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Журнальные статьи

Atkinson C.P. et al. Assessing the quality of sea surface temperature observations from drifting buoys and ships on a platform-by-platform basis // J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. 2013. Vol. 118, № 7. P. 3507–3529.

This study investigates how the quality of sea surface temperature (SST) observations made by drifting buoys (drifters) and ships for 1996-2010 can be improved through retrospective quality control (QC) against a reference field. The observations used are a blend of delayed mode data taken from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (versions 2.0 and 2.5) and real time data obtained from the Global Telecommunication System. A comparison of drifter and ship measurements on a platform-by-platform basis to high-quality SST estimates from the Along track scanning radiometer Reprocessing for Climate (ARC) project reveals drifter observations are generally of good quality but frequently suffer from gross errors, whilst ship observations are generally of worse quality and show a diverse range of measurement errors. QC procedures are developed which similarly assess drifter and ship SST observations through comparison with the Met Office Operational SST and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA). These procedures make use of seasonal background error variance estimates now available for OSTIA. Drifter observations displaying some commonly observed gross errors are flagged and ship callsigns whose observations are deemed unreliable are blacklisted. Validation of the QC outcomes against ARC and Argo demonstrates that this retrospective QC improves the quality of drifter and ship observations, though some limitations are discussed.

Bluteau C.E., Jones N.L., Ivey G.N. Turbulent mixing efficiency at an energetic ocean site // J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. 2013. Vol. 118, № 9. P. 4662–4672.

The unsteady and inhomogeneous forcing of the stratified ocean leads to highly variable turbulent temperature and velocity fields, both in space and time, complicating the characterization of mixing from field measurements. Mixing rates are often inferred indirectly from measurements of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation epsilon via Osborn's model K-rho = R-f/1-R-f epsilon/N-2 (N is the background stratification) by assuming the flux Richardson number R-f=0.17 is constant, despite continued debate on its relevance for environmental flows. From high-frequency velocity measurements, we estimate epsilon within meters of the continental slope and compute K-rho with three different models, which we compare to the turbulent diffusivity for heat K-T derived from colocated temperature measurements. We also infer R-f by equating Osborn's relationship for K-rho to our estimated K-T. Applying Osborn's model with a fixed R-f=0.17 overpredicted mixing rates by more than an order of magnitude. The other two models, which reduce the mixing efficiency with increasing magnitude of the ratio of the Ozmidov length scale L-O to the Kolmogorov length scale , fared better than Osborn's fixed model. The best agreement (within a factor of 2) was with a model derived from laboratory experiments, at much lower turbulent Reynolds numbers Re-T than our measurements, but covering a wide range of the ratio of L-O/eta. However, our observations correlated more strongly with the turbulent Re-T than with L-O/eta, likely because the Re-T measures the true separation between the largest and smallest turbulent overturns. Mixing rate predictions improved when the Re-T was used instead of L-O/eta.

Bogucki D.J. et al. Short surface waves in the Canadian Arctic in 2007 and 2008 // J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. 2013. Vol. 118, № 7. P. 3712–3722.

We have collected time series data of short oceanic waves as a part of the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008. Using a shipboard laser wave slope (LAWAS) system operating at 900 nm, we have obtained wave slopes measurements up to 60 rad m(-1) wave number. We have compared our in situ wave slopes with collocated and concurrent high-resolution upwind Normalized Radar Cross Sections (NRCS) collected by QuikSCAT. The LAWAS measured wave slope spectra were consistent with local wind speeds and QuikSCAT measured NRCS. Our measured short wave mean slopes indicate their enhancement by long waves (0-1 rad m(-1)) at small values of long-wave slope. Concurrent with wave slope measurements, the strength of the reflected LAWAS light beam was analyzed in terms of the light attenuation coefficient at 900 nm. We have observed a correlation between surface elevation and light attenuation. The mechanism of wave modulated beam attenuation was found to be related to the instantaneous long wave skewness.

Bruinsma S.L. et al. The new ESA satellite-only gravity field model via the direct approach // Geophys. Res. Lett. 2013. Vol. 40, № 14. P. 3607–3612.

Reprocessed Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) gravity gradient data were combined with data from Laser Geodynamics Satellite (LAGEOS) 1/2 and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to generate a satellite-only gravity field model to degree 260 using the direct approach, named DIR-R4. When compared to Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008), it is more accurate at low to medium resolution thanks to GOCE and GRACE data. When compared to earlier releases of ESA GOCE models, it is more accurate at high degrees owing to the larger amount of data ingested. It is also slightly more accurate than ESA's fourth release of the time-wise model (TIM-R4), as demonstrated by GPS/leveling, orbit determination tests, and an oceanographic evaluation. According to the formal, probably too optimistic by a factor of 2-2.5, cumulated geoid (1.3cm) and gravity anomaly (0.4 mGal) errors at 100km resolution, the GOCE mission objectives have been reached.

Carracedo L.I. et al. On the Mediterranean Water Composition // J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2016. Vol. 46, № 4. P. 1339–1358.

The Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) spills from the Mediterranean Sea (east North Atlantic basin) west off the Strait of Gibraltar. As MOW outflows, it entrains eastern North Atlantic Central Waters (ENACW) and Intermediate Waters to form the neutrally buoyant Mediterranean Water (MW) that can be traced over the entire North Atlantic basin. Its high salinity content influences the thermohaline properties of the intermediate-deep water column in the North Atlantic and its dynamics. Here, the composition of MW in its source region (the Gulf of Cadiz, west off Strait of Gibraltar) is investigated on the basis of an optimum multiparameter analysis. The results obtained indicate that mixing of MOW (34.1% +/- 0.3%) occurs mainly with overlying ENACW (57.1% +/- 0.8%) in a process broadly known as central water entrainment. A diluted form (80% of dilution) of the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) reaches the region and also takes part in MW formation (8.3% +/- 0.5%). Finally, the underlying Labrador Sea Water (LSW) also contributes (0.4% +/- 0.1%) to the characteristics of MW. From these results and considering 0.74 Sverdrups (Sv; 1 Sv equivalent to 10(6) m(3) s(-1)) as the mean outflow of MOW, the MW exportation rate was inferred (2.2 Sv), which, decomposing MW, means that the MOW outflow is accompanied by 1.24 Sv of entrained ENACW, 0.18 Sv of AAIW, and <0.01 Sv of LSW.

Chang Y.-L., Oey L.-Y. Instability of the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent // J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2014. Vol. 44, № 3. P. 818–833.

