant system serves as a key link among lithosphere, biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. As one of the habitats with the richest biodiversity, soil plays a critical role in element biogeochemistry on the earth surface (weathered crust). Here we review the soil biological processes that are relevant to mineral weathering, element cycling, and transformation, with an emphasis on rock weathering mediated by soil microbes, plant root and the rhizosphere.

Алексеева-Попова Н.В., Дроздова И.В. Микроэлементный состав растений Полярного Урала в контрастных геохимических условиях // Экология. 2013. Т. 44. № 2. С. 90-98.

Дана оценка природной изменчивости уровня микроэлементов в растениях и почвах Полярного Урала в зависимости от типа подстилающих горных пород. Атомно-абсорбционным методом определено содержание Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co в 156 видах растений из 25 семейств и в 38 образцах почв. Установлена вариабельность минерального состава растений в разных эдафических условиях. Впервые на большом фактическом материале выявлены таксономические особенности аккумуляции элементов растениями Полярного Урала.

Бузмаков С.А. Биоиндикация техногенной трансформации экосистем на территории нефтяных месторождений по состоянию микробного комплекса // Географический вестник. 2014. № 2 (29). С. 64-78.

Наиболее существенными и специфическими факторами техногенного воздействия при эксплуатации нефтяного месторождения являются, на наш взгляд, загрязнение атмосферы, поступление аварийных сбросов водонефтяной эмульсии, загрязнение водоемов и пойменных почв солеными водами. Биоиндикация направления техногенных изменений экосистемы по состоянию основных групп микроорганизмов позволяет определить стадию ее трансформации.

Ваганов Е.А., Грачев А.М., Шишов В.В., Панюшкина И.П., Левитт С.У., Кнорре А.А., Чебыкин Е.П., Меняйло О.В. Дендрохронология элементного состава как перспективное направление биогеохимии // Доклады Академии наук. 2013. Т. 453. № 6. С. 702-706.

Водяницкий Ю.Н. Загрязнение почв тяжелыми металлами и металлоидами и их экологическая опасность (аналитический обзор) // Почвоведение. 2013. № 7. С. 872-881.

Согласно современным экотоксикологическим данным опасные тяжелые металлы/металлоиды в почве образуют ряд: Se > Tl > Sb > Cd > V > Hg > Ni > Cu > Cr > As > Ba. Этот ряд отличается от известного ряда опасности тяжелых элементов, в котором опасность Pb и Zn преувеличена, а опасность V, Sb, Ba недооценена. В список опасных элементов в почве также должeн быть включен Tl. В настоящее время упор сделан на исследования тяжелых металлов/металлоидов не в городских, а в сельскохозяйственных почвах, с которых поступает загрязненная продукция, отравляющая животных и человека. Основными источниками загрязнения почв опасными тяжелыми элементами являются: аэральные выпадения из стационарных источников и средств передвижения; гидрогенное загрязнение от поступления промышленных сточных вод в водоемы; осадки сточных вод; органические и минеральные удобрения и средства защиты растений; отвалы золы, шлака, руд, шламов. Кроме влияния на растения и на почвенно-грунтовые воды, тяжелые металлы/металлоиды негативно влияют и на саму почву. Очень восприимчивы к воздействию тяжелых элементов почвенные микроорганизмы.

Водяницкий Ю.Н., Плеханова И.О. Биогеохимия тяжелых металлов в загрязненных переувлажненных почвах (аналитический обзор) // Почвоведение. 2014. № 3. С. 273-282.

