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Ртуть в биосфере: эколого-геохимические аспекты

Журнальные статьи

Akerblom, Staffan; Bishop, Kevin; Bjorn, Erik; Significant interaction effects from sulfate deposition and climate on sulfur concentrations constitute major controls on methylmercury production in peatlands //GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Volume: 102 Pages: 1-11 Published: FEB 1 2013

Transformation of inorganic mercury (Hg) to methyl mercury (MeHg) in peatlands is a key process in making boreal catchments a source of MeHg to freshwater ecosystems. Due to the importance of sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) for this process, past atmospheric deposition of sulfate (SO42-) may have increased net terrestrial Hg methylation. A long-term (14-year) factorial design field experiment was used to investigate the effect of enhanced SO42- deposition and raised temperature using a greenhouse (GH) treatment (air temperature similar to+4 degrees C; soil temperature 20 cm below mire surface similar to+2 degrees C) on sulfur (S) turnover, net Hg methylation, MeHg and total Hg concentrations in a boreal mire in northern Sweden. Of the SO42--S added during 14 years, 50% was retained in the plots without GH treatment while the combination of SO42- addition and GH treatment resulted in 15% S retention. The addition of SO42- (7-fold ambient SO42--deposition) increased (p < 0.05) the net Hg methylation (200%) as well as the store of S (150%) and MeHg (120%) in the peat. A combination of enhanced SO42- deposition and GH treatment decreased both the net Hg methylation rate constant (0.018 +/- 0.006 d(-1)) and MeHg content (1.2 +/- 0.2 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw)) relative to the sites with enhanced SO42- deposition without GH treatment (0.065 +/- 0.013 d(-1) and 3.7 +/- 0.6 ng g(-1) dw, respectively). The concentration of Hg in the peat declined (p < 0.05) in response to experimental addition of SO42-. Despite the decrease in Hg in response to SO42- deposition, these plots had the highest amounts of MeHg as well as the highest Hg methylation rate constants. This indicates that the concentration of S is more important than the concentration of Hg for the production of MeHg in this boreal landscape. These results also show that long-term chronic SO42- deposition at rates similar to those found in polluted areas of Europe and North America increase the capacity of wetlands to methylate Hg and store MeHg, which can ultimately be released to streams and lakes. This study also, for the first time, indicates that the enhancing effect of SO42- on the production of MeHg might be counteracted by increased temperature.

Bagnato, Emanuela; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Mercury emissions from soils and fumaroles of Nea Kameni volcanic centre, Santorini (Greece) //GEOCHEMICAL JOURNAL Volume: 47 Issue: 4 Pages: 437-450 Published: 2013

There have been limited studies to date targeting mercury emissions from volcanic fumarolic systems, and no mercury flux data exist for soil or fumarolic emissions at Santorini volcanic complex, Greece. We present results from the first geochemical survey of Hg and major volatile (CO2, H2S, H2O and H-2) concentrations and fluxes in the fumarolic gases released by the volcanic/hydrothermal system of Nea Kameni islet; the active volcanic center of Santorini. These data were obtained using a portable mercury spectrometer (Lumex 915+) for gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) determination, and a Multi-component Gas Analyzer System (Multi-GAS) for major volatiles. Gaseous Elemental Mercury (GEM) concentrations in the fumarole atmospheric plumes were systematically above background levels (similar to 4 ng GEM m(-3)), ranging from similar to 4.5 to 121 ng GEM m(-3). Variability in the measured mercury concentrations may result from changes in atmospheric conditions and/or unsteady gas release from the fumaroles. We estimate an average GEM/CO2 mass ratio in the fumarolic gases of Nea Kameni of approximately 10(-9), which falls in the range of values obtained at other low-T (100 degrees C) volcanic/hydrothermal systems (similar to 10(-8)); our measured GEM/H2S mass ratio (10(-5)) also lies within the accepted representative range (10(-4) to 10(-6)) of non-explosive volcanic degassing. Our estimated mercury flux from Nea Kameni's fumarolic field (2.56 x 10(-7) t yr(-1)), while making up a marginal contribution to the global volcanic non-eruptive GEM emissions from closed-conduit degassing volcanoes, represents the first available assessment of mercury emissions at Santorini volcano, and will contribute to the evaluation of future episodes of unrest at this renowned volcanic complex.

Black, Frank J.; Poulin, Brett A.; Flegal, A. Russell. Factors controlling the abiotic photo-degradation of monomethylmercury in surface waters //GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Volume: 84 Pages: 492-507 Published: MAY 1 2012

Photo-decomposition is among the most important mechanisms responsible for degrading monomethylmercury (MMHg) in aquatic systems, but this process is not fully understood. We investigated the relative importance of different factors in controlling the rate of MMHg photo-decomposition in surface waters in experiments using DOM isolated from natural waters. We found no evidence of net abiotic production of MMHg in any dark or light exposed treatments. The average (mean +/- s.d.) MMHg photo-decomposition rate constant for all light exposed samples using DOM concentrated from three coastal wetlands was 0.0099 +/- 0.0020 E(-1)m(2) (range of 0.006-0.015 E(-1)m(2)) when expressed in photon flux from 330-700 nm. This was roughly 3-fold higher than the average MMHg photo-decomposition rate constant in coastal seawater of 0.0032 +/- 0.0010 E(-1)m(2). MMHg photo-degradation was highly wavelength dependent. The ratio of MMHg photo-decomposition rate constants, with respect to photon flux, was 400:37:1 for UVB:UVA:PAR. However, when integrated across the entire water column over which MMHg photo-demethylation occurs, PAR was responsible for photo-degrading more MMHg than UVB and UVA combined in the three wetland sites because of the more rapid attenuation of UV light with depth. MMHg half-lives in the wetlands were calculated for the upper 250 cm where photo-degradation occurred, and ranged from 7.6 to 20 days under typical summer sunlight conditions at 37 degrees N. Rates of MMHg photo-decomposition decreased with increasing salinity, and were 27% higher at a salinity of 5 than those at a salinity of 25. This difference could not be accounted for by changes in the complexation of MMHg by DOM and chloride. Differences in MMHg photo-degradation rate constants of up to 18% were measured between treatments using DOM concentrated from three different wetlands. Surprisingly, increasing DOM concentration from 1.5 to 11.3 mg OC L-1 had only a small (6%) effect on MMHg photo-decomposition, which was much smaller than the 34% decrease predicted due to the attenuation of light at the higher DOM levels. This suggests that DOM plays an important role in MMHg photo-decomposition apart from mediating light levels and MMHg complexation. Experiments employing various scavengers implied that singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals were not involved in the photo-degradation of MMHg in the natural waters used. Varying concentrations of Fe, Cu, and Mn had only small (<= 11%) effects on rates of MMHg photo-decomposition, and relatively high rates were measured in high purity water with no trace metals or DOM. These results demonstrate that MMHg photo-decomposition can occur via pathways not involving Fe, the photo-Fenton reaction, nitrate photolysis, or thiol complexation. Taken with previous studies, multiple reaction pathways appear to exist, and their importance varies as a function of water chemistry and light wavelength.

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Fote, Tom. Stakeholder Participation in Research Design and Decisions: Scientists, Fishers, and Mercury in Saltwater Fish // ECOHEALTH Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 21-30 Published: MAR 2013

Individuals who fish and eat self-caught fish make decisions about where to fish, the type to eat, and the quantity to eat. Federal and state agencies often issue, or identify the fish that have low contaminant levels. Community participatory research is of growing importance in defining, studying, and resolving complex exposure and risk issues, and this paper is at the intersection of traditional stakeholder approaches and community-based participatory research. The objective of this paper is to describe the process whereby stakeholders (fishers), were involved in directing and refining research questions to address their particular informational needs about mercury levels in fish, potential risks, and methods to maintain health, by balancing the risks and benefits of fish consumption. A range of stakeholders, mainly individual fishers, fishing organizations, and other scientists, were involved at nearly every stage consumption advisories for some fish with high mercury (Hg) concentrations, but seldom provide either the actual metal levels to the general public. Community participants influenced many aspects of the design and implementation of the research, in the determination of which fish species to sample, in the collection of the samples, and in the final analyses and synthesis, as well as the communication of results and implications of the research through their fishing club publications, talks and gatherings. By involving the most interested and affected communities, the data and conclusions are relevant to their needs because the fish examined were those they ate and wanted information about, and directly address concerns about the risk from consuming self-caught fish. Although mercury levels in fish presumed to be high in mercury are known, little information was available to the fishermen on mercury levels in fish that were low and thus provided little risk to their families. While community participatory research is more time-consuming and expensive than traditional scientific research, both the process and results are better scientifically in terms of community relevance

Carling, Gregory T.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Rudd, Abigail; Trace element diel variations and particulate pulses in perimeter freshwater wetlands of Great Salt Lake, Utah //CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Volume: 283 Issue: 1-2 Special Issue: SI Pages: 87-98 Published: APR 7 2011

Trace elements (including total and methyl Hg, Sb, Se, U, V. and Mn), field parameters (including dissolved oxygen, pH, and water temperature), and other constituents were monitored over a 24-hr period during August 20-21, 2008 and September 14-15, 2009 at the outlet of two freshwater wetland ponds located near the southeastern shoreline of Great Salt Lake, Utah, to determine whether pe- and/or pH-driven diel cycles in trace element concentrations would be observed. Unfiltered and filtered (<0.45 mu m) samples were collected hourly for all trace elements. Al, Fe, Hg, and Pb were predominantly (>75% of mass) associated with the >0.45 mu m, or particulate, fraction. Cu, Cr, Cd, Mn, and Ti were also associated with the particulate fraction to a lesser extent (22-58% of mass). As, Co, Li, Ni, Sb, Se, Sr, U, and V were predominantly in the "dissolved" (<0.45 mu m) form. Over a 24-hr period, the particle-associated elements displayed up to a factor of 5 differences between minimum and maximum concentrations, most likely due to settling and resuspension of particles in the water column. Of the dissolved trace elements, Sb, Se, U, and V concentrations showed a diel variation that was positively correlated with variations in dissolved oxygen, pH and water temperature: increasing following daybreak and decreasing at night. Concentrations of the dissolved fraction of Mn displayed the opposite trend relative to Sb, Se, U, and V. Diel trends in dissolved trace elements are explained by increased sorption of Sb, Se, U. and V anions during nighttime hours, and increased sorption of the Mn cations during daytime hours, driven by changes in water pH and temperature. Diel variations in the anion-forming elements Sb, Se, U, and V. although, small in magnitude, support established trends of the anion-forming As. Methylmercury, which has been shown to vary on a diel cycle in other nearby locations, was consistently low at both ponds and displayed no diel trend.

