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Состав атмосферы, атмосферное электричество и климатические процессы

Журнальные статьи

1.U1535X
Achatz U. и др. Fluctuation-Dissipation Supplemented by Nonlinearity: A Climate-Dependent Subgrid-Scale Parameterization in Low-Order Climate Models // Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 2013. Т. 70. № 6. С. 1833–1846.

Climate-system models use a multitude of parameterization schemes for small-scale processes. These should respond to externally forced climate variability in an appropriate manner so as to reflect the response of the parameterized process to a changing climate. The most attractive route to achieve such a behavior would certainly be provided by theoretical understanding sufficiently deep to enable the a priori design of climate-sensitive parameterization schemes. An alternative path might, however, be helpful when the parameter tuning involved in the development of a scheme is objective enough so that these parameters can be described as functions of the statistics of the climate system. Provided that the dynamics of the process in question is sufficiently stochastic, and that the external forcing is not too strong, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) might be a tool to predict from the statistics of a system (e. g., the atmosphere) how an objectively tuned parameterization should respond to external forcing (e. g., by anomalous sea surface temperatures). This problem is addressed within the framework of low-order (reduced) models for barotropic flow on the sphere, based on a few optimal basis functions and using an empirical linear subgrid-scale (SGS) closure. A reduced variant of quasi-Gaussian FDT (rqG-FDT) is used to predict the response of the SGS closure to anomalous local vorticity forcing. At sufficiently weak forcing, use of the rqG-FDT is found to systematically improve the agreement between the response of a reduced model and that of a classic spectral code for the solution of the barotropic vorticity equation.

2. U46625
Bond T.C. и др. Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment // Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 2013. Т. 118. № 11. С. 5380–5552.

Black carbon aerosol plays a unique and important role in Earth's climate system. Black carbon is a type of carbonaceous material with a unique combination of physical properties. This assessment provides an evaluation of black-carbon climate forcing that is comprehensive in its inclusion of all known and relevant processes and that is quantitative in providing best estimates and uncertainties of the main forcing terms: direct solar absorption; influence on liquid, mixed phase, and ice clouds; and deposition on snow and ice. These effects are calculated with climate models, but when possible, they are evaluated with both microphysical measurements and field observations. Predominant sources are combustion related, namely, fossil fuels for transportation, solid fuels for industrial and residential uses, and open burning of biomass. Total global emissions of black carbon using bottom-up inventory methods are 7500 Gg yr(-1) in the year 2000 with an uncertainty range of 2000 to 29000. However, global atmospheric absorption attributable to black carbon is too low in many models and should be increased by a factor of almost 3. After this scaling, the best estimate for the industrial-era (1750 to 2005) direct radiative forcing of atmospheric black carbon is +0.71 W m(-2) with 90% uncertainty bounds of (+0.08, +1.27) W m(-2). Total direct forcing by all black carbon sources, without subtracting the preindustrial background, is estimated as +0.88 (+0.17, +1.48) W m(-2). Direct radiative forcing alone does not capture important rapid adjustment mechanisms. A framework is described and used for quantifying climate forcings, including rapid adjustments. The best estimate of industrial-era climate forcing of black carbon through all forcing mechanisms, including clouds and cryosphere forcing, is +1.1 W m(-2) with 90% uncertainty bounds of +0.17 to +2.1 W m(-2). Thus, there is a very high probability that black carbon emissions, independent of co-emitted species, have a positive forcing and warm the climate. We estimate that black carbon, with a total climate forcing of +1.1 W m(-2), is the second most important human emission in terms of its climate forcing in the present-day atmosphere; only carbon dioxide is estimated to have a greater forcing. Sources that emit black carbon also emit other short-lived species that may either cool or warm climate. Climate forcings from co-emitted species are estimated and used in the framework described herein. When the principal effects of short-lived co-emissions, including cooling agents such as sulfur dioxide, are included in net forcing, energy-related sources (fossil fuel and biofuel) have an industrial-era climate forcing of +0.22 (-0.50 to +1.08) W m(-2) during the first year after emission. For a few of these sources, such as diesel engines and possibly residential biofuels, warming is strong enough that eliminating all short-lived emissions from these sources would reduce net climate forcing (i.e., produce cooling). When open burning emissions, which emit high levels of organic matter, are included in the total, the best estimate of net industrial-era climate forcing by all short-lived species from black-carbon-rich sources becomes slightly negative (-0.06 W m(-2) with 90% uncertainty bounds of -1.45 to +1.29 W m(-2)). The uncertainties in net climate forcing from black-carbon-rich sources are substantial, largely due to lack of knowledge about cloud interactions with both black carbon and co-emitted organic carbon. In prioritizing potential black-carbon mitigation actions, non-science factors, such as technical feasibility, costs, policy design, and implementation feasibility play important roles. The major sources of black carbon are presently in different stages with regard to the feasibility for near-term mitigation. This assessment, by evaluating the large number and complexity of the associated physical and radiative processes in black-carbon climate forcing, sets a baseline from which to