The North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) has a weak eastward velocity near the surface, but the region is populated with eddies. Studies have shown that the STCC is baroclinically unstable with a peak growth rate of 0.015 day(-1) in March, and the similar to 60-day growth time has been used to explain the peak eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in May observed from satellites. It is argued here that this growth time from previously published normal-mode instability analyses is too slow. Growth rates calculated from an initial-value problem without the normal-mode assumption are found to be 1.5 to 2 times faster and at shorter wavelengths, due to the existence of (i) nonmodal solutions and (ii) sea surface temperature front in the mixed layer in winter. At interannual time scales it is shown that because of rapid surface adjustments, the STCC geostrophic shear, hence also the instability growth, is approximately in phase with surface forcing, leading to EKE modulation that peaks approximately 10 months later. However, the EKE can only be partially explained by this mechanism of modulation by baroclinic instability. It is suggested that the unexplained variance may be caused additionally by modulation of the EKE by dissipation.

Chiswell S.M. Lagrangian Time Scales and Eddy Diffusivity at 1000m Compared to the Surface in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans // J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2013. Vol. 43, № 12. P. 2718–2732.

Argo floats cannot be regarded as true Lagrangian drifters because they periodically rise to the surface. Hence, previous estimates of eddy diffusivity at depth using single-particle statistics have been limited to one submerged cycle. However, unless the Lagrangian time scale is significantly shorter than the Argo cycle time, this single-particle calculation can have a large bias. Here, eddy diffusivity computed from single-particle statistics using Argo data is compared to that computed by assuming that Eulerian scales at depth are the same as at the surface, and that the relationship between Lagrangian and Eulerian time scales derived by Middleton is valid. If the methods provide the same answer, one can have confidence in both methods. Eddy diffusivity calculated from the single-particle statistics shows the same spatial structure as that computed from inferred time scale, but is smaller by a factor of about 2. It is suggested that this is because the deep Lagrangian time scale over much of the region is comparable to, or longer than, the 10-day Argo submergence cycle.

Christou M., Ewans K. Field Measurements of Rogue Water Waves // J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2014. Vol. 44, № 9. P. 2317–2335.

This paper concerns the collation, quality control, and analysis of single-point field measurements from fixed sensors mounted on offshore platforms. In total, the quality-controlled database contains 122 million individual waves, of which 3649 are rogue waves. Geographically, the majority of the field measurements were recorded in the North Sea, with supplementary data from the Gulf of Mexico, the South China Sea, and the North West shelf of Australia. The significant wave height ranged from 0.12 to 15.4 m, the peak period ranged from 1 to 24.7s, the maximum crest height was 18.5 m, and the maximum recorded wave height was 25.5 m. This paper will describe the offshore installations, instrumentation, and the strict quality control procedure employed to ensure a reliable dataset. An examination of sea state parameters, environmental conditions, and local characteristics is performed to gain an insight into the behavior of rogue waves. Evidence is provided to demonstrate that rogue waves are not governed by sea state parameters. Rather, the results are consistent with rogue waves being merely extraordinary and rare events of the normal population caused by dispersive focusing.

de Lavergne C. et al. On the Consumption of Antarctic Bottom Water in the Abyssal Ocean // J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2016. Vol. 46, № 2. P. 635–661.

The abyssal ocean is primarily filled by cold, dense waters formed around Antarctica and collectively referred to as Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). At steady state, AABW must be consumed in the ocean interior at the same rate it is produced, but how and where this consumption is achieved remains poorly understood. Here, estimates of abyssal water mass transformation by geothermal heating and parameterized internal wave-driven mixing are presented. This study uses maps of the energy input to internal waves by tidal and geostrophic motions interacting with topography combined with assumptions about the distribution of energy dissipation to evaluate dianeutral transports induced by breaking internal tides and lee waves. Geothermal transformation is assessed based on a map of geothermal heat fluxes. Under the hypotheses underlying the constructed climatologies of buoyancy fluxes, the authors calculate that locally dissipating internal tides and geothermal heating contribute, respectively, about 8 and 5 Sverdrups (Sv; 1 Sv equivalent to 10(6) m(3) s(-1)) of AABW consumption (upwelling), mostly north of 30 degrees S. In contrast, parameterized lee wave-driven mixing causes significant transformation only in the Southern Ocean, where it forms about 3 Sv of AABW, decreasing the mean density but enhancing the northward flow of abyssal waters. The possible role of remotely dissipating internal tides in complementing AABW consumption is explored based on idealized distributions of mixing energy. Depending mostly on the chosen vertical structure, such mixing could drive 1 to 28 Sv of additional AABW upwelling, highlighting the need to better constrain the spatial distribution of remote dissipation. Though they carry large uncertainties, these climatological transformation estimates shed light on the qualitative functioning and key unknowns of the diabatic overturning.

de Steur L. et al. Hydrographic changes in the Lincoln Sea in the Arctic Ocean with focus on an upper ocean freshwater anomaly between 2007 and 2010 // J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. 2013. Vol. 118, № 9. P. 4699–4715.

Hydrographic data from the Arctic Ocean show that freshwater content in the Lincoln Sea, north of Greenland, increased significantly from 2007 to 2010, slightly lagging changes in the eastern and central Arctic. The anomaly was primarily caused by a decrease in the upper ocean salinity. In 2011 upper ocean salinities in the Lincoln Sea returned to values similar to those prior to 2007. Throughout 2008-2010, the freshest surface waters in the western Lincoln Sea show water mass properties similar to fresh Canada Basin waters north of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. In the northeastern Lincoln Sea fresh surface waters showed a strong link with those observed in the Makarov Basin near the North Pole. The freshening in the Lincoln Sea was associated with a return of a subsurface Pacific Water temperature signal although this was not as strong as observed in the early 1990s. Comparison of repeat stations from the 2000s with the data from the 1990s at 65 degrees W showed an increase of the Atlantic temperature maximum which was associated with the arrival of warmer Atlantic water from the Eurasian Basin. Satellite-derived dynamic ocean topography of winter 2009 showed a ridge extending parallel to the Canadian Archipelago shelf as far as the Lincoln Sea, causing a strong flow toward Nares Strait and likely Fram Strait. The total volume of anomalous freshwater observed in the Lincoln Sea and exported by 2011 was close to 1100250km3, approximately 13% of the total estimated FW increase in the Arctic in 2008.

de Verdiere A.C., Ollitrault M. A Direct Determination of the World Ocean Barotropic Circulation // J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2016. Vol. 46, № 1. P. 255–273.

