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Радиационная защита и радиационная безопасность в ядерных технологиях

Журнальные статьи

1.U45586
Bakht M.K., Sadeghi M., Tenreiro C. A novel technique for simultaneous diagnosis and radioprotection by radioactive cerium oxide nanoparticles: study of cyclotron production of Ce-137m // Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. 2012. Vol. 292, № 1. P. 53–59.

Application of nanoparticles in nuclear medicine has aimed to develop diagnosis and therapeutic techniques. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) are expected to be useful for protection of healthy tissue from radiation-induced harm and could serve therapeutic function. Among a variety of cerium radioisotopes, Ce-137m (T (1/2) = 34.4 h, IT (99.22%), beta(+) (0.779%)) could be a novel candidate radionuclide in the field of diagnosis owing to its appropriate half-life, 99.91% natural abundance of target and its intense gamma line at 254.29 keV. In this study, Ce-137m excitation function via the La-nat(p,3n) reaction was calculated by TALYS-1.2 and EMPIRE-3 codes. The excitation function calculations demonstrated that the La-nat(p,3n)Ce-137m reaction leads to the formation of the Ce-136/138 isotopic contamination in the 22-35 MeV energy range. Interestingly, the isotopic impurities of Ce-137m could serve radio protector function. Overall results indicate that the cyclotron produced (CeO2)-Ce-137m nanoparticles by irradiation of a target encompassing lanthanum oxide nanoparticles could be a potent alternative for conventional diagnostic radionuclides with simultaneous radioprotection capacity.

2.U62670
Benetskii B.A. On the Distribution of the Injury Severity during Radiation Accidents and the Human Ability to Ignore Radiation Risk // Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute. 2012. Vol. 39, № 1. P. 21–25.

The paper is devoted to nuclear reactor accidents, radiation injuries during accidents, and the so-called "human factor". The balance equation of dose characteristics in the human body and environment is presented. It is attempted to quantitatively estimate the relative variability of the human ability to ignore radiation risk.

3.U00903
Buyuk B., Tugrul A. B., Aktop S., Addemir A. O. Investigation on the Effects of Boron Carbide Particle Size on Radiation Shielding Properties of Boron Carbide-Titanium Diboride Composites // Acta Physica Polonica A. 2013. Vol. 123, № 2. P. 177-179.

Boron carbide is a material which has wide application areas in industry including nuclear technology. Titanium diboride boron carbide composites which were produced from different boron carbide particle sizes were studied for searching of the behaviour against the gamma ray. Micron size and submicron size boron carbide were used to produce composite materials. The volume of boron carbide and titanium diboride in the composites are 85% and 15%, respectively. For the investigation of the gamma radiation behaviour of these materials, Cs-137 radioisotope was used as gamma source in the experiments which has a single gamma-peak at 0.662 MeV. Gamma transmission technique was used for the measurements. The effects of boron carbide particle size on radiation attenuation of titanium diboride-boron carbide composites were evaluated in relation with gamma transmission and the results of the experiments were interpreted and compared with each other. It could be understood that decrease of particle size of boron carbide in boron carbide-titanium diboride composites causes higher linear and mass attenuation coefficient values. So, submicron size boron carbide used composite materials are more convenient than micron size boron carbide used composite materials as radiation shielding materials for nuclear applications.

4.U45586
Chaves T.O. et al. Calibration of the LNMRI Secondary Standard Ionization Chamber for I-131 capsules used in nuclear medicine // Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. 2012. Vol. 293, № 1. P. 211–216.

The radionuclide I-131 has been increasingly used in nuclear medicine therapy procedures. Nowadays, the I-131 source administered to the patient is manufactured in two different geometries: solution and capsules. The purpose of this study is the accurate measurement of the activity present in a I-131 capsule without destroys it. The methodology to determine the capsules activity is to obtain the calibration factor of an IG12 secondary standard activity measurement system based on the IG12 well-type ionization chamber set up at Brazilian national metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation (LNMRI) of institute of radiation protection and dosimetry (IRD).The result obtained, 6.4670 +/- A 0.0381 x 10(-18) A Bq(-1), is quite similar to the calibration factor of the I-131 solution contained in the standard ampoule geometry, 6.4515 +/- A 0.0368 x 10(-18) A Bq(-1). After obtaining the calibration factor it was used to measure I-131 therapy capsules in order to check the performance of radionuclide calibrators of some Brazilian nuclear medicine centers.