3. U46625
Chan A.W.H. и др. Detailed chemical characterization of unresolved complex mixtures in atmospheric organics: Insights into emission sources, atmospheric processing, and secondary organic aerosol formation // Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 2013. Т. 118. № 12. С. 6783–6796.

Recent studies suggest that semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are important precursors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in urban atmospheres. However, knowledge of the chemical composition of SVOCs is limited by current analytical techniques, which are typically unable to resolve a large number of constitutional isomers. Using a combination of gas chromatography and soft photoionization mass spectrometry, we characterize the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of semivolatile aliphatic hydrocarbons observed in Pasadena, California (similar to 16km

4.U46625
Imbers J. и др. Testing the robustness of the anthropogenic climate change detection statements using different empirical models // Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 2013. Т. 118. № 8. С. 3192–3199.

Historically, slow decomposition rates have resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of carbon in northern peatlands. Both climate warming and vegetation change can alter rates of decomposition, and hence affect rates of atmospheric CO2 exchange, with consequences for climate change feedbacks. Although warming and vegetation change are happening concurrently, little is known about their relative and interactive effects on decomposition processes. To test the effects of warming and vegetation change on decomposition rates, we placed litter of three dominant species (Calluna vulgaris, Eriophorum vaginatum, Hypnum jutlandicum) into a peatland field experiment that combined warming with plant functional group removals, and measured mass loss over two years. To identify potential mechanisms behind effects, we also measured nutrient cycling and soil biota. We found that plant functional group removals exerted a stronger control over short-term litter decomposition than did similar to 1 degrees C warming, and that the plant removal effect depended on litter species identity. Specifically, rates of litter decomposition were faster when shrubs were removed from the plant community, and these effects were strongest for graminoid and bryophyte litter. Plant functional group removals also had strong effects on soil biota and nutrient cycling associated with decomposition, whereby shrub removal had cascading effects on soil fungal community composition, increased enchytraeid abundance, and increased rates of N mineralization. Our findings demonstrate that, in addition to litter quality, changes in vegetation composition play a significant role in regulating short-teem litter decomposition and belowground communities in peatland, and that these impacts can be greater than moderate warming effects. Our findings, albeit from a relatively short-term study, highlight the need to consider both vegetation change and its impacts below ground alongside climatic effects when predicting future decomposition rates and carbon storage in peatlands.

5. U1038X
Jian Y. и др. Environmental forcing and density-dependent controls of Culex pipierts abundance in a temperate climate (Northeastern Italy) // Ecological Modelling. 2014. Т. 272. С. 301–310.