The time-mean Argo float displacements and the World Ocean Atlas 2009 temperature-salinity climatology are used to obtain the total, top to bottom, mass transports. Outside of an equatorial band, the total transports are the sum of the vertical integrals of geostrophic- and wind-driven Ekman currents. However, these transports are generally divergent, and to obtain a mass conserving circulation, a Poisson equation is solved for the streamfunction with Dirichlet boundary conditions at solid boundaries. The value of the streamfunction on islands is also part of the unknowns. This study presents and discusses an energetic circulation in three basins: the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, and the Southern Ocean. This global method leads to new estimations of the time-mean western Eulerian boundary current transports maxima of 97 Sverdrups (Sv; 1 Sv 10(6) m(3) s(-1)) at 60 degrees W for the Gulf Stream, 84 Sv at 157 degrees E for the Kuroshio, 80 Sv for the Agulhas Current between 32 degrees and 36 degrees S, and finally 175 Sv for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current at Drake Passage. Although the large-scale structure and boundary of the interior gyres is well predicted by the Sverdrup relation, the transports derived from the wind stress curl are lower than the observed transports in the interior by roughly a factor of 2, suggesting an important contribution of the bottom torques. With additional Argo displacement data, the errors caused by the presence of remaining transient terms at the 1000-db reference level will continue to decrease, allowing this method to produce increasingly accurate results in the future.

Dolores Perez-Hernandez M., Joyce T.M. Two Modes of Gulf Stream Variability Revealed in the Last Two Decades of Satellite Altimeter Data // J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2014. Vol. 44, № 1. P. 149–163.

Monthly mapped sea level anomalies (MSLAs) of the NW Atlantic in the region immediately downstream of the Gulf Stream (GS) separation point reveal a leading mode in which the path shifts approximately 100 km meridionally about a nominal latitude of 39 degrees N, producing coherent sea level anomaly (SLA) variability from 72 degrees to 50 degrees W. This mode can be captured by use of a simple 16-point index based on SLA data taken along the maximum of the observed variability in the region 33 degrees-46 degrees N and 45 degrees-75 degrees W. The GS shifts between 2010 and 2012 are the largest of the last decade and equal to the largest of the entire record. The second group of EOF modes of variability describes GS meanders, which propagate mainly westward interrupted by brief periods of eastward or stationary meanders. These meanders have wavelengths of approximately 400 km and can be seen in standard EOFs by spatial phase shifting of a standing meander pattern in the SLA data. The spectral properties of these modes indicate strong variability at interannual and longer periods for the first mode and periods of a few to several months for the meanders. While the former is quite similar to a previous use of the altimeter for GS path, the simple index is a useful measure of the large-scale shifts in the GS path that is quickly estimated and updated without changes in previous estimates. The time-scale separation allows a low-pass filtered 16-point index to be reflective of large-scale, coherent shifts in the GS path.

Eden C., Czeschel L., Olbers D. Toward Energetically Consistent Ocean Models // J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2014. Vol. 44, № 12. P. 3160–3184.

Possibilities to construct a realistic quasi-global ocean model in Boussinesq approximation with a closed energy cycle are explored in this study. In such a model, the energy related to the mean variables would interact with all parameterized forms of energy without any spurious energy sources or sinks. This means that the energy available for interior mixing in the ocean would be only controlled by external energy input from the atmosphere and the tidal system and by internal exchanges. In the current implementation of such a consistent model, however, numerical biases and sources due to the nonlinear equation of state violate energy conservation, resulting in an overall residual up to several percent. In three (approximately) consistent model versions with different scenarios of mesoscale eddy dissipation, the parameterized internal wave field provides between 2 and 3 TW for interior mixing from the total external energy input of about 4 TW, such that a transfer between 0.3 and 0.4 TW into mean potential energy contributes to drive the large-scale circulation in the model. In contrast, the wind work on the mean circulation contributes by about 1.8 TW to the large-scale circulation in all model versions. It is shown that the consistent model versions are more energetic than standard and inconsistent model versions and in better agreement with hydrographic observations.

Frankcombe L.M., Dijkstra H.A. Internal Modes of Multidecadal Variability in the Arctic Ocean // J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2010. Vol. 40, № 11. P. 2496–2510.

Observations of sea ice extent and atmospheric temperature in the Arctic, although sparse, indicate variability on multidecadal time scales. A recent analysis of one of the global climate models [the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model, version 2.1 (CM2.1)] in the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has indicated that Arctic Ocean variability on these time scales is associated with changes in basin-wide salinity patterns. In this paper the internal modes of variability in an idealized Arctic Basin are determined by considering the stability of salinity-driven flows. An internal ocean mode with a multidecadal time scale is found, with a spatial pattern similar to that obtained in the analysis of the CM2.1 results. The modes propagate as a "saline Rossby wave" induced by the background salinity gradient.

Ha H.K. et al. Circulation and Modification of Warm Deep Water on the Central Amundsen Shelf // J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2014. Vol. 44, № 5. P. 1493–1501.

The circulation pathways and subsurface cooling and freshening of warm deep water on the central Amundsen Sea shelf are deduced from hydrographic transects and four subsurface moorings. The Amundsen Sea continental shelf is intersected by the Dotson trough (DT), leading from the outer shelf to the deep basins on the inner shelf. During the measurement period, warm deep water was observed to flow southward on the eastern side of DT in approximate geostrophic balance. A northward outflow from the shelf was also observed along the bottom in the western side of DT. Estimates of the flow rate suggest that up to one-third of the inflowing warm deep water leaves the shelf area below the thermocline in this deep outflow. The deep current was 1.2 degrees C colder and 0.3 psu fresher than the inflow, but still warm, salty, and dense compared to the overlying water mass. The temperature and salinity properties suggest that the cooling and freshening process is induced by subsurface melting of glacial ice, possibly from basal melting of Dotson and Getz ice shelves. New heat budgets are presented, with a southward oceanic heat transport of 3.3 TW on the eastern side of the DT, a northward oceanic heat transport of 0.5-1.6 TW on the western side, and an ocean-to-glacier heat flux of 0.9-2.53 TW, equivalent to melting glacial ice at the rate of 83-237 km(3) yr(-1). Recent satellite-based estimates of basal melt rates for the glaciers suggest comparable values for the Getz and Dotson ice shelves.

Isachsen P.E. et al. Observations of the ocean response to cold air outbreaks and polar lows over the Nordic Seas // Geophys. Res. Lett. 2013. Vol. 40, № 14. P. 3667–3671.