Биогеохимическое поведение тяжелых металлов в загрязненных переувлажненных почвах зависит от степени развития редукции: умеренной или сильной. При умеренной биогенной редукции хрома образуются малорастворимые соединения, что уменьшает его доступность растениям и предотвращает попадание в поверхностные и грунтовые воды. Создание искусственных барьеров для закрепления хрома на загрязненных участках основано на стимуляции природных металл-редуцирующих бактерий. Металлоид с переменной валентностью мышьяк при умеренной биогенной редукции мобилизуется. Подвижность тяжелых металлов-сидерофилов с постоянной валентностью в условиях умеренной редукции возрастает за счет растворения (гидр)оксидов железа, как носителей этих металлов. Исключение составляет цинк, способный входить в решетку новообразованного гетита. Глубокие восстановительные процессы в органогенных переувлажненных и затапливаемых почвах (обычно обогащенных серой) ведут к образованию малорастворимых сульфидов тяжелых элементов с переменной валентностью (As) и с постоянной: Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb. При изменении водного режима переувлажненных почв, их осушении, сульфиды тяжелых металлов окисляются, а ранее закрепленные металлы мобилизуются.

Водяницкий Ю.Н., Шоба С.А. Биогеохимия железа в переувлажненных почвах (аналитический обзор) // Почвоведение. 2013. № 9. С. 1047-1059.

Биологически индуцируемые превращения железа существенно меняют его геохимию в переувлажненных почвах. Под действием бактерий железоредукторов развивается деструкция гидроксидов железа и (или) Fe-филлосиликатов. Изменение микроорганизмами подвижности железа опосредованно действует на сопряженные с ней превращения кремния, углерода и других элементов. Биогенная редукция высокожелезистых филлосиликатов может приводить к их распаду, высвобождению кремния и образованию Si-глобул, иногда представленных тридимитом ?-SiО2. В условиях низкого значения редокс-потенциала Еh ощутимые размеры приобретает синтез биогенных Fe(II)-минералов в почве: магнетита и сидерита. При временном повышении редокс-потенциала Еh в гидроморфных почвах бактерии участвуют в синтезе наименее упорядоченных гидроксидов железа: ферригидрита и ферроксигита. Влияние ризосферы на окисление Fe2+ в переувлажненных почвах определяется как диффузией кислорода из корня и созданием очагов с высоким значением редокс-потенциала, так и участием Fe-окисляющих бактерий. В гидроморфных почвах ризосфера при сильном окислении почвы способна “цементироваться”, образуя ферригидритсодержащие роренштейны, в которых накопленные тяжелые элементы инактивируются и выводятся из биологического круговорота.

Водяницкий Ю.Н., Шоба С.А. Современные методы анализа в биогеохимии почв // Вестник Московского университета. Серия 17: Почвоведение. 2013. № 4. С. 21-31.

Развитие биогеохимии почв идет по пути изучения не только поведения атомов в почвах и ландшафтах, но и соединений: молекул, органо-минеральных комплексов, кристаллических образований, а также биоты. Их изучение потребовало от биогеохимиков-почвоведов привлечения новых экспериментальных методов. Наилучшие результаты показали электронная микроскопия и спектральные методы — ядерный гамма-резонанс, ядерный магнитный резонанс и рентгеновская абсорбционная спектроскопия на основе синхротронного излучения. Они позволили получить новые сведения о роли биоты в геохимии многих химических элементов в составе как минеральной, так и органической части почвы. Приведены последние важнейшие результаты этих исследований в разных регионах мира.

Ворошилова М.В., Коростовенко В.В., Степанов А.Г., Галайко А.В. Биоиндикация изменения качества воды реки Ангара при разрядно-импульсной обработке промстоков обогатительного производства // Вестник Магнитогорского государственного технического университета им. Г.И. Носова. 2014. № 2 (46). С. 16-20.

Большая концентрация промышленных предприятий, расположенных в Нижнем Приангарье, приводит к серьезному осложнению экологической ситуации. Анализ структурных характеристик зообентоса водоема с помощью методов биоиндикации подтвердил высокий уровень загрязнения реки примесями техногенного характера. В статье приведены результаты исследований по возможности применения разрядно-импульсной обработки (РИО) сточных вод с целью их очистки и дальнейшего использования в оборотном водоснабжении. Установлено, что использование РИО для очистки промстоков горно-обогатительных предприятий позволит значительно интенсифицировать процессы осаждения дисперсных примесей, эффективно удалять органические соединения. Применение данной технологии очистки дает возможность улучшить качественные и количественные показатели зообентоса Ангары, организовать эффективную систему замкнутого водооборота, сократить потребление свежей воды.