Chen, JiuBin; Hintelmann, Holger; Feng, XinBin; Unusual fractionation of both odd and even mercury isotopes in precipitation from Peterborough, ON, Canada //GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Volume: 90 Pages: 33-46 Published: AUG 1 2012

Once released into the atmosphere, mercury (Hg) is subject to long-range transport and a series of physico-chemical reactions before reentering terrestrial ecosystems. Though impressive progress has been made in understanding all aspects of Hg behavior in the atmosphere, many processes involved in the transformation and deposition of atmospheric Hg remain unidentified and source attribution is still an enormous challenge. Here, we examine the isotopic composition of Hg in precipitation collected during 2010 in Peterborough, ON, Canada and combine data on seasonal variations of mass-dependent (MDF) and mass-independent (MIF) fractionation with meteorological back-trajectory calculations to identify the Hg sources and to decipher Hg atmospheric transformation reactions. All precipitation samples displayed significant MDF (delta Hg-202 between -0.02 parts per thousand and -1.48 parts per thousand) and MIF of odd isotopes (Delta Hg-199 varying from -0.29 parts per thousand to 1.13 parts per thousand). We also report for the first time a seasonal variation of MIF of even Hg isotopes (Delta Hg-200) in wet precipitation. Our results may suggest that photoreduction in droplets or on the surface layer of snow crystals induces odd Hg isotope anomalies, while mass independent fractionation of Hg-200 is probably triggered by photo-initiated oxidation occurring on aerosol or solid surfaces in the tropopause. The observed seasonal variation of even Hg isotope MIF (Delta Hg-200 decrease with ambient temperature) is possibly a powerful tool for meteorological research and may aid in monitoring related climate changes.

Cossa, Daniel; Heimbuerger, Lars-Eric; Lannuzel, Delphine; Mercury in the Southern Ocean //GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Volume: 75 Issue: 14 Pages: 4037-4052 Published: JUL 15 2011

We present here the first mercury speciation study in the water column of the Southern Ocean, using a high-resolution south-to-north section (27 stations from 65.50 degrees S to 44.00 degrees S) with up to 15 depths (0-4440 m) between Antarctica and Tasmania (Australia) along the 140 degrees E meridian. In addition, in order to explore the role of sea ice in Hg cycling, a study of mercury speciation in the "snow-sea ice-seawater" continuum was conducted at a coastal site, near the Australian Casey station (66.40 degrees S; 101.14 degrees E). In the open ocean waters, total Hg (Hg-T) concentrations varied from 0.63 to 2.76 pmol L-1 with "transient-type" vertical profiles and a latitudinal distribution suggesting an atmospheric mercury source south of the Southern Polar Front (SPF) and a surface removal north of the Subantartic Front (SAF). Slightly higher mean Hg-T concentrations (1.35 +/- 0.39 pmol L-1) were measured in Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) compared to Antarctic Intermediate water (AAIW) (1.15 +/- 0.22 pmol L-1). Labile Hg (Hg-R) concentrations varied from 0.01 to 2.28 pmol L-1, with a distribution showing that the Hg-T enrichment south of the SPF consisted mainly of Hg-R (67 +/- 23%), whereas, in contrast, the percentage was half that in surface waters north of PFZ (33 +/- 23%). Methylated mercury species (MeHgT) concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.86 pmol L-1. All vertical MeHgT profiles exhibited roughly the same pattern, with low concentrations observed in the surface layer and increasing concentrations with depth up to an intermediate depth maximum. As for Hg-T, low mean MeHgT concentrations were associated with AAIW, and higher ones with AABW. The maximum of MeHgT concentration at each station was systematically observed within the oxygen minimum zone, with a statistically significant MeHgT vs Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU) relationship (p < 0.001). The proportion of Hg-T as methylated species was lower than 5% in the surface waters, around 50% in deep waters below 1000 m, reaching a maximum of 78% south of the SPF. At Casey coastal station Hg-T and Hg-R concentrations found in the "snow-sea ice-seawater" continuum were one order of magnitude higher than those measured in open ocean waters. The distribution of Hg-T there suggests an atmospheric Hg deposition with snow and a fractionation process during sea ice formation, which excludes Hg from the ice with a parallel Hg enrichment of brine, probably concurring with the Hg enrichment of AABW observed in the open ocean waters. Contrastingly, MeHgT concentrations in the sea ice environment were in the same range as in the open ocean waters, remaining below 0.45 pmol L-1. The MeHgT vertical profile through the continuum suggests different sources, including atmosphere, seawater and methylation in basal ice. Whereas Hg-T concentrations in the water samples collected between the Antarctic continent and Tasmania are comparable to recent measurements made in the other parts of the World Ocean (e. g., Soerensen et al., 2010), the Hg species distribution suggests distinct features in the Southern Ocean Hg cycle: (i) a net atmospheric Hg deposition on surface water near the ice edge, (ii) the Hg enrichment in brine during sea ice formation, and (iii) a net methylation of Hg south of the SPF.

Das, Reshmi; Bizimis, Michael; Wilson, Alicia M.Tracing mercury seawater vs. atmospheric inputs in a pristine SE USA salt marsh system: Mercury isotope evidence // CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Volume: 336 Special Issue: SI Pages: 50-61 Published: JAN 16 2013

Salt marshes can be a significant source of MeHg in coastal marine organisms, however the sources and cycling of Hg in salt marsh sediments, and in coastal environments in general, remain unclear. We analyzed surface and cored sediments from a salt marsh and adjacent upland sand dune in Cabretta Island, Georgia, USA, for total mercury (Hg-T), Hg isotopes and trace metal concentrations to better constrain the sources of Hg in this coastal environment. Hg-T concentrations are lower in the upland sands (1-6 ng/g) than in the marsh sediments (6-16 ng/g). Hg-T shows a positive correlation with total organic content (TOC) and increasing proportion of fines in the sediments. Trace metal concentrations also show a positive correlation with Hg-T in the marsh sediments regardless of chemical affinity (i.e. chalcophile, siderophile or lithophile). All these data are consistent with surface adsorption (either directly on to sediments or on to organic matter) as a dominant mechanism of Hg and metals accumulation in the marsh sediments. The surface sediments show significant mass independent fractionation (MIF) of odd Hg isotopes: the upland dune sands have zero to slightly negative Delta Hg-199 (-0.07 parts per thousand to -0.14 parts per thousand) and the marsh surface sediments have positive Delta Hg-199 (0.48 parts per thousand to 0.79 parts per thousand). As in the surface samples, well-sorted sand layers in the cored sediments have low Hg concentrations and zero to slightly negative Delta Hg-199, whereas fine particle-rich layers have higher Hg concentrations and positive Delta Hg-199 values. In the absence of any evidence for MIF of Hg isotopes by bacteria mediated methylation-demethylation reactions, the observed Hg isotope differences between marsh and upland sands can be explained by different sources of Hg. We suggest that local atmospheric Hg deposition dominates the Hg budget in the ombrotrophic upland sand, while the positive MIF in the marsh sediments are consistent with Hg dominantly of seawater origin. While in situ processes, like photoreduction and evasion can overprint the Hg depositional isotope signature, their effect on the sediments is currently unconstrained. Nevertheless, our data show that Hg isotopes can delineate different sources of Hg in a pristine coastal environment and at small spatial scales. Thus natural background isotope variability should be assessed as a baseline when Hg isotopes are used as tracers of Hg in anthropogenically-influenced sites.

Fagnani, Enelton; Guimaraes, Jose Roberto; Fadini, Pedro Sergio. Mercury in the Waters of the Jundiai River, SP, Brazil: The Role of Dissolved Organic Matter // AQUATIC GEOCHEMISTRY Volume: 18 Issue: 5 Pages: 445-456 Published: SEP 2012

Many developing countries have regions of high demographic density, where untreated residuary waters from different sources are often discharged into rivers, streams and other water bodies. This paper discusses the reducing action of organic matter of anthropic origin on the mercury redox cycle in the Jundiai River impacted by discharged wastes, and on the Pirai River, a non-impacted water body. The total mercury concentrations in these locations vary from 1.7 to 32 ng L-1 in the former and from 0.6 to 10.6 ng L-1 in the latter. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations of up to 68.3 and 6.5 mg L-1 were observed, confirming the higher impact on the Jundiai River. It was found that an inverse correlation between the concentration of dissolved organic carbon and total mercury was stronger in the Jundiai River, given that it receives higher organic loads, suggesting that organic matter exerts a reducing action on mercury, which is released as gas into the atmosphere. This correlation was not observed in the Pirai River, where the organic matter of natural origin is probably not sufficiently labile to act intensely upon the Hg redox cycle, favoring the metal transport.