The impact of intense atmospheric mesocyclonespolar lowson the ocean circulation at high latitudes, as well as the role of ocean feedbacks on the evolution of these atmospheric systems themselves, is under debate. Here, the upper ocean response to atmospheric forcing before, during, and after polar lows events over the Nordic Seas is studied. A set of 96 unique polar low tracks from 2002 to 2010 are collocated with satellite-based sea surface temperature and altimeter observations, and with surface drifter observations. The satellite data show systematic temperature and sea level drops and enhanced geostrophic kinetic energies over the days leading up to polar low events. These data however reveal little information about the ocean response to the polar lows themselves. The drifter observations largely agree with the satellite data on the response to synoptic conditions, but they also give indication of enhanced upper-ocean kinetic energies immediately following the passage of polar lows.

Kim J.-S., Kim K.-Y., Yeh S.-W. Statistical evidence for the natural variation of the central Pacific El Ni(n)over-tildeo // J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. 2012. Vol. 117. P. C06014.

Extensive studies claimed that the central equatorial Pacific (CP) El Ni (n) over tildeo has occurred more frequently and strongly than the eastern equatorial Pacific El Ni (n) over tildeo in recent years. To explain this phenomenon, spatial patterns and principal component time series from several sea surface temperature (SST) data sets in the tropical Pacific are analyzed for the period of 1951-2010. Cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function analysis separates two modes of SST variability, which explain about 50% and 10% of the total SST variability, respectively. Their spatial and temporal patterns are similar among the different SST data sets. The first mode captures the typical El Ni (n) over tildeo pattern, while the second mode is a dipole pattern in the tropical Pacific. The two modes are, by definition, uncorrelated over the analysis period but are in phase since the late 1990s; superposition of the two modes results in a significant warming in the CP region, which is a potential explanation for a more frequent occurrence of the CP El Ni (n) over tildeo in the recent decades. Similar analysis is conducted based on the 500 year data from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 2.1 under the preindustrial condition. The result is generally consistent with the observations yielding occasional in-phase relationship between the two modes. Thus, it cannot be ruled out that a more frequent occurrence of the CP El Ni (n) over tildeo in recent years is a natural feature of the equatorial climate system.

Kuhlmann J. et al. Ocean bottom pressure signals around Southern Africa from in situ measurements, satellite data, and modeling // J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. 2013. Vol. 118, № 10. P. 4889–4898.

Ocean bottom pressure (OBP) variability in the region of the Agulhas Current off the South African coast is a crucial variable in the understanding of dynamic processes in the ocean, but measurements currently available lack either precision or spatial and temporal coverage. We provide a quantitative estimate of OBP variability throughout the region with the help of a setup of the ROMS regional ocean model. Driving the model with boundary conditions from a global ocean model and atmospheric reanalysis data and running it for 8 years, we are able to reproduce many characteristic properties of the regional ocean circulation visible in sea surface height and OBP fields. While the in situ pressure-inverted echo sounders (PIES) measuring local OBP variations on short time scales are sparse in the region, our model provides a comprehensive estimate of OBP variations throughout the region which reach values of up to 15 hPa when barotropic Agulhas rings reach the Cape Basin. These signals turn out to be difficult to measure with current gravimetry solutions from the GRACE satellites, but estimates of localized noise levels for a GRACE follow-on mission let the search for them in future satellite measurements appear viable.

Lavergne T. et al. Sea ice motion from low-resolution satellite sensors: An alternative method and its validation in the Arctic // J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. 2010. Vol. 115. P. C10032.

The retrieval of sea ice motion with the Maximum Cross-Correlation (MCC) method from low-resolution (10-15 km) spaceborne imaging sensors is challenged by a dominating quantization noise as the time span of displacement vectors is shortened. To allow investigating shorter displacements from these instruments, we introduce an alternative sea ice motion tracking algorithm that builds on the MCC method but relies on a continuous optimization step for computing the motion vector. The prime effect of this method is to effectively dampen the quantization noise, an artifact of the MCC. It allows for retrieving spatially smooth 48 h sea ice motion vector fields in the Arctic. Strategies to detect and correct erroneous vectors as well as to optimally merge several polarization channels of a given instrument are also described. A test processing chain is implemented and run with several active and passive microwave imagers (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E), Special Sensor Microwave Imager, and Advanced Scatterometer) during three Arctic autumn, winter, and spring seasons. Ice motion vectors are collocated to and compared with GPS positions of in situ drifters. Error statistics are shown to be ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 km (standard deviation for components of the vectors) depending on the sensor, without significant bias. We discuss the relative contribution of measurement and representativeness errors by analyzing monthly validation statistics. The 37 GHz channels of the AMSR-E instrument allow for the best validation statistics. The operational low-resolution sea ice drift product of the EUMETSAT OSI SAF (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility) is based on the algorithms presented in this paper.

Lumpkin R., Johnson G.C. Global ocean surface velocities from drifters: Mean, variance, El Nino-Southern Oscillation response, and seasonal cycle // J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. 2013. Vol. 118, № 6. P. 2992–3006.

Global near-surface currents are calculated from satellite-tracked drogued drifter velocities on a 0.5 degrees x 0.5 degrees latitude-longitude grid using a new methodology. Data used at each grid point lie within a centered bin of set area with a shape defined by the variance ellipse of current fluctuations within that bin. The time-mean current, its annual harmonic, semiannual harmonic, correlation with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), spatial gradients, and residuals are estimated along with formal error bars for each component. The time-mean field resolves the major surface current systems of the world. The magnitude of the variance reveals enhanced eddy kinetic energy in the western boundary current systems, in equatorial regions, and along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, as well as three large eddy deserts, two in the Pacific and one in the Atlantic. The SOI component is largest in the western and central tropical Pacific, but can also be seen in the Indian Ocean. Seasonal variations reveal details such as the gyre-scale shifts in the convergence centers of the subtropical gyres, and the seasonal evolution of tropical currents and eddies in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. The results of this study are available as a monthly climatology.

Merchant C.J. et al. A 20 year independent record of sea surface temperature for climate from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers // J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. 2012. Vol. 117. P. C12013.

A new record of sea surface temperature (SST) for climate applications is described. This record provides independent corroboration of global variations estimated from SST measurements made in situ. Infrared imagery from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs) is used to create a 20 year time series of SST at 0.1 degrees latitude-longitude resolution, in the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate (ARC) project. A very high degree of independence of in situ measurements is achieved via physics-based techniques. Skin SST and SST estimated for 20 cm depth are provided, with grid cell uncertainty estimates. Comparison with in situ data sets establishes that ARC SSTs generally have bias of order 0.1 K or smaller. The precision of the ARC SSTs is 0.14 K during 2003 to 2009, from three-way error analysis. Over the period 1994 to 2010, ARC SSTs are stable, with better than 95% confidence, to within 0.005 K yr(-1) (demonstrated for tropical regions). The data set appears useful for cleanly quantifying interannual variability in SST and major SST anomalies. The ARC SST global anomaly time series is compared to the in situ-based Hadley Centre SST data set version 3 (HadSST3). Within known uncertainties in bias adjustments applied to in situ measurements, the independent ARC record and HadSST3 present the same variations in global marine temperature since 1996. Since the in situ observing system evolved significantly in its mix of measurement platforms and techniques over this period, ARC SSTs provide an important corroboration that HadSST3 accurately represents recent variability and change in this essential climate variable.