Ганин Г.Н. Биоиндикация загрязнения почв Нижнего Приамурья с помощью мезопедобионтов // Сибирский экологический журнал. 2012. Т. 19. № 6. С. 785-791.

В местах локального загрязнения почвы тяжелыми металлами (ТМ) у малозольных высокобелковых мезопедобионтов (олигохеты, губоногие многоножки, некоторые жесткокрылые) с наименьшими фоновыми концентрациями Pb, Zn, Co, Sr чаще, чем у других беспозвоночных, фиксируется в биомассе повышение уровня этих поллютантов. Такие животные являются наиболее чувствительными к ТМ, а их массовые виды могут быть биоиндикаторами. Коэффициент биологического поглощения непригоден для экологического контроля. Для этих целей в пределах того же геохимического фона необходим “биоиндикатор-контроль”. Это имеет определяющее значение при нормировании предельной техногенной нагрузки на почву.

Дузбаева М.Б., Панин М.С. Отличительные особенности физиономических признаков древесной растительности в условиях промышленных городов Усть-Каменогорска и Зыряновска Республики Казахстан // Сибирский экологический журнал. 2012. Т. 19. № 2. С. 213-219.

Дана сравнительная характеристика ответных физиономических реакций (классов хлорозов, некрозов и сквозистости крон) древесной растительности в промышленных городах Усть-Каменогорске и Зыряновске. Выявлены закономерности изменения функционального состояния зеленых насаждений от степени озеленения, видового состава и структуры насаждений, санитарно-гигиенического ухода, объема поступающих загрязняющих веществ в атмосферу и масштаба города.

Емец В.М. Эпигеобионтная мезофауна как биоиндикатор состояния почвенных экосистем в сосняках Воронежского заповедника // Вестник Тамбовского университета. Серия: Естественные и технические науки. 2014. Т. 19. № 5. С. 1276-1279.

Дана оценка состояния в 2010-2013 гг. почвенной экосистемы сосняка Воронежского заповедника, подвергнувшегося пожару в 2008 г. Проведен анализ многолетних данных (1995-2008, 2010-2013) о плотности и структуре эпигеобионтной мезофауны (комплекса крупных беспозвоночных, населяющих подстилку и поверхностный слой почвы). По показателям эпигеобионтной мезофауны состояние почвенной экосистемы в сосняке в 2010, 2012 и 2013 гг. оценено как удовлетворительное, в 2011 г. - как благоприятное.

Ермаков В.В. Геохимическая экология и биогеохимические критерии оценки экологического состояния таксонов биосферы // Геохимия. 2015. № 3. С. 203-221.

Статья посвящена формированию и развитию современного научного направления геохимической экологии как базиса биогеохимического нормирования. Рассмотрены место геохимической экологии в системе экологических наук и основные ее положения (биогеохимические пищевые цепи и параметры, биогенная миграция химических элементов, реакции организмов, включая гомеостаз, биоритмы, пороговые концентрации химических элементов и др.). Представлены новые данные о вкладе геохимической экологии в решение вопросов биогеохимического нормирования и районирования, профилактики биогеохимических эндемий и микроэлементозов. Подчеркивается актуальность проблем геохимической экологии, особенно в связи с техногенной эволюцией таксонов биосферы.

Зубкова Т.А., Карпачевский Л.О., Ашинов Ю.Н. Почва как фактор здоровья человека // Пространство и Время. 2013. № 2 (12). С. 207-218.

Среди природных факторов, влияющих на возникновение заболеваний человека, выделяются климатические, биологические, литогенные и почвенные. На почву приходится основная масса поллютантов, которые аккумулируются в верхних корнеобитаемых горизонтах, поэтому главную функцию почв, плодородие, необходимо рассматривать совместно с санитарными функциями. Приведен анализ данных по отдельным заболеваниям населения в Республике Адыгее, показавший наличие корреляции с качеством почвенного покрова.