Fei Liu, Hangxin Cheng, Ke Yang, Chuandong Zhao, Yinghan Liu, Min Peng, Kuo Li. Characteristics and influencing factors of mercury exchange flux between soil and air in Guangzhou City //Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Volume 139, April 2014, Pages 115-121

This study aimed to characterize atmospheric mercury (Hg) as well as the Hg exchange flux between soil and air surfaces in the urban area of Guangzhou. Total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentration and Hg exchange flux were measured in situ using a dynamic flux chamber coupled with a Mercury Vapor Analyzer. The TGM averaged 6.3 +/- 22 ng center dot m(-3) at five sites, and average Hg exchange flux was 7.8 +/- 7.1 ng center dot m(-2)center dot h(-1). Both Hg content and soil pH were significantly correlated with Hg fluxes, suggesting that soil properties affected Hg exchanges. The Hg exchange fluxes showed significantly positive correlations with solar radiation and soil temperature. Comparisons demonstrated that vegetation significantly interfered with the Hg emission flux. The annual Hg emission from soil in Guangzhou urban area was 51.46 g center dot km(-2)center dot yr(-1) or 25.73 kg center dot yr(-1).

Ferriss, Bridget E.; Essington, Timothy E. Can fish consumption rate estimates be improved by linking bioenergetics and mercury mass balance models? Application to tunas //ECOLOGICAL MODELLING Volume: 272 Pages: 232-241 Published: JAN 24 2014

We developed an approach to estimate consumption rates by applying statistical methods to coupled bioenergetics and individual-based mercury (Hg) mass balance models, applied to bigeye (Thunnus obesus), yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), and albacore (Thunnus alalunga) tunas. Direct measurement of consumption rates for these highly migratory species involves laborious and infrequent point estimates, while individual bioenergetics or contaminant-based models are biased by errors in parameter estimation due to a lack of data. We linked bioenergetics and Hg mass balance models by using consumption rate estimates produced from the former as inputs into the latter and determined whether the model could predict observed Hg-at-age. Consumption rate estimates derived from conventional bioenergetics and Hg mass balance models diverged considerably and the coupled bioenergetics-Hg mass balance model, based on default parameters, could not predict patterns of Hg accumulation. The statistical estimation approach (we found maximum likelihood estimates of metabolic expenditures related to swimming and the Hg concentration in tuna diets) generated biologically plausible daily consumption rates (yellowfin: 5.8-9%, skipjack: 4.5-6.7%, bigeye: 9.4-13% body weight fora 10 kg tuna), but failed to fit the albacore Hg data. Statistically based methods that use patterns of Hg bioaccumulation hold promise to advance our ability to estimate consumption rates, but are limited by high variance in Hg-at-size data and uncertainty in prey Hg data.

Feyte, Stephane; Gobeil, Charles; Tessier, Andre; Mercury dynamics in lake sediments //GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Volume: 82 Pages: 92-112 Published: APR 1 2012

Triplicate porewater depth-profiles of pH and concentrations of total Hg (Hg-T), methylmercury (MeHg), Fe, Mn, sulfate, total sulfide, total zero-valent sulfur, organic C and major ions were determined at two sampling dates in a perennially oxygenated basin and a seasonally anoxic basin from Lake Tantare, a Canadian Shield lake. The vertical distribution of Hg-T, MeHg, acid volatile sulfide, total S, Fe, Mn, Al and organic C were also determined in dated sediment cores from the same lake basins and from the deepest site of two other lakes, one also located in the Canadian Shield and the other in the Northeastern part of the Appalachian Mountains. Application of a one-dimensional transport-reaction equation to the dissolved Hg-T and MeHg profiles constrains the depth intervals (zones) where these species are produced or consumed in the sedimentary column and yields estimates of net reaction rates of Hg-T or MeHg in each of the zones as well as their fluxes at the sediment-water interface. Dissolved Hg-T and MeHg diffused from the overlying water into the sediments, except for MeHg at one of the sampling dates in the perennially oxygenated basin. About 97% and 50% of the MeHg flux to the sediments is presently deposited with settling particles in the perennially oxygenated and seasonally anoxic basins, respectively. Removal of porewater Hg-T and MeHg occurred at all dates and sampling sites. Comparison of the consumption zones of porewater Hg-T and MeHg with the profiles of ancillary parameters, coupled with thermodynamic calculations, suggest that pure Hg mineral phases do not form in the sediments, that Hg-T and MeHg adsorption onto authigenic Fe oxyhydroxides occurs in minor proportions, and that the association of Hg-T and MeHg to Fe sulfide phases or sulfidized organic matter is possible. Assuming that the net consumption of MeHg in the porewaters was essentially due to demethylation, an apparent first-order rate constant for MeHg demethylation of 0.04-0.8 d(-1) was estimated. Production of porewater MeHg occurred only in the perennially oxygenated basin, at sediment depths where SO4 was consumed. Assuming that the net production of porewater MeHg was essentially due to methylation, an apparent first-order rate constant for Hg methylation ranging between 0.006 d(-1) and 0.1 d(-1) was calculated. These field-derived Hg methylation and MeHg demethylation rate constant values are within the range of those derived from Hg-spiked experiments. We also show that the post-depositional redistribution of total Hg during the early stages of sediment diagenesis is minor and that the solid-phase Hg-T record can be used to reconstruct the evolution of the anthropogenic Hg-T deposition.

Foucher, Delphine; Hintelmann, Holger; Al, Tom A.; Mercury isotope fractionation in waters and sediments of the Murray Brook mine watershed (New Brunswick, Canada): Tracing mercury contamination and transformation //CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Volume: 336 Special Issue: SI Pages: 87-95 Published: JAN 16 2013

Mercury isotope fractionation was investigated in different environmental compartments of a mining-impacted ecosystem, the watershed of the Murray Brook deposit in northern New Brunswick, Canada. Mercury contaminated ground water, surface water as well as sediment and samples of suspended particulate matter were collected alongside Gossan Creek downstream of mine tailings and analyzed for mercury isotopic composition. While leachates from the tailings and ground water samples showed a uniform and similar mercury isotopic signature confirming the predominant role of the mining residues in the contamination of the surrounding environment, samples collected from the surface flow system provided evidence of significant mass-dependent fractionation of mercury with distance from the source. As dissolved mercury contents steadily decreased from 31.1 to 1.4 mu g Hg L-1 with distance from the headwaters of the stream, delta Hg-202 in the creek water progressively increased resulting in a fractionation of similar to 0.9 parts per thousand over 1.6 km. As a result, mercury isotopic ratios in the creek appeared to closely follow a Rayleigh model assuming a constant fractionation factor alpha(reactant/product) of 1.00038. Stream bed sediments also demonstrated an enrichment of heavy isotopes along the creek with an isotopic shift of similar to 1% over the distance of Gossan Creek (3100 m). Although mercury losses from the water column result partly from partitioning to the sediments, measured mercury isotopic ratios differences between dissolved and solid phases were likely small and this study did not observe significant fractionation due to partitioning processes. Results rather suggested that fractionation observed in the surface water system of Gossan Creek is most likely the result of a combined effect of reduction and volatilisation processes, the lighter isotopes being preferentially reduced and evaporated from the water column. Additional sediment samples collected along reaches of Eighteen Mile Brook and the Upsalquitch River that receive water from Gossan Creek, and from tributaries unaffected by the mine contamination were analyzed for mercury isotopic composition. Data obtained from those sediments clearly demonstrated that mercury derived from mining activities is isotopically different from mercury naturally present in the area. Measured isotopic differences can ultimately be employed to trace sources of mercury, notwithstanding potential fractionation caused by natural transformation processes.

Gehrke, Gretchen E.; Blum, Joel D.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark. Sources of mercury to San Francisco Bay surface sediment as revealed by mercury stable isotopes // GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Volume: 75 Issue: 3 Pages: 691-705 Published: FEB 1 2011

Mercury (Hg) concentrations and isotopic compositions were examined in shallow-water surface sediment (0-2 cm) from San Francisco (SF) Bay to determine the extent to which historic Hg mining contributes to current Hg contamination in. SF Bay, and to assess the use of Hg isotopes to trace sources of contamination in estuaries. Inter-tidal and wetland sediment had total Hg (Hg-T) concentrations ranging from 161 to 1529 ng/g with no simple gradients of spatial variation. In contrast, inter-tidal and wetland sediment displayed a geographic gradient of delta Hg-202 values, ranging from -0.30 parts per thousand in the southern-most part of SF Bay (draining the New Almaden Hg District) to -0.99 parts per thousand in the northern-most part of SF Bay near the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Similar to SF Bay inter-tidal sediment, surface sediment from the Alviso Slough channel draining into South SF Bay had a delta Hg-202 value of -2.29 parts per thousand, while surface sediment from the Cosumnes River and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta draining into north SF Bay had lower average delta Hg-202 values of -0.90 parts per thousand and -0.75 parts per thousand, respectively. This isotopic trend suggests that Hg-contaminated sediment from the New Almaden Hg District mixes with Hg-contaminated sediment from a low delta He-202 source north of SF Bay. Tailings and thermally decomposed ore (calcine) from the New idria Hg mine in the California Coast Range had average delta Hg-202 values of -0.37 and +0.03 parts per thousand, respectively, showing that Hg calcination fractionates Hg isotopes resulting in Hg contamination from Hg(II) mine waste products with higher delta Hg-202 values than metallic Hg(0) produced from Hg mines. Thus, there is evidence for at least two distinct isotopic signals for Hg contamination in SF Bay: Hg associated with calcine waste materials at Hg mines in the Coast Range, such as New Almaden and New Idria; and Hg(0) produced from these mines and used in placer gold mines and/or in other industrial processes in the Sierra Nevada region and SF Bay area.