Moon W., Wettlaufer J.S. On the existence of stable seasonally varying Arctic sea ice in simple models // J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. 2012. Vol. 117. P. C07007.

Within the framework of lower order thermodynamic theories for the climatic evolution of Arctic sea ice we isolate the conditions required for the existence of stable seasonally-varying solutions, in which ice forms each winter and melts away each summer. This is done by constructing a two-season model from the continuously evolving theory of Eisenman and Wettlaufer (2009) and showing that seasonally-varying states are unstable under constant annual average short-wave radiative forcing. However, dividing the summer season into two intervals (ice covered and ice free) provides sufficient freedom to stabilize seasonal ice. Simple perturbation theory shows that the condition for stability is determined by the timing of when the ice vanishes in summer and hence the relative magnitudes of the summer heat flux over the ocean versus over the ice. This scenario is examined within the context of greenhouse gas warming, as a function of which stability conditions are discerned.

Nencioli F. et al. In situ estimates of submesoscale horizontal eddy diffusivity across an ocean front // J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. 2013. Vol. 118, № 12. P. 7066–7080.

In the last decade, the rapid advancements in computational power have favored the development of high-resolution numerical models capable of directly resolving small-scale structures such as fronts and filaments. Such models have greatly improved our understanding of submesoscale dynamics. At the same time, the small dimensions and short duration of these structures still pose major challenges for small-scale dedicated field experiments. For this reason, submesoscale studies from in situ observations are still relatively scarce and quantitative estimates of key physical parameters for high-resolution numerical models, such as horizontal eddy diffusivity, are still lacking. This study presents a novel approach for computing in situ horizontal eddy diffusivity associated with frontal structures by combining cross-front widths derived from surface thermosalinograph sections with stirring rates estimated from Lagrangian drifter trajectories. The method is applied to the measurements collected across a frontal structure observed in the western part of the Gulf of Lion during the Latex10 campaign (LAgrangian Transport EXperiment, 1-24 September 2010). A total of 76 estimates of eddy diffusivity were obtained for strain rates of 0.70 and 1.21 day(-1) and front widths (horizontal scales) ranging between 1 and 4 km. The estimates are log-normally distributed, with 70% of the values ranging between 0.4 and 5 m(2) s(-1). Further analysis based on high-resolution simulations and remote sensed observations, as well as dedicated field experiments will help to assess the robustness of some of the assumptions at the base of the proposed approach, and to extend the results to different ocean regions.

Prigent C. et al. Analysis of the potential and limitations of microwave radiometry for the retrieval of sea surface temperature: Definition of MICROWAT, a new mission concept // J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. 2013. Vol. 118, № 6. P. 3074–3086.

The sensitivity of passive microwave observations to the sea surface temperature (SST) is carefully analyzed, with the objective of designing an optimized satellite instrument, MICROwave Wind And Temperature (MICROWAT), dedicated to an all-weather estimation of the SST at high spatial resolution (15 km). Our study stresses the importance of low-frequency observations around 6 GHz for accurate SST retrieval. Compared to the 11 GHz channel, the 6 GHz channel provides more sensitivity to the low SSTs and offers lower instrument noise, thanks to possibly broader channel bandwidths. However, it requires much larger antenna size for a given spatial resolution. Two instrument concepts have been suggested, one using a classic real aperture antenna and the other using synthetic interferometric antennas. This first analysis shows that 2-D interferometric systems would be very complex and would not satisfy the user requirements in terms of SST accuracy. A 1-D interferometric system could be proposed, but its development requires additional investigation. A dedicated conical scanner onboard a microsatellite with a 6 m antenna and channels at 6.9 and 18.7 GHz (both with V and H polarizations) can provide an SST accuracy of 0.3 K with a 15 km spatial resolution, with today's technology.

Timmermans M.-L., Jayne S.R. The Arctic Ocean Spices Up // J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2016. Vol. 46, № 4. P. 1277–1284.

The contemporary Arctic Ocean differs markedly from midlatitude, ice-free, and relatively warm oceans in the context of density-compensating temperature and salinity variations. These variations are invaluable tracers in the midlatitudes, revealing essential fundamental physical processes of the oceans, on scales from millimeters to thousands of kilometers. However, in the cold Arctic Ocean, temperature variations have little effect on density, and a measure of density-compensating variations in temperature and salinity (i.e., spiciness) is not appropriate. In general, temperature is simply a passive tracer, which implies that most of the heat transported in the Arctic Ocean relies entirely on the ocean dynamics determined by the salinity field. It is shown, however, that as the Arctic Ocean warms up, temperature will take on a new role in setting dynamical balances. Under continued warming, there exists the possibility for a regime shift in the mechanisms by which heat is transported in the Arctic Ocean. This may result in a cap on the storage of deep-ocean heat, having profound implications for future predictions of Arctic sea ice.

Wenzel M., Schroeter J. Reconstruction of regional mean sea level anomalies from tide gauges using neural networks // J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. 2010. Vol. 115. P. C08013.

The 20th century regional and global sea level variations are estimated based on long-term tide gauge records. For this the neural network technique is utilized that connects the coastal sea level with the regional and global mean via a nonlinear empirical relationship. Two major difficulties are overcome this way: the vertical movement of tide gauges over time and the problem of what weighting function to choose for each individual tide gauge record. Neural networks are also used to fill data gaps in the tide gauge records, which is a prerequisite for our analysis technique. A suite of different gap-filling strategies is tested which provides information about stability and variance of the results. The global mean sea level for the period January 1900 to December 2006 is estimated to rise at a rate of 1.56 +/- 0.25 mm/yr which is reasonably consistent with earlier estimates, but we do not find significant acceleration. The regional mean sea level of the single ocean basins show mixed long-term behavior. While most of the basins show a sea level rise of varying strength there is an indication for a mean sea level fall in the southern Indian Ocean. Also for the the tropical Indian and the South Atlantic no significant trend can be detected. Nevertheless, the South Atlantic as well as the tropical Atlantic are the only basins that show significant acceleration. On shorter timescales, but longer than the annual cycle, the basins sea level are dominated by oscillations with periods of about 50-75 years and of about 25 years. Consequently, we find high (lagged) correlations between the single basins.