New and old mosquito-borne diseases have emerged and re-emerged in temperate regions over the recent past, but a mechanistic understanding of mosquito population dynamics, a fundamental step toward disease control, remains elusive. We propose here a Gompertz-based approach to address two obstacles to the development of vector dynamics models in temperate regions: (i) the inclusion of endogenous processes (e.g. density limitation, delayed responses, etc.) and the evaluation of their relative importance vs. exogenous environmental forcings; (ii) the inclusion of realistic descriptions of hydrologic processes and the evaluation of soil moisture as a more direct driver of mosquito population dynamics. The new model is based on a hierarchical state-space structure and is applied to the description of the abundance of Culex pipiens - a West Nile Virus vector - in the Po River Delta region (Northeastern Italy), using weekly mosquito abundance observations at more than 20 sites in the period May-September in 2010 and 2011. The hierarchical structure provides an efficient way of fully exploiting the information from a large network of observation sites. We find that Cx. pipiens abundance has significant density dependence at the one-week scale, which is coherent with its larval developmental time during the summer. This result points to the importance of endogenous population dynamics, most often neglected in mosquito population models, usually simply driven by exogenous environmental forcings. Among exogenous controls, temperature, daylight hours, and soil moisture were found to be most influential. Use of precipitation or soil moisture to force the model leads to very similar predictive skills. The negative correlation of soil moisture and mosquito population may be attributed to the abundance of water in the region (e.g. due to irrigation) and the preference for eutrophic habitats by Cx. pipiens. Variations among sites were highly correlated with land-use factors. The carrying capacity is seen to decrease with the distance to the nearest rice field, while the maximum population growth rate was positively related with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, a proxy of vegetation cover. The model shows a satisfactory performance in explaining the variation of mosquito abundance over a horizon of 1 week, particularly as far as peak timing and magnitude are concerned. Large rates of change of population abundance remain difficult to predict, as in other existing models, pointing to persisting gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms regulating mosquito population dynamics. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

6.U12510
Peng Y. и др. Widespread contamination of carbonate-associated sulfate by present-day secondary atmospheric sulfate: Evidence from triple oxygen isotopes // Geology. 2014. Т. 42. № 9. С. 815–818.

The isotope composition of seawater sulfate is an important tracer of sulfur, carbon, and oxygen cycles in Earth's deep past. Carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) extracted by acid digestion is widely used as a proxy for sulfate in paleo-seawater from which the carbonate minerals precipitated. Early and late diagenesis, weathering, and laboratory processing can in some cases compromise original seawater sulfate signals. Here, we report that extracted CAS can also be severely contaminated by recent atmospheric sulfate, especially when the sampled carbonates are from outcrops in arid to semi-arid climates or in heavily polluted regions. Our evidence comes from triple oxygen isotope compositions of sequentially extracted water-leachable sulfate and acid-leachable sulfate from carbonates of diverse ages from northwestern and north-central China and southwestern North America. Independent of the age of the rocks, almost all the water-leachable sulfates and half of the acid-leachable sulfates bear positive O-17 anomalies, clearly distinguishable from those of typical sea-water sulfate. Because secondary atmospheric sulfate (SAS) is the only source of sulfate known to bear positive O-17 anomalies, we conclude that sulfate extracted from carbonate outcrops in these regions has a significant component of SAS. Because SAS generally has a much lower delta S-34 value than paleo-seawater sulfate, it could shift the delta S-34 of the extracted CAS to lower values and in some cases even lower than that of the co-occurring pyrite, i.e., the "super-heavy pyrite" enigma reported in geological records. Our findings call for a re-evaluation of many published, outcrop-based CAS data and conclusions.

7. U0588X
Renno N.O. и др. CHASER An Innovative Satellite Mission Concept to Measure the Effects of Aerosols on Clouds and Climate // Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2013. Т. 94. № 5. С. 685–+.

The formation of cloud droplets on aerosol particles, technically known as the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), is the fundamental process driving the interactions of aerosols with clouds and precipitation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Decadal Survey indicate that the uncertainty in how clouds adjust to aerosol perturbations dominates the uncertainty in the overall quantification of the radiative forcing attributable to human activities. Measurements by current satellites allow the determination of crude profiles of cloud particle size, but not of the activated CCN that seed them. The Clouds, Hazards, and Aerosols Survey for Earth Researchers (CHASER) mission concept responds to the IPCC and Decadal Survey concerns, utilizing a new technique and high-heritage instruments to measure all the quantities necessary to produce the first global survey maps of activated CCN and the properties of the clouds associated with them. CHASER also determines the activated CCN concentration and cloud thermodynamic forcing simultaneously, allowing the effects of each to be distinguished.

8. U1038X
Riggs R.A. и др. Biomass and fire dynamics in a temperate forest-grassland mosaic: Integrating multi-species herbivory, climate, and fire with the FireBGCv2/GrazeBGC system // Ecological Modelling. 2015. Т. 296. С. 57–78.