Калинкина Н.М., Белкина Н.А., Полякова Т.Н., Сярки М.Т. Биоиндикация состояния глубоководных участков Петрозаводской губы Онежского озера по показателям макрозообентоса // Водные ресурсы. 2013. Т. 40. № 5. С. 488-495.

Разработан амфиподно-олигохетный индекс для оценки состояния макрозообентоса глубоководных районов Онежского оз. По величине индекса участки дна Петрозаводской губы, находящиеся под влиянием коммунально-бытовых сточных вод, нефтебазы, рек в черте города, а также крупного притока Онежского оз. (р. Шуи), характеризуются высокой степенью трансформации сообщества зообентоса и наибольшим загрязнением. В центральной части Петрозаводской губы и на ее северном берегу сохраняется естественное соотношение основных групп зообентоса (амфипод и олигохет), но их численность увеличена в десятки раз по сравнению с фоновыми участками Онежского оз. Обнаружена достоверная связь между значениями амфиподно-олигохетного индекса и величиной окислительно-восстановительного потенциала верхнего слоя донных отложений.

Капитальчук И.П., Капитальчук М.В., Голубкина Н.А. О взаимосвязи микроэлементов Se, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd в компонентах экосистем долины Днестра // Проблемы региональной экологии. 2011. № 6. С. 174-180.

Представлены результаты оценки взаимосвязи микроэлементов Se, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd в почвах и растениях. Рассмотрено также влияние этих элементов, содержащихся в почве, на величину аккумуляции их растениями.

Кашин В.К. Особенности накопления микроэлементов степной растительностью Западного Забайкалья // Агрохимия. 2014. № 6. С. 69-76.

Определены средние содержания и диапазоны их варьирования для 17 микроэлементов в растительности степных ландшафтов Западного Забайкалья. По интенсивности биологического поглощения из почвы растительностью Мо, Zn, B, Cu отнесены к группе с высокой; Li, Mn - со средней; Be, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zr, Ba, Pb - с низкой интенсивностью. Для V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ba, Pb установлена корреляционная связь между их содержанием в растительности и почве (r = 0.51-0.82). Выявлен дефицит в растительности Zn, Cu, B и повышенное содержание Fe, Mo, Ba, Sr.

Клевцова М.А., Виноградов П.М. Биоиндикация состояния городской среды по реакциям древесных растений (на примере г. Воронежа) // Экологические системы и приборы. 2015. № 2. С. 3-12.

Представлены результаты оценки флуктуирующей асимметрии листовой пластинки тополя пирамидального (Populus pyramidalis), произрастающего в различных функциональных зонах г. Воронежа. Обнаружено изменение показателей асимметрии морфологических признаков и интегральной величины флуктуирующей асимметрии листа, что связано с влиянием стрессовых факторов городской среды. Интегральный показатель асимметрии варьирует в пределах от 0,052 до 0,114. Точность измерений - достаточная (критерий репрезентативности Р<5 %). В промышленно-транспортных районах отмечен рост показателей флуктуирующей асимметрии, что свидетельствует о нарушении стабильности развития древесных растений. Общее распределение величины флуктуирующей асимметрии как явления, характерного для района исследования, описано уравнением полиномиальной кривой 4-й степени. Используемый биоиндикационный метод позволяет оценить комплексное воздействие загрязнителей на живые организмы и имеет большое значение в экологическом мониторинге. По результатам проведенных исследований составлены карты распределения величины флуктуирующей асимметрии на территории города.

Кондратьева Л.М., Фишер Н.К., Бардюк В.В. Биоиндикация трансграничного загрязнения реки Амур ароматическими углеводородами после техногенной аварии в Китае // Сибирский экологический журнал. 2012. Т. 19. № 2. С. 245-252.

Обсуждается использование методов биоиндикации в оценке экологического риска при загрязнении водных экосистем углеводородами. Анализируются последствия трансграничного загрязнения экосистемы р. Амур производными бензола после техногенной аварии на нефтехимическом заводе в КНР. Рассматриваются ответные реакции микробных комплексов, участвующих в самоочищении природных вод, и аккумуляция токсичных веществ в рыбе.