Yang Q. et al. Spatial Structure of Turbulent Mixing in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean // J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2014. Vol. 44, № 8. P. 2235–2247.

Turbulent mixing in the northwestern Pacific Ocean is estimated using the Gregg-Henyey-Polzin scaling and Thorpe-scale methods. The data sources are the hydrographic observations during October and November 2005. The results reveal clear spatial patterns of turbulent mixing in the study area. High-level diffusivity on the order of 10(-3) m(2) s(-1) or larger is found within the western boundary region, where the Kuroshio flows northward. The width covered by this prominent diffusivity shows an increase from 12 degrees to 18 degrees N. The horizontal distribution of depth-averaged diffusivity in the top 500 m shows enhanced mixing with diffusivity of 6 x 10(-3) m(2) s(-1) south of 9 degrees N where the Mindanao Eddy remains a quasi-permanent feature. These two distinct patterns of diffusivity distribution suggest that the Kuroshio and the Mindanao Eddy are likely responsible for the elevated turbulent mixing in the study area.

Yeager S. Topographic Coupling of the Atlantic Overturning and Gyre Circulations // J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2015. Vol. 45, № 5. P. 1258–1284.

The vorticity dynamics associated with the mean and time-varying gyre and overturning circulations of the Atlantic Ocean are examined in a realistic ocean model hindcast simulation of the late twentieth century. Abyssal flow interaction with sloping bottom bathymetry gives rise to the bottom pressure torque (BPT) term of the vertically integrated vorticity equation. The dominance of this term in the closure of the barotropic gyre circulation noted in previous studies is corroborated here for both non-eddy-resolving and eddy-resolving versions of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) model. This study shows that BPT is also a dominant term in the vorticity balance of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and therefore represents a key dynamical link between the overturning and gyre streamfunctions. The interannual variability of the Atlantic circulation over the last several decades, viewed in terms of time-varying integral vorticity balances, demonstrates the fundamental role played by BPT in coupling the large-scale barotropic and baroclinic flows. Forcing perturbation experiments show how flow-bathymetry interactions mediate buoyancy-driven changes in the gyre circulation and momentum-driven changes in the AMOC. Examples of topographic coupling of the overturning and gyre circulations that this analysis elucidates include the covariation of the high-latitude AMOC and subpolar gyre flows on decadal time scales, buoyancy-forced variance of the Gulf Stream, and large wind-driven variations in AMOC at subtropical latitudes.

БАЗЫКИНА А.Ю., ДОЦЕНКО С.Ф. Распространение поверхностных длинных волн типа цунами в бухтах переменной глубины // МОРСКОЙ ГИДРОФИЗИЧЕСКИЙ ЖУРНАЛ. 2016. № 4 (190). С. 3–12.

Выполнено численное исследование закономерностей распространения одиночных длинных волн в бухтах модельной и реальной геометрии. Найдены зоны усиления волн в бухте, одна из которых расположена вблизи области наката волны на берег (напротив входа в бухту), а другая - в средней части бассейна. При распространении волны в этих зонах возникают как существенные повышения, так и значительные понижения уровня моря. При сужении входа в бухту и увеличении длины входящей волны происходит уменьшение максимальных повышений и понижений. В качестве реального водоема рассмотрен Феодосийский залив Черного моря. Выявлено четыре зоны наибольшего усиления волн в заливе. В этих зонах прослеживаются максимальные подъемы и экстремальные понижения уровня моря, которые имеют тенденцию к увеличению с уменьшением длины входящей в бухту волны.

БЕРНАЦКИЙ А.В., НОСОВ М.А. Роль донного трения в моделях наката на берег необрушающихся длинных волн цунами // ИЗВЕСТИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ АКАДЕМИИ НАУК. ФИЗИКА АТМОСФЕРЫ И ОКЕАНА. 2012. Т. 48, № 4. С. 481-486.

Анализируется роль донного трения при накате необрушающихся длинных волн на берег. Рассматривается случай нормального падения монохроматических волн. Рельеф модельной области состоит из ровного горизонтального участка дна, сопряженного с плоским откосом. Диссипация энергии оценивается как работа сил донного трения по волновому полю, полученному с использованием известного аналитического решения, которое основано на преобразованиях Кэрриера-Гринспана. Получены оценки энергопотерь для волн с периодами, типичными для волн цунами. Показано, что диссипация энергии, как правило, не сосредоточена в приурезной области. Рассмотрен вопрос о целесообразности использования частично отражающих граничных условий на побережье для учета донного трения в крупномасштабных моделях распространения цунами.

ГАВРИКОВ А.В., ИВАНОВ А.Ю. Аномально сильная бора на черном море: наблюдение из космоса и численное моделирование // ИЗВЕСТИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ АКАДЕМИИ НАУК. ФИЗИКА АТМОСФЕРЫ И ОКЕАНА. 2015. Т. 51, № 5. С. 615-626.

При помощи мезомасштабной модели высокого разрешения WRF-ARW и анализа радиолокационных изображений (РЛИ) спутников Radarsat-1 и Radarsat-2, исследуется аномально сильная новороссийская бора, наблюдавшаяся в январе-феврале 2012 г. Бора уверенно воспроизвелась не только в узкой прибрежной зоне, но и далеко в открытой части Черного моря. В результате исследования показано, что оптимально сконфигурированная модель WRF-ARW, используя вложенные сетки с горизонтальным разрешением 9/3/1 км, хорошо воспроизводит бору на качественном и количественном уровне. Детали и структура боры (например, полосы-струи и др. особенности), видимые на РЛИ, отчетливо воспроизвелись в результате численного моделирования. Совместный анализ позволил сделать заключение о высокой эффективности двух альтернативных методов исследования динамики этого опасного метеорологического явления.

ДОЦЕНКО С.Ф., ЗАЛЕСНЫЙ В.Б., САННИКОВА Н.К.В. Модульный подход к расчету циркуляции и приливов в Черном море // МОРСКОЙ ГИДРОФИЗИЧЕСКИЙ ЖУРНАЛ. 2016. № 1 (187). С. 3–19.