5.U45586
Corcoran E.C. et al. A performance study of radio-opaque personal protective fabrics for the reduction of transmittance of gamma-rays and neutrons // Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. 2012. Vol. 291, № 1. P. 251–256.

Commercial radio-opaque combat (CRC) fabrics, for incorporation into personal protective equipment used by first responders and armed forces, are marketed as having the ability to provide a level of protection against specific types of radiation. For a CRC material, a standard combat uniform and a multi-layered chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear (CBRN) protective material, the present work examines chemical composition and radiation protection against gamma-rays and neutron fluxes. Significant reduction in gamma-ray transmittance occurs only for the CRC fabric (46-514 keV) with gamma-ray attenuation coefficients of 3.10 to < 0.10 cm(2) g(-1). Reduction in neutron transmittance, for all three fabrics, could not be assessed with certainty as the measured transmittance was obscured by large statistical uncertainties.

6.U4705X
Fan S. et al. DIM (3,3 ’-diindolylmethane) confers protection against ionizing radiation by a unique mechanism // Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2013. Vol. 110, № 46. P. 18650–18655.

DIM (3,3'-diindolylmethane), a small molecule compound, is a proposed cancer preventive agent that can be safely administered to humans in repeated doses. We report that administration of DIM in a multidose schedule protected rodents against lethal doses of total body irradiation up to 13 Gy, whether DIM dosing was initiated before or up to 24 h after radiation. Physiologic submicromolar concentrations of DIM protected cultured cells against radiation by a unique mechanism: DIM caused rapid activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a nuclear kinase that regulates responses to DNA damage (DDR) and oxidative stress. Subsequently, multiple ATM substrates were phosphorylated, suggesting that DIM induces an ATM-dependent DDR-like response, and DIM enhanced radiation-induced ATM signaling and NF-kappa B activation. DIM also caused activation of ATM in rodent tissues. Activation of ATM by DIM may be due, in part, to inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, an upstream regulator of ATM. In contrast, DIM did not protect human breast cancer xenograft tumors against radiation under the conditions tested. In tumors, ATM was constitutively phosphorylated and was not further stimulated by radiation and/or DIM. Our findings suggest that DIM is a potent radioprotector and mitigator that functions by stimulating an ATM-driven DDR-like response and NF-kappa B survival signaling.

7.U4705X
Fisher N.S. et al. Evaluation of radiation doses and associated risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident to marine biota and human consumers of seafood // Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2013. Vol. 110, № 26. P. 10670–10675.

Radioactive isotopes originating from the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactor in Japan following the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 were found in resident marine animals and in migratory Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT). Publication of this information resulted in aworldwide response that caused public anxiety and concern, although PBFT captured off California in August 2011 contained activity concentrations below those from naturally occurring radionuclides. To link the radioactivity to possible health impairments, we calculated doses, attributable to the Fukushima-derived and the naturally occurring radionuclides, to both the marine biota and human fish consumers. We showed that doses in all cases were dominated by the naturally occurring alpha-emitter Po-210 and that Fukushima-derived doses were three to four orders of magnitude below Po-210-derived doses. Doses to marine biota were about two orders of magnitude below the lowest benchmark protection level proposed for ecosystems (10 mu Gy.h(-1)). The additional dose from Fukushima radionuclides to humans consuming tainted PBFT in the United States was calculated to be 0.9 and 4.7 mu Sv for average consumers and subsistence fishermen, respectively. Such doses are comparable to, or less than, the dose all humans routinely obtain from naturally occurring radionuclides in many food items, medical treatments, air travel, or other background sources. Although uncertainties remain regarding the assessment of cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation to humans, the dose received from PBFT consumption by subsistence fishermen can be estimated to result in two additional fatal cancer cases per 10,000,000 similarly exposed people.

8.U12826
Kase K. R., Metcalf P. ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION ASSOCIATION // Health Physics. 2011. Vol. 100, № 1. P. 103-106.