Landscape fire succession models (LFSMs) predict spatially explicit interactions between vegetation succession and disturbance, but these models have yet to fully integrate ungulate herbivory as a driver of their processes. We modified a complex LFSM, FireBGCv2, to include a multi-species herbivory module, GrazeBGC. The system is novel in that it explicitly accommodates multiple herbivore populations, inter-and intra-specific spatial forcing of their forage demands, and site-specific dietary selectivity to interactively modify biomass, fuels and fire behavior across a landscape and over time. A factorial experiment with five grazing regimes, three climates and two fire-management scenarios generated interactive influences on undergrowth biomass (shrub, herb, total), surface-fire (fire-line intensity; flame length; scorch height; soil heat; CO, CO2, CH4, and PM2.5 emissions), and the landscape's fire-return interval. Herbivory's effects increased with biophysical site potential and herbivore forage demand, but its effects were also contingent on climate and fire-suppression. Multi-species grazing modified biomass and fire within stands and biophysical sites, but regimes involving only wildlife or livestock were less effectual. Multi-species herbivory affected the landscape's fire-return interval, but otherwise it did not "scale up" to significantly modify total landscape respiration, primary production, carbon, or the total area burned by individual fires. As modeled here, climate change and the effectiveness of future fire suppression exerted stronger effects on landscape metabolism and carbon than did herbivory. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

9.U46625
Ryerson T.B. и др. The 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study // Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 2013. Т. 118. № 11. С. 5830–5866.

The California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study was conducted throughout California in May, June, and July of 2010. The study was organized to address issues simultaneously relevant to atmospheric pollution and climate change, including (1) emission inventory assessment, (2) atmospheric transport and dispersion, (3) atmospheric chemical processing, and (4) cloud-aerosol interactions and aerosol radiative effects. Measurements from networks of ground sites, a research ship, tall towers, balloon-borne ozonesondes, multiple aircraft, and satellites provided in situ and remotely sensed data on trace pollutant and greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol chemical composition and microphysical properties, cloud microphysics, and meteorological parameters. This overview report provides operational information for the variety of sites, platforms, and measurements, their joint deployment strategy, and summarizes findings that have resulted from the collaborative analyses of the CalNex field study. Climate-relevant findings from CalNex include that leakage from natural gas infrastructure may account for the excess of observed methane over emission estimates in Los Angeles. Air-quality relevant findings include the following: mobile fleet VOC significantly declines, and NOx emissions continue to have an impact on ozone in the Los Angeles basin; the relative contributions of diesel and gasoline emission to secondary organic aerosol are not fully understood; and nighttime NO3 chemistry contributes significantly to secondary organic aerosol mass in the San Joaquin Valley. Findings simultaneously relevant to climate and air quality include the following: marine vessel emissions changes due to fuel sulfur and speed controls result in a net warming effect but have substantial positive impacts on local air quality.

10.U4705X
Savarino J. и др. Isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate in a tropical marine boundary layer // Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2013. Т. 110. № 44. С. 17668–17673.

Long-term observations of the reactive chemical composition of the tropical marine boundary layer (MBL) are rare, despite its crucial role for the chemical stability of the atmosphere. Recent observations of reactive bromine species in the tropical MBL showed unexpectedly high levels that could potentially have an impact on the ozone budget. Uncertainties in the ozone budget are amplified by our poor understanding of the fate of NOx (= NO + NO2), particularly the importance of nighttime chemical NOx sinks. Here, we present year- round observations of the multiisotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate in the tropical MBL at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory. We show that the observed oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate are compatible with nitrate formation chemistry, which includes the BrNO3 sink at a level of ca. 20 +/- 10% of nitrate formation pathways. The results also suggest that the N2O5 pathway is a negligible NOx sink in this environment. Observations further indicate a possible link between the NO2/NOx ratio and the nitrogen isotopic content of nitrate in this low NOx environment, possibly reflecting the seasonal change in the photochemical equilibrium among NOx species. This study demonstrates the relevance of using the stable isotopes of oxygen and nitrogen of atmospheric nitrate in association with concentration measurements to identify and constrain chemical processes occurring in the MBL.

11.U26778
Srivastava A.K., Bisht D.S., Tiwari S. Boundary layer aerosol characteristics at Mahabubnagar during CAIPEEX-IGOC: Modeling the optical and radiative properties // Science of the Total Environment. 2014. Т. 468. С. 1093–1102.