Коркин С.Е., Коркина Е.А., Сторчак Т.В., Ходжаева Г.К.К. Геоэкологический мониторинг на территории природного парка "Сибирские увалы" // Ответственный редактор Коркин С.Е.. Нижневартовск, 2014. Сер. Выпуск 6 Региональная география. Серия научных трудов и монографий

В коллективной монографии представлены результаты геоэкологических исследований, результаты гидрологических, геохимических наблюдений поверхностных вод, донных отложений и подземных вод, мониторинга береговых деформаций, почвенного и растительного покрова, дана оценка природно-климатических условий, а также анализ состояния природных объектов в сравнении с предыдущими годами по результатам наблюдений. Для специалистов в области управления природопользованием, работников проектных и научно-исследовательских организаций, преподавателей и аспирантов, занимающихся проблемами природопользования, а также студентов, обучающихся по направлениям «Экология и природопользование», «Природообустройство и водопользованиe» и другим смежным направлениям.

Коробова Е.М. О принципах биогеохимического районирования в свете представлений В.И. Вернадского о пространственной организованности биосферы // Вестник Тамбовского университета. Серия: Естественные и технические науки. 2013. Т. 18. № 3. С. 974-977.

Предложено рассматривать возникновение современных эндемических заболеваний как следствие формирования ноосферы и выделять два фактора и два этапа возникновения негативных биологических реакций: 1) этап колонизации, когда заболевания обусловливались миграцией на территории с экологически неоптимальными условиями обитания; 2) этап техногенеза, когда к фактору переселения добавился фактор искусственного изменения геохимических условий среды обитания. Предложен новый подход к биогеохимическому районированию и картографированию ноосферы, заключающийся в рассмотрении ноосферы как двуслойной системы, включающей природную и техногенную составляющие. На примере Брянской области показано, что данный подход к биогеохимическому районированию позволяет не только пространственно анализировать эколого-геохимическую ситуацию, но и создавать карты риска для целей адресной профилактики распространения эндемических заболеваний.

Куликова Н.Н., Сайбаталова Е.В., Бойко С.М., Семитуркина Н.А., Белозерова О.Ю., Мехоношин А.С., Тимошкин О.А., Сутурин А.Н. Биогеохимия корковых губок сем. Lubomirskiidae (Южный Байкал) // Геохимия. 2013. № 4. С. 366-377.

Методом масс-спектрометрии с индуктивно-связанной плазмой установлено, что в химическом элементном составе корковых губок кроме Si преобладают P, Al, Fe, Ca, S, Mg, K, Na, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ti, Ba, Br. Губки относительно водной среды наиболее интенсивно концентрируют Al > Cu > Ti > РЗЭ > Mn > P. В сравнении с грубообломочными донными отложениями любомирскииды являются концентраторами Cu > I > Cd > P > Br > As S. Установлено, что одним из источников поступления в водную среду элементов, необходимых для жизнедеятельности губок, является каменный субстрат.

Кутявина Т.И., Домнина Е.А., Ашихмина Т.Я. Оценка качества воды Омутнинского водохранилища с использованием физико-химических и биоиндикационных методов // Проблемы региональной экологии. 2014. № 1. С. 131-137.

Представлены результаты комплексного исследования водохранилища, образованного более 200 лет назад. Приведена гидрохимическая характеристика, вычислены комбинаторный и удельный комбинаторный индексы загрязнения воды, определен класс качества воды. Приведены результаты изучения высшей водной растительности в водохранилище. Отмечено горизонтальное и вертикальное распределение высших водных растений, наличие и распространение по акватории видов-индикаторов загрязнения воды. Представлены результаты альгологического анализа. Дана оценка качества воды по физико-химическим и биоиндикационным параметрам, отмечены признаки эвтрофирования водоема.