Выполнен анализ циркуляции и приливов в Черном море. Даны оценки основных характеристик приливных колебаний. Помимо этого, с использованием модульного подхода проведены расчеты циркуляции вод Черного моря. Применена ? -модель циркуляции океана, разработанная в Институте вычислительной математики РАН. Пространственное разрешение модели по долготе и широте составляет около 4 км. По вертикали задавалось 40 неравномерно распределенных ?-уровней. Шаг по времени - 300 с. В циркуляции Черного моря отчетливо проявляется вихревая структура. Воспроизводится Основное Черноморское течение, которое характеризует общую циклоническую циркуляцию по всему периметру Черного моря, образуя два заметных вихря. Для описания генерации приливов в ?-модель циркуляции добавлен модуль, соответствующий приливообразующим потенциалам Луны и Солнца.

ЗАЛЕСНЫЙ В.Б., ИВЧЕНКО В.О. Моделирование крупномасштабной циркуляции морей и океанов // ИЗВЕСТИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ АКАДЕМИИ НАУК. ФИЗИКА АТМОСФЕРЫ И ОКЕАНА. 2015. Т. 51, № 3. С. 295-308.

Рассматривается проблема моделирования общей циркуляции океана в рамках подхода, разработанного Г.И. Марчуком. Основное внимание уделяется вопросам, связанным с применением методов многокомпонентного расщепления и сопряженных уравнений, параметризацией процессов турбулентного обмена. Обсуждается постановка задачи, алгоритм решения и результаты четырехмерной ассимиляции температуры и солености в модели гидродинамики Мирового океана. Алгоритм дает качественно верный результат, его основными особенностями являются модульность, простота реализации, возможность использования экономичных неявных схем.

КУЗНЕЦОВ С.Ю. et al. Турбулентность, индуцируемая штормовыми волнами на глубокой воде // МОРСКОЙ ГИДРОФИЗИЧЕСКИЙ ЖУРНАЛ. 2015. № 5 (185). С. 23–34.

Представлены результаты лабораторных и натурных экспериментов, выполненных в ноябре - декабре 2014 г., по исследованию турбулентности, индуцируемой волновым движением. В штилевых условиях, когда отсутствуют обрушения волн, проведены синхронные измерения возвышений свободной поверхности воды и флуктуаций трех компонент скорости частиц воды в диапазонах волновых и турбулентных частот и в диапазоне глубин от поверхности до половины длины поверхностных волн. Разработан метод разделения измеренных флуктуаций скорости на волновую составляющую и две турбулентные (индуцированную волновыми движениями и фоновую гидродинамическую турбулентность). Прямыми инструментальными измерениями подтверждено расслоение волнового потока на приповерхностный турбулентный слой, индуцированный волновым движением, и нижележащий слой с фоновой гидродинамической турбулентностью.

ЛЕБЕДЕВ К.В. Арго-модель исследования глобального океана (АМИГО) // ОКЕАНОЛОГИЯ. 2016. Т. 56, № 2. С. 186–196

В статье описывается разработанная Арго-Модель Исследования Глобального Океана (АМИГО), состоящая из блока вариационной интерполяции на регулярную сетку данных профилирования дрейфующих измерителей Argo и блока модельной гидродинамической адаптации вариационно проинтерполированных полей. Такая методика позволяет получать по нерегулярно расположенным данным измерений Argo полный набор океанографических характеристик: температуру, соленость, плотность и скорость течений. Выполненные расчеты представлены ежемесячными, сезонными, годовыми и среднеклиматическими полями. Созданная по результатам проведенных модельных расчетов в Институте океанологии им. П.П. Ширшова РАН база океанографических данных АМИГО охватывает 10-летний период с 2005 по 2014 гг. Проведенный с использованием данных АМИГО анализ изменчивости расходов проникающих в Арктику ветвей Северо-Атлантического течения показал, что в исследуемый период наблюдаются аномальные значения зимних переносов, которым соответствуют аномальные значения зимних температур в омываемых этими течениями регионах северо-западной Европы, севера европейской части России и Исландии. Сравнительный анализ изменчивости расходов и переносов тепла течениями и индекса Североатлантического колебания (САК) за период 2005–2014 гг. показывает наличие между ними хорошо выраженной связи. Низким зимним значениям индекса САК соответствуют низкие значения зимних переносов Фареро-Шетландской ветвью Северо-Атлантического течения и, как правило, высокие значения зимних переносов Северо-Исландской ветвью течения Ирмингера. Высокое зимнее значение индекса САК приводит к заметному росту зимнего переноса Фареро-Шетландской ветвью Северо-Атлантического течения, не оказывая при этом заметного влияния на расход Северо-Исландской ветви течения Ирмингера.

ЛЕВИН Б.В., ПЕЛИНОВСКИЙ Е.Н. Успехи наук о цунами в начале нового тысячелетия // ИЗВЕСТИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ АКАДЕМИИ НАУК. ФИЗИКА АТМОСФЕРЫ И ОКЕАНА. 2014. Т. 50, № 5. С. 495-495.

В настоящем специальном выпуске журнала “Известия РАН. Физика атмосферы и океана” представлены статьи российских специалистов, посвященные решению разнообразных задач проблемы цунами. Авторы выпуска в большинстве своем являются членами Национальной Комиссии по цунами Отделения наук о Земле РАН, и многие из них – члены Международной Комиссии по цунами (IUGG International Tsunami Commission)

МАРЧУК Г.И. et al. Информационно-вычислительные технологии - новый этап развития оперативной океанографии // ИЗВЕСТИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ АКАДЕМИИ НАУК. ФИЗИКА АТМОСФЕРЫ И ОКЕАНА. 2013. Т. 49, № 6. С. 629-642.

Проводится анализ методов оперативной океанографии, основой которых являются измерения с искусственных спутников земли, наблюдения со свободно дрейфующих платформ и попутных судов, а также современные модели циркуляции морей и океанов, адекватно воспроизводящие реальные процессы, протекающие в морях и океанах, а также исторический обзор исследований в этой области, проводившихся и проводящихся в СССР, Украине и России. Обсуждаются принципы создания эффективного информационно-вычислительного комплекса (ИВК) для решения задач оперативной океанографии и реализация его прототипа на примере Черного моря в рамках проекта совместных исследований Российской академии наук (РАН) и Национальной академии наук Украины (НАНУ) ? “Черное море как имитационная модель океана”. Оценивается эффективность применения метода многокомпонентного расщепления при построении моделей морской циркуляции и специализированных ИВК, включающих алгоритмы вариационной ассимиляции данных наблюдений. Развивается концепция использования Черного моря как тестового бассейна для отработки инноваций, основанная на сходности черноморской динамики с процессами, протекающими в Мировом океане. Дается характеристика используемых в проекте численных моделей циркуляции Черного моря, обсуждаются направления их развития и формулируются требования к наблюдательной системе Черного моря.