An Integrated Ground Observational Campaign (IGOC) was conducted at Mahabubnagar - a tropical rural station in the southern peninsular India, under the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) program during the period from July to November 2011. Measured chemical composition and carbonaceous aerosols from PM2.5 samples were used in an aerosol optical model to deduce crucial aerosol optical properties, which were then used in a radiative transfer model for radiative forcing estimations. The model derived aerosol optical depth (AOD at 500 nm), varied from 0.13 to 0.76 (mean of 0.40 +/- 0.18) whereas Angstrom exponent (AE) between 0.10 and 0.65 (mean of 0.33 +/- 0.17) suggests relative dominance of coarse particles over the station. On the other hand, single scattering albedo (SSA at 500 nm) was found to vary from 0.78 to 0.92 (mean of 0.87 +/- 0.04) during the measurement period. The magnitude of absorption Angstrom exponent (ME), varied from 0.83 to 1.33 (mean of 1.10 +/- 0.15), suggests mixed type aerosols over the station. Aerosol direct radiative forcing was estimated and found to vary from -8.9 to -49.3 W m(-2) (mean of -27.4 +/- 11.8 W m(-2)) at the surface and +9.7 to +44.5 W m(-2) (mean of +21.3 +/- 9.4W m(-2)) in the atmosphere during the course of measurements. The atmospheric forcing was observed to be similar to 30% higher during October (+29 +/- 9 W m(-2)) as compared to August (+21 +/- 7 W m(-2)) when the station is mostly influenced by continental polluted aerosols. The result suggests an additional atmospheric heating rate of 0.24 K day(-1) during October, which may be crucial for various boundary layer processes in favorable atmospheric conditions. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

12. U4705X
Wang Y. и др. Assessing the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on Pacific storm track using a multiscale global climate model // Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2014. Т. 111. № 19. С. 6894–6899.

Atmospheric aerosols affect weather and global general circulation by modifying cloud and precipitation processes, but the magnitude of cloud adjustment by aerosols remains poorly quantified and represents the largest uncertainty in estimated forcing of climate change. Here we assess the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on the Pacific storm track, using a multiscale global aerosol-climate model (GCM). Simulations of two aerosol scenarios corresponding to the present day and preindustrial conditions reveal long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosols across the north Pacific and large resulting changes in the aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentration, and cloud and ice water paths. Shortwave and long-wave cloud radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere are changed by -2.5 and +1.3 W m(-2), respectively, by emission changes from preindustrial to present day, and an increased cloud top height indicates invigorated midlatitude cyclones. The overall increased precipitation and poleward heat transport reflect intensification of the Pacific storm track by anthropogenic aerosols. Hence, this work provides, for the first time to the authors' knowledge, a global perspective of the effects of Asian pollution outflows from GCMs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the multiscale modeling framework is essential in producing the aerosol invigoration effect of deep convective clouds on a global scale.

13. U46625
Wang Z. и др. Radiative forcing and climate response due to the presence of black carbon in cloud droplets // Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 2013. Т. 118. № 9. С. 3662–3675.

Optical properties of clouds containing black carbon (BC) particles in their water droplets are calculated by using the Maxwell Garnett mixing rule and Mie theory. The obtained cloud optical properties were then applied to an interactive system by coupling an aerosol model with a General Circulation Model. This system is used to investigate the radiative forcing and the equilibrium climate response due to BC in cloud droplets. The simulated global annual mean radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere due to the BC in cloud droplets is found to be 0.086Wm-2. Positive radiative forcing can be seen in Africa, South America, East and South Asia, and West Europe, with a maximum value of 1.5Wm-2 being observed in these regions. The enhanced cloud absorption is shown to increase the global annual mean values of solar heating rate, water vapor, and temperature, but to decrease the global annual mean cloud fraction. Finally, the global annual mean surface temperature is shown to increase by +0.08K. The local maximum changes are found to be as low as -1.5K and as high as +0.6K. We show there has been a significant difference in surface temperature change in the Southern and Northern Hemisphere (+0.19K and -0.04K, respectively). Our results show that this interhemispheric asymmetry in surface temperature change could cause a corresponding change in atmospheric dynamics and precipitation. It is also found that the northern trade winds are enhanced in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). This results in northerly surface wind anomalies which cross the equator to converge with the enhanced southern trade winds in the tropics of Southern Hemisphere. This is shown to lead to an increase (a decrease) of vertical ascending motion and precipitation on the south (north) side of the equator, which could induce a southward shift in the tropical rainfall maximum related to the ITCZ.