Hazen, Robert M.; Golden, Joshua; Downs, Robert T.; Mercury (Hg) mineral evolution: A mineralogical record of supercontinent assembly, changing ocean geochemistry, and the emerging terrestrial biosphere // AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Volume: 97 Issue: 7 Pages: 1013-1042 Published: JUL 2012

Analyses of the temporal and geographic distribution of earliest recorded appearances of the 88 IMA-approved mercury minerals plus two potentially valid species exemplify principles of mineral evolution. Metacinnabar (HgS) and native Hg are the only two species reported from meteorites, specifically, the primitive H3 Tieschitz chondrite with an age of 4550 Ma. Since the first terrestrial appearance of cinnabar more than 3 billion years ago, mercury minerals have been present continuously at or near Earth's surface. Mercury mineral evolution is characterized by episodic deposition and diversification, perhaps associated with the supercontinent cycle. We observe statistically significant increases in the number of reported Hg mineral localities and new Hg species at similar to 2.8-2.6, similar to 1.9-1.8, and similar to 0.43-0.25 Ga-intervals that correlate with episodes of presumed supercontinent assembly and associated orogenies of Kenorland (Superia), Columbia (Nuna), and Pangea, respectively. In constrast, few Hg deposits or new species of mercury minerals are reported from the intervals of supercontinent stability and breakup at similar to 2.5-1.9, similar to 1.8-1.2, and 1.1-0.8 Ga. The interval of Pangean supercontinent stability and breakup (similar to 250-65 Ma) is also marked by a significant decline in reported mercury mineralization; however, rocks of the last 65 million years, during which Pangea has continued to diverge, is characterized by numerous ephemeral near-surface Hg deposits. The period similar to 1.2-1.0 Ga, during the assembly of the Rodinian supercontinent, is an exception because of the absence of new Hg minerals or deposits from this period. Episodes of Hg mineralization reflect metamorphism of Hg-enriched marine black shales at zones of continental convergence. We suggest that Hg was effectively sequestered as insoluble nanoparticles of cinnabar (HgS) or tiemannite (HgSe) during the period of the sulfidic "intermediate ocean" (similar to 1.85-0.85 Ga); consequently, few Hg deposits formed during the aggregation of Rodinia, whereas several deposits date from 800-600 Ma, a period that overlaps with the rifting and breakup of Rodinia. Nearly all Hg mineral species (87 of 90 known), as well as all major economic Hg deposits, are known to occur in formations <= 400 million years old. This relatively recent diversification arises, in part, from the ephemeral nature of many Hg minerals. In addition, mercury mineralization is strongly enhanced by interactions with organic matter, so the relatively recent pulse of new Hg minerals may reflect the rise of a terrestrial biosphere at similar to 400 Ma.

Heimbuerger, Lars-Eric; Cossa, Daniel; Thibodeau, Benoit; Natural and anthropogenic trace metals in sediments of the Ligurian Sea (Northwestern Mediterranean) //CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Volume: 291 Pages: 141-151 Published: JAN 6 2012

The magnitude and the chronology of anthropogenic impregnation by Hg and other trace metals of environmental concern (V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd and Pb, including its stable isotopes) in the sediments are determined at the DYFAMED station, a site in the Ligurian Sea (Northwestern Mediterranean) chosen for its supposed open-sea characteristics. The DYFAMED site (VD) is located on the right levee of the Var Canyon turbidite system, at the end of the Middle Valley. In order to trace the influence of the gravity current coming from the canyon on trace metal distribution in the sediment, we studied an additional sediment core (VA) from a terrace of the Var Canyon, and material collected in sediment traps at the both sites at 20 m above sea bottom. The patterns of Hg and other trace element distribution profiles are interpreted using stable Pb isotope ratios as proxies for its sources, taking into account the sedimentary context (turbidites, redox conditions, and sedimentation rates). Major element distributions, coupled with the stratigraphic examination of the sediment cores point out the high heterogeneity of the deposits at VA, and major turbiditic events at both sites. At the DYFAMED site, we observed direct anthropogenic influence in the upper sediment layer (<2 cm), while on the Var Canyon site (VA), the anthropization concerns the whole sedimentary column sampled (19 cm). Turbiditic events superimpose their specific signature on trace metal distributions.

Holloway, Joann M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Scow, Kate M.; Spatial and seasonal variations in mercury methylation and microbial community structure in a historic mercury mining area, Yolo County, California //Conference: Annual Fall American-Geophysical-Union Meeting Location: San Francisco, CA Date: DEC 13-14, 2008 CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Volume: 267 Issue: 1-2 Pages: 85-95 Published: SEP 15 2009

The relationships between soil parent lithology, nutrient concentrations, microbial biomass and community structure were evaluated in soils from a small watershed impacted by historic Hg mining. Upland and wetland Soils, stream sediments and tailings were collected and analyzed for nutrients (DOC, SO(4)(=), NO(3)(-)), Hg, MeHg, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). Stream sediment was derived from serpentinite, siltstone, volcanic rocks and mineralized serpentine with cinnabar, metacinnabar and other Hg phases. Soils from different parent materials had distinct PLFA biomass and community structures that are related to nutrient concentrations and toxicity effects of trace metals including Hg. The formation of MeHg appears to be most strongly linked to soil moisture, which in turn has a correlative relationship with PLFA biomass in wetland soils. The greatest concentrations of MeHg (>0.5 ng g(-1) MeHg) were measured in wetland soils and soil with a volcanic parent (9.5-37 mu g g(-1) Hg). Mercury methylation was associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria, including Desulfobacter sp. and Desulfovibrio sp., although these organisms are not exclusively responsible for Hg methylation. Statistical models of the data demonstrated that soil microbial communities varied more with soil type than with season.

Larose, Catheririe; Dommergue, Aurelien; De Angelis, Martine; Springtime changes in snow chemistry lead to new insights into mercury methylation in the Arctic //GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Volume: 74 Issue: 22 Pages: 6263-6275 Published: NOV 15 2010

Seasonal snow is an active media and an important climate factor that governs nutrient transfer in Arctic ecosystems. Since the snow stores and transforms nutrients and contaminants, it is of crucial importance to gain a better understanding of the dynamics of contaminant cycling within the snowpack and its subsequent release to catchments via meltwater. Over the course of a two-month field study in the spring of 2008, we collected snow and meltwater samples from a seasonal snowpack in Ny-Alesund, Norway (78 degrees 56'N, 11 degrees 52'E), which were analyzed for major inorganic ions and some organic acids, as well as total, dissolved, bioavailable mercury (THg, DHg, BioHg, respectively) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) species. We observe a seasonal gradient for ion concentrations, with surface samples becoming less concentrated as the season progressed. A significant negative correlation between BioHg and MMHg was observed in the snowpack. MMHg was positively and significantly correlated to methanesulfonate concentrations. Based on these results, we propose a new model for aerobic methylation of mercury involving species in the dimethylsulfoniopropionate cycle.

Lin, Chunye; He, Mengchang; Liu, Shaoqing; Contents, Enrichment, Toxicity and Baselines of trace elements in the estuarine and coastal sediments of the Daliao River System, China //GEOCHEMICAL JOURNAL Volume: 46 Issue: 5 Pages: 371-380 Published: 2012

The Daliao River System (DRS) estuary in the Liaodong Bay has a highly industrial, urbanized, and agricultural catchment. The objective of this study was to investigate the multi-elemental geochemistry in the estuarine and coastal sediments, including enrichment, sources, toxicity, and eeochemical baselines. Thirty-five sediment samples were collected from the estuarine and coastal area and analyzed for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, V, Y. Zn, P, Mn, Ti, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, and K. The average content (mg/kg) was 11.4 for As, 0.34 for Cd, 10.2 for Co, 60.8 for Cr, 20.0 for Cu, 0.05 for Hg, 22.6 for Ni, 26.6 for Pb, 71.8 for Zn, and 0.68 for Sb. The enrichment factor (EF) values of the trace elements, relative to the upper continental crust (UCC), ranged from 7.06 for As to 1.04 for Co, using Fe as a reference element. In general, As, Cd, and Sb were significantly or moderately enriched, while the other trace elements were not or were minimally enriched. The As and Ni in the sediments may pose potential toxicity to biota, while the Cd, Cr, Cu, He, Pb, and Zn might rarely or not pose toxicity. All elements except Ca, K. and Na were significantly and positively correlated with one another, with correlation coefficients of 0.523 to 0.994. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed three groups of elements in association with secondary clay minerals, primary minerals, and carbonate minerals. Generally, the Cr, Cu, He, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the sediments originated from natural sources and their regional geochemical baselines (RGBs) were developed using Fe as a reference element. These RGBs may help identify the origins of these metals in the sediments of the Liaodong Bay and document their change over time.