Global concerns over energy supply and climate change have given rise to an increase in uranium prospecting, mining and extraction. The changing world economy is spreading the use of advanced nuclear and radiation-related technologies to many parts of the world, giving rise to global initiatives on nuclear energy and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The emerging global nuclear safety regime promotes and encourages high standards of radiation safety worldwide. These developments call for increasing capacity and capabilities in radiation protection expertise and continue to present both challenges and opportunities to the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), an association of 46 societies representing 58 countries with an individual membership of approximately 17,000. IRPA's objectives include: (1) assisting the development of competent radiation protection programs; (2) fostering the exchange of scientific and technical information through its international and regional congresses; (3) promoting the scientific and professional recognition of the radiation protection expert; and (4) supporting continuing education programs at each IRPA congress. IRPA has adopted a Code of Ethics and Guiding Principles for the Conduct of Stakeholder Engagement. Recently work began to develop guidance for maintaining and improving current levels of radiation protection and transferring this culture to future radiation protection professionals. These IRPA projects are developed through the Associate Society Forum discussions that are held at each IRPA international and regional congress. Finally, IRPA maintains a close working relationship with various international organizations and is also represented on the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety.

9.U59131
Nedveckaite T. et al. Lietdos-Bio Assessment Approach to the Environment Non-Human Biota Exposure by Ionizing Radiation // Lithuanian Journal of Physics. 2010. Vol. 50, № 1. P. 151–160.

The increasing public concern over environmental hazards has led to the emergence of a variety of national and international legal commitments for the environment protection. The LIETDOS-BIO assessment approach to Environment protection from ionizing radiation is being developed to address contamination issues associated with nuclear power production and radioactive waste disposal in Lithuania. The LIETDOS-BIO was designed to be consistent with MCNPX code and Crystal Ball software for uncertainty analysis. The modelling of radionuclide migration through the components of a hypothetical waste disposal system (hypothetical Stabatiskes waste disposal contaminated zone, unsaturated zone, aquifer, and recharge to Lake Druksiai) has been performed using the computer code RESRAD-OFFSITE and a number of site-specific parameters together with distributions. Submerged hydrophytes were selected as biota exposure indicators because they represent the largest biomass in Lake Druksiai and have comparatively high radionuclide activity concentrations. The presented data demonstrate that submerged hydrophyte exposure is determined mainly by natural background radionuclides with predominance of (226)Ra ionizing radiation in the case of external exposure and internally incorporated a-emitters. (238)U is the major contributor in the case of internal exposure. The LIETDOS-BIO code for non-human biota dose rate calculations was assessed during IAEA EMRAS BWG scientific program performance, and modelled-to-measured activity concentration predictions were found to be acceptable with the absolute value of Z-score between 0 and 2 derived from the Z-score intercomparison. The preliminary data presented here make it possible to investigate the relevance of Lake Druksiai as a cooling pond for the progression of nuclear energetics in Lithuania. A final decision on acceptability of this option awaits further review.

10.
Oh H. et al. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor (rhEGF) Protects Radiation-Induced Intestine Injury in Murine System // Journal of Radiation Research. 2010. Vol. 51, № 5. P. 535–541.

This study was to investigate whether rhEGF protects radiation induced intestine injury without compromising antitumor effect of radiation in murine system. A radiation induced intestinal injury model was established in mice by whole body irradiation. Using this model, 4 groups were set; control, rhEGF (100 intraperitoneally), radiation (10 Gy), and a combination (rhEGF and radiation). The level of apoptosis and proliferation were analyzed by TUNEL assay and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical staining, respectively, as well as observation of survival and body weight change. A tumor growth delay assay was performed using murine syngeneic tumors; one radioresistant tumor, HCa-I and one radiosensitive tumor, MCa-K. In the radiation induced intestinal injury model, the 10 Gy group had significantly more weight loss with less number of crypt cells and higher apoptosis than the 8 Gy group. Using 10 Gy model, radioprotective effect of rhEGF was tested. Addition of rhEGF improved not only the body weight loss but also survival following radiation. It also induced suppression of apoptosis as well as increase of PCNA expression and recovery of villi. rhEGF did not enhance the tumor growth after radiation exposure in the tested tumors. These findings suggest that combination of exogenous rhEGF and radiation can be a new anticancer strategy by protecting radiation-induced intestinal injury without alleviating antitumor effect of radiation.

11.U14501
Pandey B. N., Kumar A., Tiwari P., Mishra K. P. Radiobiological basis in management of accidental radiation exposure // International Journal of Radiation Biology. 2010. Vol. 86, № 8. P. 613-635.