14. U46625
Yin B., Min Q. Climatology of aerosol optical properties at ACRF sites in the tropical warm pool region // Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 2013. Т. 118. № 6. С. 2620–2628.

The long-term multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer measurements at three Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Climate Research Facility sites of Darwin, Nauru, and Manus have been processed to develop the climatology of aerosols in the tropical warm pool region at the interannual, seasonal, and diurnal temporal scales. Due to their unique geolocations and associated large-scale circulation patterns, aerosols at the Nauru site exhibit background oceanic characteristics (strongly correlated with the sea surface wind), aerosols at the Darwin site show strong influences by biomass-burning aerosols, particularly in the dry season, and aerosols at the Manus site have climatologic characteristics in between the Darwin and Nauru sites. There are no obvious trends of aerosol loading for past decades at all three sites. El Nino/Southern Oscillation has its impacts on aerosol optical depth, as well as particle size and composition, at all three sites. Madden-Julian Oscillation modulates aerosol optical depth at the Manus and Nauru sites along the equator but has no apparent impact at the Darwin site. The annual or seasonal variation of aerosols is closely linked with Indo-Australian monsoons, exhibiting wet and dry season differences. The aerosol loading is significant lower with relatively larger particles in the wet season than in the dry season. There are significant diurnal cycles in both aerosol optical depth and Angstrom exponent at the Darwin site: low values of aerosol optical depth and Angstrom exponent in the midday and the two peaks in the early morning and late afternoon. There are noticeable changes between the dry and wet seasons. The amplitude of diurnal variation during La Nina periods is greater than that during El Nino periods. However, there are no significant diurnal variations of aerosol loading at the Manus and Nauru sites. Citation: Yin, B., and Q. Min (2013), Climatology of aerosol optical properties at ACRF sites in the tropical warm pool region, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 2620-2628, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50234.

15.U4705X
Zeebe R.E. Time-dependent climate sensitivity and the legacy of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions // Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2013. Т. 110. № 34. С. 13739–13744.

Climate sensitivity measures the response of Earth's surface temperature to changes in forcing. The response depends on various climate processes that feed back on the initial forcing on different timescales. Understanding climate sensitivity is fundamental to reconstructing Earth's climatic history as well as predicting future climate change. On timescales shorter than centuries, only fast climate feedbacks including water vapor, lapse rate, clouds, and snow/sea ice albedo are usually considered. However, on timescales longer than millennia, the generally higher Earth system sensitivity becomes relevant, including changes in ice sheets, vegetation, ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycling, etc. Here, I introduce the time-dependent climate sensitivity, which unifies fast-feedback and Earth system sensitivity. I show that warming projections, which include a time-dependent climate sensitivity, exhibit an enhanced feedback between surface warming and ocean CO2 solubility, which in turn leads to higher atmospheric CO2 levels and further warming. Compared with earlier studies, my results predict a much longer lifetime of human-induced future warming (23,000-165,000 y), which increases the likelihood of large ice sheet melting and major sea level rise. The main point regarding the legacy of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is that, even if the fast-feedback sensitivity is no more than 3 K per CO2 doubling, there will likely be additional long-term warming from slow climate feedbacks. Time-dependent climate sensitivity also helps explaining intense and prolonged warming in response to massive carbon release as documented for past events such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

16. U1535X
Zhu X. и др. Diagnosis of Middle-Atmosphere Climate Sensitivity by the Climate Feedback-Response Analysis Method // Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 2016. Т. 73. № 1. С. 3–23.