Литвинович А.В., Лаврищев А.В., Павлова О.Ю., Ковлева А.О. Последствия применения конверсионного мела для мелиорации кислых почв: стронций в системе дерново-подзолистая почва-растение // Почвоведение. 2013. № 9. С. 1138-1150.

В длительном (5 лет) вегетационном опыте с известкованием проведено изучение скорости растворения конверсионного мела, используемого в широком интервале доз. Установлено, что полное разложение мела, вносимого в почву в больших количествах, достигается на третий-четвертый годы после его применения. Выявлено, что увеличение концентрации доступного для растений стронция в почве сосудов опыта продолжается до полного растворения мела (3-4 года), далее незначительно уменьшаясь. Дана оценка уровня загрязнения почвы в различных вариантах опыта. Показано, что доза вносимого мела оказывает решающее значение на поступление в растения стронция. Выявлены различия в накоплении стронция рапсом в год применения мела и на третий-четвертый годы его последействия. Установлено, что переход кальция в зерно и солому ячменя, а стронция в солому ячменя протекает по безбарьерному типу, а стронция в зерно ячменя по барьерному типу. Проведено ранжирование различных видов сельскохозяйственных растений по их способности накапливать стронций в своих тканях. Представлены данные содержания стронция в вегетативных и генеративных органах различных сортов яровой пшеницы. Приведены величины кальций-стронциевого отношения и коэффициенты накопления стронция растениями из различных биологических семейств. Рассчитаны коэффициенты дискриминации при поступлении кальция и стронция в растения. Сделан вывод, что произвесткованная мелом почва будет и дальше генерировать потоки стронция в растения.

Литвинович А.В., Павлова О.Ю., Лаврищев А.В., Плылова И.А. Пространственная неоднородность содержания стабильного стронция в целинной и пахотной дерново-подзолистых почвах и роль гумусовых веществ в его закреплении // Агрохимия. 2012. № 4. С. 77-83.

Изучена пространственная неоднородность содержания обменного стабильного стронция в дерно во-подзолистых почвах. Показано, что длительное сельскохозяйственное использование привело к накоплению Sr в пахотной почве. Выявлена средней силы положительная корреляционная связь между величинами содержания гумуса и стронция в почве в отдельных точках поля. Известкование почв конверсионным мелом, содержащим 1.5% стабильного стронция, в условиях вегетационного опыта не повлияло на общее содержание гумуса в почве. В составе гумуса увеличилось количество фракции ГК-2 при одновременном снижении содержания фракции ГК-1. Отношение СГК:СФК расширилось с 0.9 в контрольном варианте до 1.1 в известкованном варианте. Установле но, что ведущая роль в составе гумуса в связывании Sr принадлежит фракции ГК-1. Рассмотрен возможный механизм закрепления стронция гуминовыми кислотами.

Луговская Л.А., Межова Л.А. Биоиндикация геоэкологических условий с использованием дуба черешчатого ( Quercus robur L.) для мониторинга среды // Проблемы региональной экологии. 2012. № 2. С. 173-178.

Проанализирована возможность использования для мониторинга состояния среды метода флуктуирующей асимметрии параметров листовой пластины дуба ( Quercus robur L.) для целей биоиндикации. Выявлен диапазон колебания признака под влиянием естественных экологических факторов и предложена шкала оценки качества среды обитания.

Лукашин В.Н., Новигатский А.Н. О химическом составе аэрозолей в приводном слое атмосферы Среднего Каспия зимой и осенью 2005 г. // Океанология. 2013. Т. 53. № 6. С. 813-824.

Рассматривается химический состав (43 элемента) аэрозолей над Каспийским морем. Проанализировано 9 проб, полученных зимой и осенью 2005 г. Аэрозоли рассматриваются как геологический материал, поступающий в море из атмосферы. Выделены основные компоненты, составляющие аэрозоли, рассчитана степень концентрирования в них ряда микроэлементов относительно их содержаний в литосфере. Такие элементы, как Se, Cd, Sb, Au, Pb концентрируются на 1-2 порядка величины, что авторы связывают с загрязнениями. Приведена корреляционная матрица для исследуемых элементов, выявлены связи элементов с основными компонентами аэрозолей.