Liu, Jinling; Feng, Xinbin; Yin, Runsheng; Mercury distributions and mercury isotope signatures in sediments of Dongjiang, the Pearl River Delta, China //CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Volume: 287 Issue: 1-2 Pages: 81-89 Published: AUG 7 2011

The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is one of the most industrialized and urbanized regions in China. In order to assess the pollution status of mercury (Hg) in PRD river system, the distribution of total mercury (HgT) and methylmercury (Me-Hg) in sediment from a large river named Dongjiang (DJ) was for the first time investigated. HgT concentrations in sediment increased from the upstream to downstream of Dongjiang area and at most sites of DJ were significantly higher than the background values, which suggested that the DJ was contaminated with Hg, especially in the downstream of DJ. Me-Hg concentrations in sediment of DJ ranged from 0.56 to 10.62 ng/g, and were significantly correlated with HgT and organic matter. In order to determine the potential Hg contamination sources, typical sediments from different parts of DJ were chosen for Hg isotope analysis. The results showed that the mass-dependent fraction (MDF) in the sediments varied significantly ( delta(202)Hg, -2.35 to -0.60 parts per thousand), and the mass-independent fraction (MIF) in the sediments also varied considerably (Delta(199)Hg: -0.02 to -0.27 parts per thousand). The samples with the highest HgT located in the industrial area had the highest delta(202)Hg (-1.14 parts per thousand to -0.60 parts per thousand) measured values and insignificant MIF (Delta(199)Hg: -0.04 to -0.01 parts per thousand). Meanwhile, the samples with the lowest HgT located in the background area had the lowest delta(202)Hg ( -2.16 parts per thousand to -1.55 parts per thousand) and Delta(199)Hg (-0.20 to -0.27 parts per thousand) measured values. Unlike the above two cases are the samples located in the urban area, which have relative lower MDF (delta(202)Hg: -2.35 parts per thousand to -1.96 parts per thousand) and small but significant MIF (Delta(199)Hg: -0.10 parts per thousand to -0.08 parts per thousand) with relative higher HgT. We demonstrated that the dominant Hg sources in DJ sediments could be categorized as the regional background, urban and industrial sources. In our study, we demonstrated that Hg stable isotope method could serve as an effective tool for tracing mercury contamination sources in the environment.

Martin, R. S.; Witt, M. L. I.; Pyle, D. M.; Rapid oxidation of mercury (Hg) at volcanic vents: Insights from high temperature thermodynamic models of Mt Etna's emissions //CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Volume: 283 Issue: 3-4 Pages: 279-286 Published: APR 22 2011

A major uncertainty regarding the environmental impacts of volcanic Hg is the extent to which Hg is deposited locally or transported globally. An important control on dispersion and deposition is the oxidation state of Hg compounds: Hg(0) is an inert, insoluble gas, while Hg(II) occurs as reactive gases or in particles, which deposit rapidly and proximally, near the volcanic vent. Using a new high temperature thermodynamic model, we show that although Hg in Etna's magmatic gases is almost entirely Hg(0) (i.e., gaseous elemental mercury), significant quantities of Hg(II) are likely formed at Etna's vents as gaseous HgCl2, when magmatic gases are cooled and oxidised by atmospheric gases. These results contrast with an earlier model study and allow us to explain recent measurements of Hg speciation at the crater rim of Etna without invoking rapid (<1 min) low temperature oxidation processes. We further model Hg speciation for a series of additional magmatic gas compositions. Compared to Etna, Hg(II) production (i.e., Hg(II)/Hg-tot) is enhanced in more HCl-rich magmatic gases, but is independent of the Hg, HBr and HI content of the magmatic gases. Hg(II) production is not strongly influenced by the initial oxidation state of magmatic gases above NNO, although production is hindered in more reduced magmatic gases. The model and results are widely applicable to other open-vent volcanoes and may be used to improve the accuracy of chemical kinetic models for low temperature Hg speciation in volcanic plumes.

Martin, R. S.; Witt, M. L. I.; Sawyer, G. M.;Bioindication of volcanic mercury (Hg) deposition around Mt. Etna (Sicily) /CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Volume: 310 Pages: 12-22 Published: JUN 5 2012

Mt. Etna is a major natural source of Hg to the Mediterranean region. Total mercury concentrations, [Hg](tot), in Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) leaves sampled 7-13 km from Etna's vents (during six campaigns in 2005-2011) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. [H-g](tot), in C. sativa was greatest on Etna's SE flank reflecting Hg deposition from the typically overhead volcanic plume. [Hg](tot) also showed Hg accumulation over the growing season, increasing with leaf age and recent eruptive activity. [Hg](tot) in C. sativa was not controlled by [Hg](tot) in soils, which instead was greatest on Etna's NW flank, and was correlated with the proportion of organic matter in the soil (% Org). An elevated [Hg](tot)/% Org ratio in soils on Etna's SE flank is indicative of increased Hg deposition. This ratio was also found to decrease with local soil pH, suggesting that Hg deposited to the low pH and organic-poor soils on Etna's SE flank may not be retained but will instead be released to groundwater or re-emitted to the atmosphere. These results show that the deposition of volcanic Hg has clear impacts and confirm that Etna is an important source of Hg to the local environment.

Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A. Mine Wastes and Human Health //ELEMENTS Volume: 7 Issue: 6 Pages: 399-404 Published: DEC 2011

Historical mining and mineral processing have been linked definitively to health problems resulting from occupational and environmental L exposures to mine wastes. Modern mining and processing methods, when properly designed and implemented, prevent or greatly reduce potential environmental health impacts. However, particularly in developing countries, there are examples of health problems linked to recent mining. In other cases, recent mining has been blamed for health problems but no clear links have been found. The types and abundances of potential toxicants in mine wastes are predictably influenced by the geologic characteristics of the deposit being mined. Hence, Earth scientists can help understand, anticipate, and mitigate potential health issues associated with mining and mineral processing.

Rinklebe, Joerg; During, Anja; Overesch, Mark; Optimization of a simple field method to determine mercury volatilization from soils-Examples of 13 sites in floodplain ecosystems at the Elbe River (Germany) //ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING Volume: 35 Issue: 2 Pages: 319-328 Published: FEB 9 2009

Mercury fluxes between soil and atmosphere have often been determined by using dynamic flux chambers and micrometeorological methods to assess ecological risks. However, both systems are complex, stationary, and expensive impeding measurements of Hg emissions at various field sites. The mobile, easy to handle, and cost-effective field method to determine total gaseous mercury (TGM), according to [Bohme, F., Rinklebe, J., Stark, H.-J., Wennrich, R., Mothes, S., Neue, H.-U., 2005. A simple field method to determine mercury volatilisation from soils. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (ESPR), 12: 133-135] creates a drop in air pressure that enhance the Hg emission. We optimized the sampling set-up using an air circulation system resulting in a continuous air flow over the soil surface. Thus, a drop in air pressure can be avoided and the detected TGM emissions are closer to reality. Additional benefits are an in-ground cylinder which inhibits lateral flow of gaseous mercury and the reduced size of the glass socket facilitating handling. To test the suitability of the optimized method, TGM emissions have been quantified on a set of Hg-contaminated riverine soils. Compared with non-polluted soils, mean Hg fluxes were strongly increased (between 138 and 711 ng m(-2) h(-1)) and showed high spatial heterogeneity. Due to impacts of multiple environmental conditions that affect TGM emissions, no significant correlations have been found between Hg stocks in bulk soils and Hg fluxes.

Rose, Neil L.; Yang, Handong; Turner, Simon D.; An assessment of the mechanisms for the transfer of lead and mercury from atmospherically contaminated organic soils to lake sediments with particular reference to Scotland, UK //GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Volume: 82 Pages: 113-135 Published: APR 1 2012

While the sediment records of upland lakes are known to be valuable natural archives of depositional changes, recent studies in the UK have shown that full basin records of trace metals are not showing the decline expected as a result of the massive reduction in emissions since the 1970s. As trends in metal deposition across Europe are known to be declining, this 'additional' trace metal input to upland lakes can only be the result of mobilisation from catchment storage. We undertook a multiple sediment core, multi-pollutant study at nine lakes across Scotland to test hypotheses that this additional input was a result of (i) a simple time-lag; (ii) catchment soil erosion; (iii) leaching with dissolved organic carbon. We constructed decadally resolved full basin inventories for Pb, Hg and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), a particulate component of flyash, at lakes with thin soils, lakes with eroded soils and lakes with non-eroded soils in their catchments to assess temporal trends. The use of both trace metals and SCPs allowed a comparison between erosive (SCPs and metals) and leaching (metals only) processes. Our results showed that the full basin inventories for Hg, Pb and SCPs for lakes with thin catchment soils had similar temporal trends to those of atmospheric emissions and deposition. For lakes with significantly eroded catchment soils, increasing trends in inventories continued to the most recent decades while those with non-eroded soils showed an intermediate pattern with some similarity to atmospheric deposition patterns, but with a reduced recent decline. We conclude that catchment soil erosion is the main transfer mechanism for trace metals at these sites and that although the leaching of metals bound to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may play a role this appears to be less significant. The processes that lead to soil erosion and leaching of DOC from the catchment are exacerbated by increased winter rainfall, prolonged summer drought and increased frequency of high intensity rain events. Hence, predicted climatic changes will increase pollutant transfer from catchment to surface waters. The catchment storage of deposited pollutants is a massive potential reservoir that could keep fluxes of contaminants to surface waters elevated for many decades to come. This would counteract the benefits of reductions in deposition resulting from policy implementations over recent decades and may elevate exposure of aquatic biota to these contaminants.

Silva Correia, Raquel Rose; Martins de Oliveira, Diana Ciannella; Davee Guimaraes, Jean Remy. Total Mercury Distribution and Volatilization in Microcosms with and Without the Aquatic Macrophyte Eichhornia Crassipes// AQUATIC GEOCHEMISTRY Volume: 18 Issue: 5 Pages: 421-432 Published: SEP 2012

Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic pollutants and spreads in the environment according to its affinity to several compartments. Aquatic macrophytes, such as Eichhornia crassipes, are known as sites for accumulation of Hg and methylmercury formation. The objective of this research was to observe Hg distribution among air, water and whole plants of the macrophyte E. crassipes for 17 days. The distribution of a single Hg-203 spike was evaluated by gamma spectrometry. Two experiments, with and without macrophytes, were made, and the compartments analyzed for the presence of Hg were air, 0.2-mu m filtered water, suspended and settled particles, roots, leafs, petioles and adsorption on the desiccators walls. Hg-203 was detected in all analyzed compartments, and the highest total Hg concentrations were found in the roots and particles of the incubations with and without macrophytes that retained in average 68 and 34 % of added Hg, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations were found in air for both incubations, with higher volatilization (up to 2.5 % of added Hg) in the absence of macrophytes. The lower Hg values in leafs and petioles suggest this plant has mechanisms of Hg retention in the roots. Results suggest this macrophyte promotes changes in the Hg cycle since it attracts most Hg present in water and particulate to its roots and settled particles underneath and also reduces Hg volatilization.