The authors present a new method to diagnose the middle-atmosphere climate sensitivity by extending the climate feedback-response analysis method (CFRAM) for the coupled atmosphere-surface system to the middle atmosphere. The middle-atmosphere CFRAM (MCFRAM) is built on the atmospheric energy equation per unit mass with radiative heating and cooling rates as its major thermal energy sources. MCFRAM preserves CFRAM's unique feature of additivity, such that partial temperature changes due to variations in external forcing and feedback processes can be added to give a total temperature change for direct comparison with the observed temperature change. In addition, MCFRAM establishes a physical relationship of radiative damping between the energy perturbations associated with various feedback processes and temperature perturbations associated with thermal responses. In this study, MCFRAM is applied to both observations and model output fields to diagnose the middle-atmosphere climate sensitivity. The authors found that the largest component of the middle-atmosphere temperature response to the 11-yr solar cycle (solar maximum vs solar minimum) is the partial temperature change due to the variation of the solar flux. Increasing CO2 cools the middle atmosphere, whereas the partial temperature change due to changes in O-3 can be either positive or negative. The application of MCFRAM to model dynamical fields reconfirms the advantage of introducing the residual circulation to characterize middle-atmosphere dynamics in terms of the partial temperature changes. The radiatively driven globally averaged partial temperature change is approximately equal to the observed temperature change, ranging from -0.5 K near 25 km to -1.0 K near 70 km between solar maximum and solar minimum.

17.004302
Чубарова Н.Е., Незваль Е.И., Беликов И.Б., Горбаренко Е.В., Еремина И.Д., Жданова Е.Ю., Корнева И.А., Константинов П.И., Локощенко М.А., Скороход А.И., Шиловцева О.А. КЛИМАТИЧЕСКИЕ И ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ МОСКОВСКОГО МЕГАПОЛИСА ЗА 60 ЛЕТ ПО ДАННЫМ МЕТЕОРОЛОГИЧЕСКОЙ ОБСЕРВАТОРИИ МГУ // Метеорология и гидрология. 2014. № 9. С. 49-64.

Анализируются результаты измерений метеорологических и экологических величин за 60 лет (1954-2013 гг.), выполненных в Метеорологической обсерватории МГУ им. М. В. Ломоносова. Получен значимый положительный тренд температуры (0,04°С/год за период 1954-2013 гг.), который в 1976-2012 гг. увеличился до 0,07°С/год. Рассматриваются особенности сезонного хода разных характеристик атмосферы. Обсуждаются характер и причины низкочастотных колебаний метеорологических величин, составляющих радиационного баланса, радиации в разных спектральных диапазонах, а также химического состава атмосферных осадков. Показаны возможные механизмы наблюдаемого более значительного увеличения температуры воздуха в Москве по сравнению с Центральным федеральным округом и их связь с парниковым эффектом в городской атмосфере.

18. U46625
Abbot D.S. и др. Robust elements of Snowball Earth atmospheric circulation and oases for life // Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 2013. Т. 118. № 12. С. 6017–6027.

Atmospheric circulation in a Snowball Earth is critical for determining cloud behavior, heat export from the tropics, regions of bare ice, and sea glacier flow. These processes strongly affect Snowball Earth deglaciation and the ability of oases to support photosynthetic marine life throughout a Snowball Earth. Here we establish robust aspects of the Snowball Earth atmospheric circulation by running six general circulation models with consistent Snowball Earth boundary conditions. The models produce qualitatively similar patterns of atmospheric circulation and precipitation minus evaporation. The strength of the Snowball Hadley circulation is roughly double modern at low CO2 and greatly increases as CO2 is increased. We force a 1-D axisymmetric sea glacier model with general circulation model (GCM) output and show that, neglecting zonal asymmetry, sea glaciers would limit ice thickness variations to O(10%). Global mean ice thickness in the 1D sea glacier model is wellapproximated by a 0-D ice thickness model with global mean surface temperature as the upper boundary condition. We then show that a thinice Snowball solution is possible in the axysymmetric sea glacier model when forced by output from all the GCMs if we use ice optical properties that favor the thinice solution. Finally, we examine Snowball oases for life using analytical models forced by the GCM output and find that conditions become more favorable for oases as the Snowball warms, so that the most critical time for the survival of life would be near the beginning of a Snowball Earth episode.

19. U0588X
Bourassa M.A. и др. High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research // Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2013. Т. 94. № 3. С. 403–423.