Purpose: With increasing utilisation of nuclear technologies in power production, medical and industrial applications, and in a scenario of nuclear terrorism/war, there is an enhanced likelihood of accidental radiation exposure to occupational workers, patients and public. The consequent health effects of the radiation exposure are resultant of interaction of radiation with biological systems and subsequent radiation injury. The present review discusses the knowledge gained in radiation biology that can be exploited for better treatment and management of radiation accident victims. Results: In comparison with planned radiation exposure during diagnosis/therapy, the management of accidental radiation exposure is quite complicated due to uncertainties in dose, duration, organs involved and radionuclides internalised, and hence, require multi-faceted approaches. However, the options available for dosimetry, decorporation of radionuclides and therapeutic protocols of patients are limited, which provides substantial scope in these areas of research. Moreover, there is a need to fill the gaps in knowledge of radiation action in different dose ranges and post-irradiation windows, which would help in improving therapeutic approaches. Cytogenetic approaches are 'gold standard' for biodosimetry but with limited applications in mass casualty scenario. State-of-the-art technological advancement and high throughput in metabolomics, proteomics and genomics could be employed successfully in developing better biodosimetry for triage in accidental radiation exposure. Furthermore, identification of targets at organs/organelles level of internalised radionuclides would be helpful to develop effective decorporation strategies. Despite substantial research investigating several agents, which could modify radiation effects, only a few could reach up to practical application due to poor bioavailability or toxicity. Conclusions: Deeper insight into the mechanisms of radiation injury under accidental radiation conditions would be helpful in achieving better biodosimetry, decorporation strategies and improvement in prevention/post-irradiation management of radiation accident patients.

12.
Ra S.-J. et al. Radio-activation Effect on a Polymer by Proton Beam Irradiation // Journal of the Korean Physical Society. 2011. Vol. 59, № 2. P. 703–708.

In irradiation experiments using proton beams of more than a few MeV in energy, radio-activation of samples can essentially be caused by proton-induced nuclear reactions. Highly radioactive samples occasionally cause some problems or inconvenience concerning the sample handling and post-treatment because we have to wait for the samples to cool to the safe value for radiation protection. The activity mainly depends on the constituent atoms of the sample and the container if the proton energy is constant. If the radioactivity of samples is to be reduced, there are two alternatives, one is to change the sample's constituents and the other is to change the sample case material. We were concerned about the general case material, a polymer, because the sample's constituents are almost impossible in most experiments. Polymers, such as PP (polypropylene), PS (polystyrene), PET (polyethylene terephthalate), and PMMA (poly methyl methacrylate), are representative materials for sample cases. PET and PMMA are composed of C, H, and 0, and PP and PS are composed of C and H. In this experiment, we used a proton beam with an energy of 45-MeV and a current of 10-nA. To verify the effect of oxygen on the radioactivity, we used a radiation survey meter and a HPGe spectroscopy system to measure the gamma equivalent dose rate and the gamma-ray spectroscopy.

13.U45586
Sabol J., Ralbovska R., Hudzietzova J. Radiation protection relevant to nuclear chemistry in the light of recent international recommendations // Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. 2014. Vol. 299, № 1. P. 849–854.

The paper discusses the requirements for radiation protection in nuclear chemistry which are related to the recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These recommendations have been incorporated into the updated International Basic Safety Standards issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency as well as into new relevant Directives of the European Union based on which the legislation of the EU Member States has to be updated. The new international requirements are aimed at the further improvement of strict control of radiation sources, their safety and security as well as the minimization of exposure to workers and members of the public. It would be appropriate for the nuclear chemistry community to become familiar with the changes in radiation protection so that it would be easier for nuclear chemists to adopt new requirements in their everyday practical work.

14. U61381
Shchigolev N.D. et al. Quality control of metal-concrete flasks for spent nuclear fuel // Tech. Phys. 2011. Vol. 56, № 8. P. 1195–1201.

The safety operation of a serial metal-concrete flask intended for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage requires flaw inspection of its concrete filler and testing of the radiation protection parameters of the casing for compliance to design specifications. A test bench for gamma flaw detection of flasks intended for storage and transportation of SNF in an amount of (5-7) x 10(3) kg with an activity of similar to 10(6) Ci is described (including its new version). The kinematics of the bench, as well as its electronics, software, and hardware solutions that improve the survivability and reliability of the instrumentation and raise the validity of measurement results, are presented.

15.U00903
Stankovic S.J. et al. Gamma Radiation Absorption Characteristics of Concrete with Components of Different Type Materials // Acta Physica Polonica A. 2010. Vol. 117, № 5. P. 812–816.

Nuclear facilities as nuclear power stations, nuclear research reactors, particle accelerators and linear accelerator in medical institution using concrete in building construction. The different type materials of the aggregate as component of concrete were analyzed to provide radiation protection. The energy deposited the transmission factor and the mass attenuation coefficients in ordinary and barite concretes have been calculated with the photon transport Monte Carlo software. The numerical simulations results show that using barite as an aggregate in the concrete is one of the solutions for gamma ray shielding. Thereat, it is shown non-destructive method for determining the gamma radiation absorption characteristics of concrete.