Sonke, Jeroen E.; Schaefer, Joerg; Chmeleff, Jerome; Sedimentary mercury stable isotope records of atmospheric and riverine pollution from two major European heavy metal refineries //CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Volume: 279 Issue: 3-4 Pages: 90-100 Published: DEC 13 2010

Variations in sediment total mercury (Hg) concentrations and Hg stable isotopic compositions were investigated in the vicinity of two former non-ferrous metal (zinc) refineries in Lommel (Kempen, Belgium) and Viviez (Aveyron, France). Contaminated Kempen sediment Hg levels are up to 6.8 mg kg(-1) corresponding to a peak in atmospheric Hg deposition of similar to 1.0 mg m(-2) year(-1) for the year 1968. Atmospheric and riverine Hg contamination from the zinc refinery point sources in Belgium and France present mass dependent (delta(202)Hg of -032 to + 0.71 parts per thousand) and small mass independent Hg isotope signatures (Delta(199)Hg of -0.15 to -0.04 parts per thousand) that are significantly different from local geochemical background Hg (delta(202)Hg of -1.44 to -0.75 parts per thousand; Delta(199)Hg of -0.35 to + 0.06 parts per thousand). In addition we found that selected sphalerite (ZnS) ore concentrates carry average delta(202)Hg of -0.65 +/- 1.33 parts per thousand. (2 sigma, n = 4), similar to published Hg minerals (mainly HgS) with delta(202)Hg of -0.64 +/- 1.82 parts per thousand (2 sigma, n = 125). Congolese ZnS ores from the Kipushi deposit show significant mass independent Hg isotope fractionation with average Delta(201)Hg of -0.09 +/- 0.02 parts per thousand, and Delta(199)Hg of -0.08 +/- 0.01 parts per thousand (2 sigma; n=3), possibly suggesting a partial atmospheric origin for trace Hg within the Kipushi ore deposit Similar to Zn and Cd isotopes, high temperature non-ferrous metal refining processes appear to preferentially retain the heavy Hg isotopes in slag residues: Hg contaminated Cajarc (France) river sediment delta(202)Hg values of + 022 +/- 0.52 parts per thousand. (2 sigma, n=17), considered to present an integrated picture of post-WWII 20th century slag tailing effluents, are significantly enriched in the heavier Hg isotopes relative to Kempen core B1 atmospheric Hg deposition with delta(202)Hg of -0.07 +/- 034 parts per thousand (2 sigma, n=10), as well as relative to Hg containing sulfide minerals with delta(202)Hg of -0.64 +/- 1.82 parts per thousand (2 sigma, n=125). The distinct Hg isotope signatures of natural and anthropogenic Hg suggest that tracing the various Hg emissions into regional Belgian and French ecosystems should be feasible. The highly elevated contamination of Hg in the Kempen warrants further study of local ecosystems including human exposure.

Tersic, Tamara; Gosar, Mateja; Sajn, Robert. Impact of mining activities on soils and sediments at the historical mining area in Podljubelj, NW Slovenia //JOURNAL OF GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION Volume: 100 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-10 Published: JAN 2009

The abandoned Hg mine in Podljubelj was in operation with interceptions from 1557 to 1902. The entire operating period yielded about 110000 tons of ore, from which 360 tons of Hg was produced. The objective of the research project was to establish the contents and spatial distribution of Hg in soils and stream sediments in the vicinity of the mine. On an area of 88 ha the soil was sampled in a 100x 100 m grid. Two soil horizons (0-5 cm and 20-30 cm) were sampled in order to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic Hg sources. It was established that on an area of about 9 ha Hg content in soil exceeds The New Dutchlist action value for Hg (10 mg/kg). Total Hg concentrations in soil samples vary between 0.17 and 719 mg/kg, with a mean of 3.0 mg/kg. Mercury contents in stream sediments range from 0.065 to 1.4 mg/kg, with a mean of 0.64 mg/kg. The highest determined value in soils was found in the area around the former roasting furnace, where the ore was processed. Increased Hg concentrations were also found on the mine waste dump (108 mg/kg). Mercury contents in soils generally decrease with soil profile depth and with the distance from the mine and from the roasting furnace location. Mercury also appears in higher concentrations along the road that runs through the valley. which results from the use of Hg-bearing ore residues in road construction. The average enrichment factor (EF) of Hg in topsoil with respect to subsoil is 3.3. Calculated enrichment factors show higher values also for Cd (3.2), Ph (2.7), Ca (2.4) and P (1.9). The average enrichment factor of Hg in topsoil with regard to the established Slovenian soil averages (EF(slo)) is 19. EF(slo) of other determined chemical elements do not exceed

von Glasow, Roland; Bobrowski, Nicole; Kern, Christoph The effects of volcanic eruptions on atmospheric chemistry //CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Volume: 263 Issue: 1-4 Special Issue: SI Pages: 131-142 Published: JUN 15 2009

Volcanoes are very strong sources of sulphur, acids and other gases, as well as particles, that are of atmospheric relevance. Some gases only behave as passive tracers, others affect the formation, growth or chemical characteristics of aerosol particles and many lead to adverse effects on vegetation and human health when deposited in the vicinity of volcanoes. In this article the main effects of volcanic emissions on atmospheric chemistry are discussed, with a focus on sulphur and halogen compounds, and to a smaller extent on climate. We primarily focus on quiescent degassing but the main effects of explosive eruptions on the troposphere and stratosphere are covered as well. The key distinction between chemistry in magmatic and hydrothermal settings and the atmosphere is that the atmosphere is oxidising whereas the chemistry is typically reducing in the former cases due to very low oxygen concentrations. Rapid catalytic cycles involving radicals are a further characteristic of atmospheric chemistry. Most reaction cycles involve the photolysis of molecules as a key part of the reaction chains. Recent measurements of halogen radicals in volcanic plumes showed that volcanic plumes are chemically very active. We explain the formation mechanism of halogen oxides in plumes as well as their relevance for the atmosphere. Volcanoes are very strong sources of sulphur, acids and other gases, as well as particles, that are of atmospheric relevance. Some gases only behave as passive tracers, others affect the formation, growth or chemical characteristics of aerosol particles and many lead to adverse effects on vegetation and human health when deposited in the vicinity of volcanoes. In this article the main effects of volcanic emissions on atmospheric chemistry are discussed, with a focus on sulphur and halogen compounds, and to a smaller extent on climate. We primarily focus on quiescent degassing but the main effects of explosive eruptions on the troposphere and stratosphere are covered as well. The key distinction between chemistry in magmatic and hydrothermal settings and the atmosphere is that the atmosphere is oxidising whereas the chemistry is typically reducing in the former cases due to very low oxygen concentrations. Rapid catalytic cycles involving radicals are a further characteristic of atmospheric chemistry. Most reaction cycles involve the photolysis of molecules as a key part of the reaction chains. Recent measurements of halogen radicals in volcanic plumes showed that volcanic plumes are chemically very active. We explain the formation mechanism of halogen oxides in plumes as well as their relevance for the atmosphere.

Wei Zhu, Jonas Sommar, Zhonggen Li, Xinbin Feng, Che-Jen Lin, Guanghui Li. Highly elevated emission of mercury vapor due to the spontaneous combustion of refuse in a landfill//Atmospheric Environment, Volume 79, November 2013, Pages 540-545

Refuse disposal (e.g., landfilling and incineration) have been recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emission globally. However, in-situ measurements of Hg emission from landfill or refuse dumping sites where fugitive spontaneous combustion occurs have not been reported. Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) concentration and emission flux were observed near spontaneous combustions of refuse at a landfill site in southwestern China. Ambient Hg0 concentrations above the refuse surface ranged from 42.7 ± 20.0 to 396.4 ± 114.2 ng m?3, up to 10 times enhancement due to the spontaneous burning. Using a box model with Hg0 data obtained from 2004 to 2013, we estimated that the Hg0 emission from refuse was amplified by 8–40 times due to spontaneous combustion. A micrometeorological flux measurement system based on relaxed eddy accumulation was configured downwind of the combustion sites to quantify the Hg0 emission. Extremely large turbulent deposition fluxes (up to ?128.6 ?g m?2 h?1, 20 min average) were detected during periods of high Hg0 concentration events over the measurement footprint. The effect of temperature, moisture and light on the air–surface exchange of Hg0 exchange was found to be masked by the overwhelming deposition of Hg0 from the enriched air from the refuse combustion plumes. This research reveals that mercury emission from the landfill refuse can be boosted by fugitive spontaneous combustion of refuse. The emission represents an anthropogenic source that has been overlooked in Hg inventory estimates.