Ляпина Е.Е. Ртуть в аэрозолях г. Томска // Оптика атмосферы и океана. 2013. Т. 26. № 6 (293). С. 490-493.

Техногенное геохимическое преобразование атмосферного воздуха урбанизированных территорий – один из актуальных вопросов современной экологии. Наиболее чутким, доступным и достоверным индикатором уровня загрязнения атмосферного воздуха и площади распространения потоков загрязняющих веществ в условиях города является снеговой покров.

Опекунова М.Г., Башарин Р.А. Применение флуктуирующей асимметрии листьев березы (Betula pubescens Ehrh. ) для оценки загрязнения окружающей среды в районе Костомукши // Вестник Санкт-Петербургского университета. Серия 7: Геология. География. 2014. № 3. С. 58-70.

В статье представлены результаты исследований флуктуирующей асимметрии (ФА) листьев березы ( Betula pubescens Ehrh. ), произрастающей на северо-западе РФ в северной тайге на фоновых и антропогенно нарушенных участках в районе Костомукши (Республика Карелия). Показано, что уровень ФА на территории заповедника «Костомукшский» и в г. Костомукша существенно варьируется в зависимости от условий местообитания и комплексного воздействия природных и антропогенных факторов. Четкой связи между показателем стабильности развития березы по флуктуирующей асимметрии и накоплением в листьях тяжелых металлов (Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Pb и Cd) не наблюдается. Показатель ФА возрастает как при ухудшении микроклиматических условий местообитания, так и при увеличении суммарного показателя загрязнения почвы, зольности и суммарного содержания в листьях Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni и Cr. Делается вывод о том, что метод может быть использован для диагностики техногенной трансформации ландшафтов только в комплексе с определением химического состава почв и биомассы растений. Достоверные результаты экологического мониторинга могут быть получены только при анализе материала, собранного с достаточного количества эталонных площадей (ЭП), отвечающего требованиям математической статистики.

Рафикова Ю.С., Семенова И.Н., Дровосекова И.В. Выявляемость некоторых дисмикроэлементозов у населения, проживающего в техногенных биогеохимических зонах Республики Башкортостан (на примере г. Сибай) // Успехи современного естествознания. 2014. № 2. С. 36-39.

Изучена выявляемость некоторых микроэлементозов, обусловленных дисбалансом эссенциальных гемопоэтических микроэлементов – железа, меди и цинка – у лиц, постоянно проживающих в городе Сибай Республики Башкортостан, расположенном в техногенной медно-цинковой биогеохимической зоне с повышенным содержанием тяжелых металлов в объектах окружающей среды. Показано, что среднее содержание Cu в волосах изученных лиц составило 13,8±3,5 мг/кг, Zn – 241,6±111,4 мг/кг, Fe – 30,2±14,5 мг/кг. 4,8?% мужчин и 40,0?% женщин имели повышенный уровень меди в волосах, у 6,7?% женщин этот показатель был сниженным..У 4,8?% мужчин и 20,0?% женщин содержание цинка в волосах было ниже биологически допустимого уровня, у 47,6?% мужчин и 40,0?% женщин этот показатель было выше нормы. Среднее значение содержания железа в волосах женщин составляло 40,3±15,8,что достоверно превышало значение этого показателя у мужчин (23,0±7,7).

Сарахова М.А., Якимов А.В., Шекихачев Х.Х., Жангоразов К.Г., Львов В.Д., Ефимова Т.Н., Машукова Б.С. Оценка современного экологического состояния бассейна реки Терек методом биоиндикации (Кабардино-Балкарская Республика, северные склоны Центрального Кавказа) // Вестник Астраханского государственного технического университета. Серия: Рыбное хозяйство. 2014. № 3. С. 52-58.