МОТЫЖЕВ С.В., ЛУНЕВ Е.Г., ТОЛСТОШЕЕВ А.П. Опыт применения барометрических дрифтеров для исследований Арктического региона Мирового океана // МОРСКОЙ ГИДРОФИЗИЧЕСКИЙ ЖУРНАЛ. 2016. № 4 (190). С. 53–63.

Рассмотрены результаты долговременных натурных экспериментов с использованием барометрических дрифтеров, разработанных в Морском гидрофизическом институте РАН и ориентированных на применение в полярном регионе. Дрифтеры были произведены российской фирмой ООО «Марлин-Юг». На основании полученных данных делается вывод о целесообразности и возможности установления дрифтерного систематического оперативного мониторинга поля давления в приповерхностном слое атмосферы над Северным Ледовитым океаном и полярными морями. Ассимиляция данных мониторинга позволит повысить адекватность результатов математического моделирования крупно- и мезомасштабной атмосферной динамики и снизить вероятность ошибочных прогнозов.

ПРАНЦ С.В. et al. Лагранжев анализ перемешивания и переноса вод в морских заливах // ИЗВЕСТИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ АКАДЕМИИ НАУК. ФИЗИКА АТМОСФЕРЫ И ОКЕАНА. 2013. Т. 49, № 1. С. 91-106.

Развит лагранжев подход для изучения перемешивания и переноса пассивной примеси в морских заливах и бухтах, основанный на использовании методов теории динамических систем. Этот подход применяется для исследования горизонтального перемешивания и переноса вод в заливе Петра Великого Японского моря с использованием поля скорости прогностической численной гидродинамической модели циркуляции синоптического масштаба. Показано, что такие лагранжевы характеристики, как максимальный накопленный показатель Ляпунова, время нахождения частиц в заливе, их относительные смещения, число циклонических и антициклонических вращений позволяют описать движение вод, характер перемешивания и степень его хаотичности в заливе. Карты числа посещений частицами различных районов залива позволяют при интегрировании уравнений адвекции вперед и назад во времени выявить коридоры выноса частиц из залива и коридоры их проникновения в залив соответственно.

САГАЛЕВИЧ А.М. Методика глубоководных погружений в условиях сплошного ледового покрова // ОКЕАНОЛОГИЯ. 2016. Т. 56, № 3. С. 491–498.

В статье рассматривается существо методических и инженерно-технических вопросов, которые были решены при подготовке и проведении исторических погружений глубоководных обитаемых аппаратов “Мир-1” и “Мир-2”, позволивших человеку впервые в истории увидеть дно Северного полюса на глубине 4300 м. Приводится описание комплекса инновационных разработок подводной навигации, а также движительной, балластной и других систем глубоководного обитаемого аппарата “Мир”, обеспечивших безопасность погружений. Эти инновационные методики открывают путь в подледное пространство Арктики для проведения исследований и практических работ по добыче полезных ископаемых с непосредственным участием ученых и специалистов.

СИЛЬВЕСТРОВА К.П. et al. Возможности использования gps-дрифтеров для исследования течений на шельфе черного моря // ОКЕАНОЛОГИЯ. 2016. Т. 56, № 1. С. 159–166.

В статье приводятся описание и результаты апробации системы мониторинга течений, основанной на отслеживании траекторий дрифтеров, оснащенных GPS-приемником и сотовой связью GSM. Данная система позволяет получать данные о течениях с пространственным разрешением 100–200 м и заданным временным интервалом от 5 минут. Благодаря использованию GSM-связи за движением дрейфующих буев можно наблюдать в режиме реального времени. На шельфе Черного моря был проведен ряд экспериментов. Были выявлены сильные и слабые стороны использования дрифтеров. Проведено сравнение полученных траекторий дрифтеров с данными донного и буксируемого ADCP.

СМИРНОВ Г.В., ОЛЕНИН А.Л. Морские информационно-измерительные системы и новые каналы измерения гидрофизических параметров // ОКЕАНОЛОГИЯ. 2015. Т. 55, № 2. С. 321-325.

В статье приведены результаты анализа развития и построения океанографических информационно-измерительных систем в 60-70 и 80-90-х годах и рассмотрены основные принципы построения современных систем измерения океанографических параметров. Представлена разработка технологической платформы многоканальных гидролого-оптико-химических измерительных комплексов, позволяющей объединять традиционные и вновь разрабатываемые каналы измерения океанографических параметров.


Некоторые предварительные результаты, полученные на основе данных наблюдений в 2011 и 2012 гг., были представлены нами в работах [1, 2]. По завершении обработки всего массива (2011–2013 гг.) будут количественно оценены следующие характеристики водообмена между двумя океанами: (1) интегральный перенос атлантических и арктических вод в проливах, (2) интенсивность и вертикальная структура меридиональной циркуляции вод, (3) вклад трансформации вод в СЛО в меридиональную циркуляцию вод Атлантики, (4) интегральный перенос тепла океанскими течениями из Атлантики в Арктику и (5) расходы каждого из течений, обеспечивающих межокеанский водообмен. Будут получены пространственные распределения осредненных по времени скоростей течений и термохалинных характеристик во всей толще вод на северной границе Атлантики, необходимые для валидации численных моделей.

ФИЛЮШКИН Б.Н. et al. О лагранжевых методах наблюдений за внутритермоклинными вихрями в океане // ОКЕАНОЛОГИЯ. 2014. Т. 54, № 6. С. 737-743.

В восточной части Атлантического океана регулярно встречаются внутритермоклинные антициклонические вихри (линзы) средиземноморского происхождения. Эти вихри идентифицируются как со спутника по изменениям высот уровня и температуры на поверхности океана, так и по данным поплавков нейтральной плавучести (ПНП), помещенных в тело линзы. В данной работе в рамках трехслойной квазигеострофической модели с использованием метода контурной динамики рассмотрены некоторые теоретические аспекты наблюдений за перемещениями линз с помощью акустических ПНП и свободно дрейфующих буев проекта “Арго”. Данные прямых экспериментальных наблюдений за дрейфом линз в Северной Атлантике качественно подтвердили результаты наших численных экспериментов. В частности, показано, что закрутка со стороны линзы оказывает адвективное влияние на поведение ПНП на расстояниях нескольких ее радиусов.

ЯХОНТОВ Б.О., РИМСКИЙ-КОРСАКОВ Н.А. Океанологические исследования из обитаемых подводных лабораторий // ОКЕАНОЛОГИЯ. 2016. Т. 56, № 1. С. 167–171

Представлен анализ и обоснование эффективности использования водолазных и лабораторных гипербарических методов и технологий для океанологических исследований.

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