16.U45586
Svetlik I. et al. C-14 studies in the vicinity of the Czech NPPs // Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. 2012. Vol. 292, № 2. P. 689–695.

The Czech Republic has two nuclear power plants (NPPs) equipped with light water pressurized reactors (LWPR). Annual sampling of biota for C-14 activity monitoring by Nuclear Physics Institute in cooperation with the National Institute of Radiation Protection started in 2002. We present the results of biota monitoring covering two sampling periods 2002-2005 and 2007-2008. The considerable problem in the case of biota sampling for monitoring purpose is given by a relatively short period of biota accumulation for prevailing types of biota samples (leaves of deciduous trees or agricultural plants), which usually lasts from several weeks to 2 months. The short period of sample accumulation can also be partly overlapped by a service period of reactor outage in a given NPP. On the base of our several years' experiences we have changed a type of the sampled material to reduce variations of observed activities and to precise reference levels in the exposed and reference sites.

17.
Tripathi R.K. Role of Nuclear Physics in Missions to Moon, Mars and beyond // Journal of the Korean Physical Society. 2011. Vol. 59, № 2. P. 1434–1438.

Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space/long duration human missions to Moon Mars and beyond is a critical design driver and could be a limiting factor. For space radiation protection, a huge amount of essential experimental information of nuclear data for all the ions in space, across the periodic table, for a wide range of energies of several (up to a trillion) orders of magnitude are needed that is simply not available. One is required to know how every element (and all isotopes of each element) in the periodic table interacts and fragments on every other element in the same table as a function of kinetic energy ranging over many decades. To provide input information for radiation transport codes, data are supplemented by nuclear models. As a result, very accurate and reliable analytical models/tools are needed to describe nuclear interactions that are not available so that radiation risks can be assessed and adequate shielding can be designed. Significance of the role of nuclear physics for space missions with a couple of examples is discussed.

18.U00918
Tropea S. et al. MEASUREMENT OF FRAGMENT PRODUCTION CROSS SECTIONS IN THE C-12+C-12 AND C-12+Au-197 REACTIONS AT 62 A MeV FOR HADRONTHERAPY AND SPACE RADIATION PROTECTION // Acta Physica Polonica B. 2014. Vol. 45, № 2. P. 565–569.

Over the last twenty years, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear fragmentation studies for both hadrontherapy applications and space radiation protection. In both fields, fragmentation cross sections are needed to predict the effects of the ions nuclear interactions within the patient's and the astronaut's body. Indeed, the Monte Carlo codes used in planning tumor treatments and space missions must be tuned and validated by experimental data. However, only a limited set of fragmentation cross sections are available in literature, especially at Fermi energies. Therefore, we have studied the production of secondary fragments in the (12)c+(12)c and C-12+Au-197 reactions at 62 A MeV. In this work, the measured He-4 cross sections angular distributions at four selected angles are presented and compared.

19.U17444
Yang M. et al. Inhibition of radiation induced dissolution of UO2 by sulfide - A comparison with the hydrogen effect // Journal of Nuclear Materials. 2013. Vol. 434, № 1-3. P. 38–42.

In this work we have studied the influence of H2S on radiation induced dissolution of spent nuclear fuel using simple model systems. The reaction between H2O2 and H2S/HS- has been studied experimentally as well as the effect of H2S/HS- on gamma-radiation induced dissolution of a UO2 pellet. The experiments clearly show that the reaction of H2O2 and H2S/HS- is fairly rapid and that H2O2 and H2S/HS- stoichiometry is favorable for inhibition. Radiolysis experiments show that H2S/HS- can effectively protect UO2 from oxidative dissolution. The effect depends on sulfide concentration in combination with dose rate. Autoclave experiments were also conducted to study the role of H2S/HS- in the reduction of U(VI) in the presence and absence of H-2 and Pd particles in anoxic aqueous solution. The aqueous solutions were pressurized with H-2 or N-2 and two different concentrations of H2S/HS- were used in the presence and absence of Pd. No catalytic effect of Pd on the U(VI) reduction by H2S/HS- could be found in N-2 atmosphere. U(VI) reduction was found to be proportional to H2S/HS- concentration in H-2 and N-2 atmosphere. It is clearly shown the Pd catalyzed H-2 effect is more powerful than the effect of H2S/HS-. H2S/HS- poisoning of the Pd catalyst is not observed under the present conditions.