Биоиндикация позволяет получить данные, которые характеризуют реакцию водных биоценозов на различные формы антропогенного воздействия. Благодаря продолжительным жизненным циклам, стабильной локализации на местах обитания, наиболее показательным индикатором, отражающим состояние гидроэкосистемы, является зообентос. Из рек Кабардино-Балкарской Республики за 2003-2013 гг. было отобрано более 2000 гидробиологических проб. Качество поверхностных вод определялось биоиндикационным методом Пантле - Бука в модификации Сладечека. Гидробиологические исследования на 12 реках бассейна р. Терек в пределах Кабардино-Балкарской Республики позволили установить, что перечень видов, численность и биомасса бентосных животных, соотношение требовательных и менее требовательных к чистоте воды видов меняются по ходу течения рек, следуя естественным изменениям условий жизни и нарастающему сверху вниз антропогенному влиянию. В верхних створах ледниковых рек доминируют ксено- и олигосапробные беспозвоночные - комары-звонцы подсемейства Orthocladiinae - Diamesa sp., Eukiefferiella sp., Orthocladius sp., ручейники Drusus sp. и Rhyacophila sp., веснянки Protonemura sp., Amphinemura sp., Taeniopteryx sp., Perla sp., Pontoperla sp., Isoperla sp. и др., поденки Epeorus sp., Baetis группы tricolor, толкунчики, болотницы Dicranota sp. и Hexatoma sp., сетчатокрылые комары, мошки и некоторые другие. В створах среднего и нижнего течения рек при наличии источников органического загрязнения указанных бентонтов заменяют поденки Baetis группы rhodani, комары-звонцы подсемейств Chironomidae и Tanypodinae, комаров-долгоножек Tipula sp., нематоды и, прежде всего, олигохеты.

Сысо А.И., Колпащиков Л.А., Ермолов Ю.В., Черевко А.С., Сиромля Т.И. Элементный химический состав почв и растений Западного Таймыра // Сибирский экологический журнал. 2014. Т. 21. № 6. С. 855-862.

Изучено содержание химических элементов в почвах и растениях тундры Западного Таймыра и определены природные факторы, влияющие на концентрацию элементов в почвах и растениях. Показано нативно высокое содержание Be, Cu, Mn, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, Zn в почвах, обусловленное наличием в регионе полиметаллических рудопроявлений, и повышенное накопление растениями Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd в условиях кислой реакции среды и избыточного увлажнения почв.

Устюжанина О.А., Стрельцов А.Б. Сравнительный анализ морфологической изменчивости и стабильности развития на популяционном уровне // Проблемы региональной экологии. 2014. № 1. С. 250-253.

В ходе исследования был проведен сравнительный анализ результатов фенетических исследований и исследований стабильности развития земноводных. Цель работы выяснить приоритетность какого-либо из этих подходов или пригодность обоих для оценки качества среды. В ходе исследования выявлена сходная тенденция возрастания значений доли редких морф и значений коэффициента асимметрии вблизи населенных пунктов. Полового диморфизма в распределении встречаемости возможных фенов не выявлено. Можно предположить, что показатель стабильности развития по коэффициенту асимметрии является более удобным и чувствительным параметром оценки здоровья среды по сравнению с долей редких морф.

Уфимцева М.Д. Закономерности накопления химических элементов высшими растениями и их реакции в аномальных биогеохимических провинциях // Геохимия. 2015. Т. 53. № 5. С. 450-465.

В статье дан анализ закономерностей формирования элементного состава растений в связи с особенностями ландшафтно-геохимических условий при различном типе климата и в зависимости от их систематической принадлежности. Большое внимание уделено растениям-гипераккумуляторам, образующими специализированные эндемичные флоры в аномальных биогеохимических провинциях с избытком микроэлементов. Проблема металлоустойчивости растений ? комплексная проблема. В рамках рассматриваемого направления металлоустойчивые растения представляют научный интерес, являясь очагами возникновения новых разновидностей (эволюционный аспект). Различные ответные реакции (флористические, физиономические, и др.), отмечаемые у растений на месторождениях, являются индикаторами при поисках руд. Показано использование гипераккумуляторы при фиторемедиации загрязненных земель.

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