Zintwana, Masibulele P.; Cawthorn, R. Grant; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Mercury in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa, and the Skaergaard Intrusion, Greenland //CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Volume: 320 Pages: 147-155 Published: AUG 6 2012

We present mercury concentrations for layered mafic rocks of the Bushveld Complex, the Skaergaard Intrusion, MORB and a Karoo dolerite sill as determined by combustion atomic absorption spectroscopy (combustion-AAS) with gold amalgamation pre-concentration. Mercury in the Bushveld Complex and the Skaergaard Intrusion is generally low, with about 1.1 and 0.8 ppb Hg on average, respectively. The Karoo dolerite sill (chill margins) and MORB have average Hg concentrations of 2.5 and 6.4 ppb, respectively. The reason for the low whole-rock Hg concentrations in layered mafic intrusions is that the element is incompatible with respect to the cumulus mineral assemblages. Our results show far lower Hg concentrations for the Skaergaard cumulates than previous measurements, and we find no evidence for preferential enrichment in plagioclase-rich rocks as previously reported. We attribute this difference to inaccurate analytical methodology of the early measurements. There are Hg enrichments in distinct levels in both intrusions. Mercury enrichments in the Bushveld Complex are observed near the top of the Lower Zone (2.4 ppb). in the Merensky Reef (at 8.6 ppb), the Platreef (at 3 ppb average), and in the Upper Zone, near the Main Magnetitite Layer (4.7 ppb). These enrichments are due to the concentration of Hg by sulfides as suggested by a positive correlation between Cu and Hg. There is no upward increase in Hg with stratigraphic height or positive correlation between Hg and Zr in the Bushveld Complex as would be expected if Hg acted as an immobile, incompatible element. The lack of correlation is explained by periodic degassing of the Bushveld magma chamber, in which volatile elements including Hg and S escaped. In contrast, the Skaergaard Intrusion probably did not degas, and there is Hg enrichment in the Sandwich Horizon (53 ppb) because of the combination of the incompatibility and the presence of sulfides.

А.М.Малов, М.Л.Александрова, М.Л.Александрова. АНТРОПОГЕННОЕ РТУТНОЕ ЗАГРЯЗНЕНИЕ ГОРОДСКОГО ГРУНТА//Medline.ru. 2011. Т. 12. № 2-1. С. 536-545.

Для оценки наличия ртути в окружающей среде Санкт-Петербурга использованы два методических подхода. В первом случае использовано прямое определение содержания ртути в верхнем почвенном слое грунта, которое показало среднее значение содержания ртути равным 0.182+0.105 мг/кг. Во втором случае использован метод косвенной оценки содержания ртути в верхнем почвенном слое грунта - по содержанию ртути в плодовых телах высших грибов. При этом получено значение 0.350+0.328 мг/кг. Таким образом, показано, что оба метода могут быть использованы для оценки загрязненности окружающей среды ртутью; в зависимости от задачи может быть использован тот или другой методический подход.

Гаевая Е.В., Захарова Е.В., Скипин Л.Н. ЭКОТОКСИКАНТЫ В ПТИЦЕВОДЧЕСКОЙ ПРОДУКЦИИ ТЮМЕНСКОГО РАЙОНА//Агропродовольственная политика России. 2013. № 4 (16). С. 45-48.

В статье рассмотрена возможность попадания свин- ца, кадмия, мышьяка и ртути в организм человека через продукцию птицеводства в условиях Тюмен- ского района. Установлено превышение нормативов по мышьяку в мышечной ткани и яйце птицы на пти- цефабрике «Тюменский бройлер». Значения кадмия в яйце птицы находились выше предельно допусти- мых концентраций на всех птицефабриках Тюмен- ского района.


У окуня из водоемов Европейской России с разным уровнем рН воды выявлены разнонаправленные изменения активности кишечных гликозидаз и кинетических характеристик гидролиза углеводов по мере накопления Hg в мышцах. У рыб из водоемов с нейтральным значением рН воды с ростом содержания Hg (0.05–0.30 мг на 1 кг сырой массы) амилолитическая активность снижается, активность сахаразы возрастает. Снижение константы Михаэлиса гидролиза углеводов отражает адаптивное увеличение фермент-субстратного сродства. У рыб из ацидных озер накопление Hg в мышечной ткани составляет 0.18–0.86 мг на 1 кг сырой массы. С ростом ее содержания активность гликозидаз и фермент-субстратное сродство в большинстве случаев снижаются, негативно влияя на скорость ассимиляции углеводных компонентов пищи.

Гусев А.И., Гусева О.И. БИОГЕОХИМИЧЕСКИЕ ИНДИКАТОРЫ НАКОПЛЕНИЯ ТЯЖЕЛЫХ МЕТАЛЛОВ РАСТЕНИЯМИ НА ГОРНО-РУДНЫХ ПРЕДПРИЯТИЯХ ГОРНОГО И РУДНОГО АЛТАЯ//Вестник Воронежского государственного университета. Серия: Геология. 2012. № 1. С. 194-199.

Техногенное загрязнение экосистем, вызванное деятельностью горно-рудных предприятий Рудного и Горного Алтая, оценено на основе биогеохимических индикаторов загрязнения. Содержание тяжелых металлов проанализировано в различных растениях вблизи горных предприятий. Тяжелые металлы поглощаются растениями селективно из почв и воздушной среды. Состав тяжелых металлов в растениях определяется составом руд на месторождениях. Аномальные содержания ртути в растениях Синюхинского рудного поля связаны с процессами цианирования золота на золотоизвлекающей фабрике.

Ефимова Н.В. МЕДИКО-ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ: РЕТРОСПЕКТИВНЫЙ АНАЛИЗ НА ПРИМЕРЕ ИРКУТСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ//Бюллетень Восточно-Сибирского научного центра СО РАМН. 2013. № 3-1 (91). С. 57-61

В статье представлены важные медико-экологические проблемы: сохранение эффекта воздействия загрязнения воздуха в последующих поколениях; экологические и медицинские последствия накопленной экологической опасности;учет региональных особенностей при гармонизации гигиенических нормативов; использование современных подходов к формированию целевых превентивных программ. Актуальность этих проблем рассмотрена на примере Иркутской области. Ведущими отраслями промышленности в регионе являются: энергетика, целлюлозно-бумажная и химическая, лесная и деревообрабатывающая промышленность, цветная металлургия, машиностроение. Концентрация индустрии на юге области привела к высокой техногенной нагрузке, что в условиях сниженной способности к самоочищению объектов окружающей среды приводит к формированию зон экологического неблагополучия. Долговременные экологически обусловленные медико-социальные проблемы связаны с высоким ртутным загрязнением Братского водохранилища, в настоящий период загрязненность рыбы несколько сократилась, но по-прежнему превышает ПДК. Среди сельского населения прибрежных районов выявлены признаки экспозиции ртутью: концентрация ртути в моче обследованных превышает допустимый уровень - в 10,5 % случаев; выше частота среди экспонированного населения вегетативной дисфункции (87 % в экспонированной группе против 43 % в контрольной; р < 0,05) и нарушений щитовидной железы (14,6 % у детей, подвергающихся воздействию, против 8,1 % в группе сравнения; р < 0,05). Цели экологической медицины должны включать идентификацию и предотвращение опасности, а также диагностику и лечение экологически обусловленных нарушений здоровья среди населения, подвергающегося негативному техногенному воздействию. Предлагается концепция разработки программ, направленных на координацию деятельности по предотвращению экологически обусловленных потерь.

Калинчук В.В., Аксентов К.И., Иванов М.В., Лопатников Е.А. АТОМАРНАЯ РТУТЬ В ПРИВОДНОМ СЛОЕ ВОЗДУХА СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАДНОЙ ЧАСТИ ЯПОНСКОГО МОРЯ ОСЕНЬЮ 2011 Г//Вестник Дальневосточного отделения Российской академии наук. 2012. № 3 (163). С. 58-66

Изучено распределение концентраций атомарной ртути в приводном слое воздуха северо-западной части Японского моря от южных берегов Приморья до возвышенности Ямато. Измерения проводились с 27 октября по 9 ноября 2011 г. в 58-м рейсе НИС «Академик М.А.Лаврентьев». Среднее содержание атомарной ртути за период исследования составило 2,2 ± 0,5 нг / м3. Перенос воздушных масс в район исследования осуществлялся преимущественно из северо-восточной части Китая. Определенная нами средняя концентрация ртути является повышенной относительно средних значений для районов, удаленных от антропогенных источников эмиссии ртути (Арктика, Тихий океан), но находится ниже фоновых уровней, установленных в соседних азиатских странах. Обнаружены также повышенные содержания ртути в воздухе, контролируемые, предположительно, поступлением от геологических объектов.


Осуществлен синтез порошкообразных целлюлозных сорбентов, содержащих химически иммобилизованный тиосемикарбазид. Установлена возможность использования полученного сорбента для концентрирования кобальта(II), ртути(II), кадмия(II) при рН = 9. Экспериментальные зависимости сорбционной емкости от равновесной концентрации элементов в растворе были аппроксимированы в координатах уравнением Ленгмюра, коэффициент корреляции полученных линейных функций сотавляет ? 0,99. Рассчитаны значения максимальной сорбционной емкости ( A мах) и константы равновесия для всех исследуемых металлов. Оценена возможность рентгенофлуоресцентного детектирования Сd(II), Co(II), Hg(II) в фазе сорбента. Значения пределов обнаружения составили 3.0 ± 0.1; 3.8 ± 0.1; 4.2 ± 0.1 мкг/таблетка ( m = 0.15 г) для Сd(II), Co(II), Hg(II) соответственно.

Локтионова Е.Г., Яковлева Л.В., Болонина Г.В. ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ЗАГРЯЗНЕНИЯ ВНУТРЕННИХ ВОДОЕМОВ Г. АСТРАХАНИ ТЯЖЕЛЫМИ МЕТАЛЛАМИ//Вестник Московского государственного областного университета. Серия: Естественные науки. 2012. № 2. С. 79-88.