20.005644
Легеза В.И., Зацепин В.В. МЕДИЦИНСКАЯ ЗАЩИТА ПРИ РАДИАЦИОННЫХ АВАРИЯХ: НЕКОТОРЫЕ ИТОГИ И УРОКИ ЧЕРНОБЫЛЬСКОЙ КАТАСТРОФЫ // Радиационная биология. Радиоэкология. 2011. Т. 51, №1. C. 70-75.

Проанализированы мероприятия медицинской противорадиационной защиты участников ликвидации последствий аварии на Чернобыльской АЭС. Показано, что в ранний период аварии медицинская защита участников ликвидации ее последствий обеспечивалась приемом радиопротекторов, средств профилактики инкорпорации радиоактивного йода и средств предотвращения психоэмоционального напряжения. В период проведения дезактивационных и восстановительных работ в основном применялись препараты, действие которых обусловлено повышением неспецифической резистентности организма. Уроки, извлеченные из итогов Чернобыльской катастрофы, позволили усовершенствовать систему медицинской защиты и внедрить в практику новые высокоэффективные противолучевые средства.

21.005644
Пелевина И.И. ТРУДЫ МКРЗ. ПУБЛИКАЦИЯ 118 МКРЗ: PАННИЕ И ОТДАЛЕННЫЕ ЭФФЕКТЫ ОБЛУЧЕНИЯ В НОРМАЛЬНЫХ ТКАНЯХ И ОРГАНАХ ПОРОГОВЫЕ ДОЗЫ ДЛЯ ТКАНЕВЫХ РЕАКЦИЙ В КОНТЕКСТЕ РАДИАЦИОННОЙ ЗАЩИТЫ. ЧЕЛЯБИНСК: КНИГА, 2012 // Радиационная биология. Радиоэкология. 2013. Т. 53, № 4. С. 441.

22.005644
Рождественский Л.М. ОТЗЫВ НА ОТЧЕТ МКРЗ ПО ТКАНЕВЫМ РЕАКЦИЯМ НА ДЕЙСТВИЕ ИОНИЗИРУЮЩЕГО ИЗЛУЧЕНИЯ В КОНТЕКСТЕ РАДИАЦИОННОЙ ЗАЩИТЫ (ПУБЛИКАЦИЯ 118 МКРЗ) // Радиационная биология. Радиоэкология. 2014. Т. 54, № 1. С. 107.

23.005644
Ушаков И.Б., Иванов А.А. ПРОТИВОЛУЧЕВЫЕ СРЕДСТВА ДЛЯ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ РАДИАЦИОННОЙ БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ КОСМОНАВТОВ // Радиационная биология. Радиоэкология. - 2013. Т. 53, № 5. С. 521.

Исходя из сложности этиологии радиационного фактора, усугубляемого стрессорными факторами нерадиационной природы, в космическом полете и трудности прогноза времени и характера его воздействия на организм космонавта, авторы обзора предлагают выделить в построении фармакологической противолучевой защиты несколько взаимосвязанных этапов. В их числе подготовительный этап, начинающийся на Земле, далее мониторинг и коррекция радиорезистентности в ходе полета, этап лечения острого или хронического лучевого поражения по классическим для радиационной патологии схемам и перманентный этап фармакологической профилактики отдаленных последствий лучевого поражения.

24.005644
Фесенко С., Фогт Г. ЯДЕРНАЯ ЭНЕРГЕТИКА И ОКРУЖАЮЩАЯ СРЕДА: ОБЗОР ПРОЕКТОВ МАГАТЭ // Радиационная биология. Радиоэкология. 2012. Т. 52, № 6. С. 636.

Представлен обзор проектов Международного агентства по атомной энергии (МАГАТЭ) в области сохранения окружающей среды. Рассмотрены документы МАГАТЭ в области радиационной защиты человека и окружающей среды и отмечены их особенности. Рассмотрены актуальные проблемы в области защиты природной среды и человека, включая воздействие предприятий ядерно-топливного цикла на окружающую среду, обращение с радиоактивными отходами, реабилитацию территорий, подвергшихся воздействию радиологических аварий, реабилитацию мест испытаний ядерного оружия и площадок размещения предприятий ядерно-топливного цикла. Отмечена необходимость сохранения знаний в области радиоэкологии и охраны окружающей среды.

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