В статье приводятся данные по уровню загрязнения внутренних водоемов г. Астрахани цинком, медью, свинцом, ртутью, никелем, кадмием. Прослеживается динамика изменения уровня загрязненности в течение пяти лет, с 2004 по 2008 гг., в разные сезоны года. Все результаты определений содержания тяжелых металлов статистически обработаны. Проведен анализ полученных данных, даны рекомендации по улучшению экологического состояния исследуемых водоемов с учетом их гидрологических особенностей, природно-климатических условий.


Выполнен обзор работ по моделированию атмосферных процессов в регионе оз. Байкал. Построена математическая модель распространения и осаждения ртути в регионе Южного Байкала - объекта Всемирного природного наследия ЮНЕСКО. Источниками выбросов Hg в этом регионе являются промышленные объекты городов Усолье-Сибирское, Ангарск, Шелехов, Иркутск, Слюдянка, Байкальск. Рассчитанные величины концентраций Hg оказались соответствующими по порядку величины данным немногочисленных измерений концентраций ртути в этом регионе. С использованием рассчитанных полей концентраций ртути выполнены оценки интенсивности осаждения ртути на подстилающую поверхность. Результаты по порядку величины соответствуют данным по содержанию ртути в снеговом покрове на опорных станциях региона. Выбросы Hg в атмосферу предприятиями Слюдянки и Байкальска составляют 72%, Иркутско-Черемховского промышленного комплекса - 28%. Менее значимый вклад этого комплекса объясняется удаленностью от озера и орографическими неоднородностями, препятствующими переносу примесей. Оценки влияния рельефа местности на перенос ртути в Прибайкалье показали, что при северо-западном ветре со скоростью 2 м/с Приморский хребет и Олхинское плато задерживают примерно третью часть от массы Hg, поступившей на озеро. В радиусе 5 км от одиночного источника оседает примерно 10% валового выброса ртути, что соответствует результатам других исследователей.

Мухамадиярова Р.В., Смирнова А.С. ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ РТУТИ В ПРИРОДНЫХ ТВЕРДЫХ ПРОБАХ// Вестник Московского университета. Серия 4: Геология. 2014. № 1. С. 43-47

Работа посвящена изучению содержания ртути в твердых образцах двумя вариантами метода атомно-абсорбционной спектрометрии (ААС): 1) использованием прямой термоэвакуации (термодесорбции) и 2) микроволнового разложения проб в агрессивной кислой среде с последующим анализом методом ААС. Отмечены преимущества и ограничения каждого метода. Показано, что, в отличие от экспрессного метода термоэвакуации, методика кислотного разложения позволяет анализировать широкий спектр твердофазных проб с высоким содержанием прочносвязанных форм ртути на высоком уровне, несмотря на сложности подготовки проб. Для почвенных разрезов и донных отложений с незначительным содержанием прочносвязанной ртути достигнуто хорошее согласование двух рассмотренных методик, что позволяет корректно сопоставлять полученные результаты, а их комплексное использование - расширить круг анализируемых природных объектов и получить достоверную информацию о содержании ртути.

Мухамадиярова Р.В., Смирнова А.С. ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ РТУТИ В ПРИРОДНЫХ ТВЕРДЫХ ПРОБАХ// Вестник Московского университета. Серия 4: Геология. 2014. № 1. С. 43-47.

Работа посвящена изучению содержания ртути в твердых образцах двумя вариантами метода атомно-абсорбционной спектрометрии (ААС): 1) использованием прямой термоэвакуации (термодесорбции) и 2) микроволнового разложения проб в агрессивной кислой среде с последующим анализом методом ААС. Отмечены преимущества и ограничения каждого метода. Показано, что, в отличие от экспрессного метода термоэвакуации, методика кислотного разложения позволяет анализировать широкий спектр твердофазных проб с высоким содержанием прочносвязанных форм ртути на высоком уровне, несмотря на сложности подготовки проб. Для почвенных разрезов и донных отложений с незначительным содержанием прочносвязанной ртути достигнуто хорошее согласование двух рассмотренных методик, что позволяет корректно сопоставлять полученные результаты, а их комплексное использование - расширить круг анализируемых природных объектов и получить достоверную информацию о содержании ртути.


Изучено содержание селена и токсичных элементов, к которым относятся тяжелые металлы (Hg, Pb, Cd), в кормах Амурской области. Представлены результаты влияния препаратов селена, включенных в состав рационов кур, на состояние обменных процессов в их организме и улучшение качества продукции.



Таловская А.В., Филимоненко Е.А., Осипова Н.А., Язиков Е.Г. РТУТЬ В ПЫЛЕАЭРОЗОЛЯХ НА ТЕРРИТОРИИ Г. ТОМСКА//Безопасность в техносфере. 2012. № 2. С. 30-34.

Представлены результаты изучения содержания ртути в пылеаэрозолях г. Томска в зимний период. Установлены ореолы потоков ртути с пылевыми атмосферными выпадениями, соответствующие положению предприятий топливно-энергетического комплекса, приборостроения и жилых районов с печным отоплением.

Удоденко Ю.Г., Девятова Т.А., Комов В.Т., Трегубов О.В. РТУТЬ В ГИДРОМОРФНЫХ ПОЧВАХ ВОРОНЕЖСКОГО ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО ПРИРОДНОГО БИОСФЕРНОГО ЗАПОВЕДНИКА//Вестник Воронежского государственного университета. Серия: Химия. Биология. Фармация. 2011. № 2. С. 148-153.

Исследованы концентрации ртути в гидроморфных почвах Воронежского заповедника. В качестве объектов исследований были выбраны пойменные лесные и болотные низинные почвы. Максимальные концентрации ртути отмечены в торфяных горизонтах всех исследованных типов почв. Они варьируют в пределах 0.079-0.212 мг/кг (среднее 0.128 мг/кг) в болотных низинных почвах, и 0.01-0.096 мг/кг, (среднее 0.051) в пойменных лесных почвах. Установлено, что высокие концентрации ртути обусловлены большим количеством органического вещества в торфяных горизонтах.


В статье приведены результаты расчёта, анализа и ранжирования рисков для здоровья населения Республики Алтай особо токсичных металлов на основании многолетних данных о загрязнении её территории ртутью, таллием и бериллием при многосредовом поступлении их в организм человека.

Федорец Ю.В., Шарова О.А., Косьяненко А.А., Аксентов К.И., Раков В.А., Васильева Л.Е. ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ МОНИТОРИНГ МОРСКОЙ БИОТЫ БУХТЫ АЛЕКСЕЕВА (ЗАЛИВ ПЕТРА ВЕЛИКОГО)// Известия Самарского научного центра Российской академии наук. 2011. Т. 13. № 1-6. С. 1386-1392.

Изучен видовой состав ихтиопланктона и макробентоса б. Алексеева. Установлено, что гибель икры рыб в море на ранних этапах развития связана в основном с факторами ветрового волнения, температуры и солености воды. Построена карта распределения ртути в поверхностном слое донных осадков.

Шишкунов В.М., Мытарев М.А. ПРОБЛЕМЫ ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО НОРМИРОВАНИЯ И ОЦЕНКИ СОСТОЯНИЯ ВОДНЫХ ЭКОСИСТЕМ НА ПРИМЕРЕ ТЯЖЕЛЫХ МЕТАЛЛОВ//Вестник Волгоградского государственного университета. Серия 3: Экономика. Экология. 2010. Т. 3. № 2. С. 217-220

В статье обосновывается необходимость разработки методологии экологического норми- рования. Проведен анализ содержания тяжелых металлов в водных экосистемах рек Донского бассейна и Волгоградского водохранилища у различных видов гидробионтов, их накопления в организмах с учетом пищевых рационов. Полученные результаты могут быть использованы для предварительного заключения об экологически допустимых концентрациях тяжелых металлов в водных экосистемах и фоновых уровнях.

Шулькин В.М., Иевлев Д.И. О СОДЕРЖАНИИ РТУТИ В ПРИРОДНЫХ ВОДАХ ПРИМОРЬЯ// Вестник Дальневосточного отделения Российской академии наук. 2013. № 2 (168). С. 98-105.

Впервые на территории Приморья определена концентрация растворенных и взвешенных форм ртути с пределом обнаружения 0,5 нг/л в речных водах с различным уровнем и типом антропогенной нагрузки. Содержание растворенных форм ртути в речных водах Приморья находится на уровне незагрязненных рек мира. Концентрация ртути в речной взвеси является более чувствительным показателем антропогенной нагрузки по сравнению с растворенными формами. Наиболее вероятная причина – высокая склонность растворенной ртути к сорбции на твердой фазе. Концентрация ртути в грунтовых водах, отобранных в колодцах, изменчива, но часто выше, чем в речных. Это отражает локальное воздействие эндогенных источников ртути, превышающих влияние антропогенной нагрузки на содержание элемента в природных водах.

Юсупов Д.В., Могилёв А.А., Тростянок Р.В. ГЕОХИМИЯ НАКОПЛЕНИЯ МЕТАЛЛОВ В ДОННЫХ ОТЛОЖЕНИЯХ ОЗЕР БЛАГОВЕЩЕНСКА//Вестник Амурского государственного университета. Серия: Естественные и экономические науки. 2013. № 61. С. 70-75

В работе приведены результаты изучения процессов миграции и концентрирования металлов в стратифицированных разрезах донных отложений озер, расположенных в импактной и рекреационной зонах г. Благовещенска. Многолетняя деятельность Благовещенской ТЭЦ привела к загрязнению территории водосборов и увеличению концентрации в поверхностных слоях донных отложений Ротаньего и Асташинских озер таких элементов как стронций, ртуть, свинец, молибден, медь, цинк, серебро, олово, сурьма. Вместе с этим геохимический состав донных отложений определяется геологическим строением водосборной площади, которая сложена интрузивными и осадочными комплексами пород.

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