Polar regions have great sensitivity to climate forcing; however, understanding of the physical processes coupling the atmosphere and ocean in these regions is relatively poor. Improving our knowledge of high-latitute surface fluxes will require close collaboration among meteorologists, oceanographers, ice physicists, and climatologists, and between observationalists and modelers, as well as new combinations of in situ measurements and satellite remote sensing. This article describes the deficiencies in our current state of knowledge about air-sea surface fluxes in high latitutes, the sensitivity of various high-latitude processes to changes in surface fluxes, and the scientific requirements for surface fluxes at high latitutdes. We inventory the reasons, both logistical and physical, why existing flux products do not meet these requirements. Capturing an annual cycle in fluxes requires that instruments function through long periods of cold polar darkness, often far from support services, in situations subject to icing and extreme wave conditions. Furthermore, frequent cloud cover at high latitudes restricts the avilability of surface and atmospheric data from visible and infrared (IR) wavelength satellite sensors. Recommendations are made for improving high-latitude fluxes, including 1) acquiring more in situ observations, 2) developing improved satellite-flux-observing capabilities, 3) making observations and flux products more accessible, and 4) encouraging flux intercomparisons.

20. U12614
Butler E.D. и др. The ocean’s gravitational potential energy budget in a coupled climate model // Geophysical Research Letters. 2013. Т. 40. № 20. С. 5417–5422.

This study examines, in a unified fashion, the budgets of ocean gravitational potential energy (GPE) and available gravitational potential energy (AGPE) in the control simulation of the coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model HadCM3. Only AGPE can be converted into kinetic energy by adiabatic processes. Diapycnal mixing supplies GPE but not AGPE, whereas the reverse is true of the combined effect of surface buoyancy forcing and convection. Mixing and buoyancy forcing thus play complementary roles in sustaining the large-scale circulation. However, the largest globally integrated source of GPE is resolved advection (+0.57 TW) and the largest sink is through parameterized eddy transports (-0.82 TW). The effect of these adiabatic processes on AGPE is identical to their effect on GPE, except for perturbations to both budgets due to numerical leakage exacerbated by nonlinearities in the equation of state.

21. U4705X
Chekroun M.D. и др. Rough parameter dependence in climate models and the role of Ruelle-Pollicott resonances // Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2014. Т. 111. № 5. С. 1684–1690.

Despite the importance of uncertainties encountered in climate model simulations, the fundamental mechanisms at the origin of sensitive behavior of long-term model statistics remain unclear. Variability of turbulent flows in the atmosphere and oceans exhibits recurrent large-scale patterns. These patterns, while evolving irregularly in time, manifest characteristic frequencies across a large range of time scales, from intraseasonal through interdecadal. Based on modern spectral theory of chaotic and dissipative dynamical systems, the associated low-frequency variability may be formulated in terms of Ruelle-Pollicott (RP) resonances. RP resonances encode information on the nonlinear dynamics of the system, and an approach for estimating them-as filtered through an observable of the system-is proposed. This approach relies on an appropriate Markov representation of the dynamics associated with a given observable. It is shown that, within this representation, the spectral gap-defined as the distance between the subdominant RP resonance and the unit circle-plays a major role in the roughness of parameter dependences. The model statistics are the most sensitive for the smallest spectral gaps; such small gaps turn out to correspond to regimes where the low-frequency variability is more pronounced, whereas autocorrelations decay more slowly. The present approach is applied to analyze the rough parameter dependence encountered in key statistics of an El-Nino-Southern Oscillation model of intermediate complexity. Theoretical arguments, however, strongly suggest that such links between model sensitivity and the decay of correlation properties are not limited to this particular model and could hold much more generally.

22.U4705X
Daniau A.-L. et al. Orbital-scale climate forcing of grassland burning in southern Africa // Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2013. Vol. 110, № 13. P. 5069–5073.

Although grassland and savanna occupy only a quarter of the world's vegetation, burning in these ecosystems accounts for roughly half the global carbon emissions from fire. However, the processes that govern changes in grassland burning are poorly understood, particularly on time scales beyond satellite records. We analyzed microcharcoal, sediments, and geochemistry in a high-resolution marine sediment core off Namibia to identify the processes that have controlled biomass burning in southern African grassland ecosystems under large, multimillennial-scale climate changes. Six fire cycles occurred during the past 170,000 y in southern Africa that correspond both in timing and magnitude to the precessional forcing of north-south shifts in the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Contrary to the conventional expectation that fire increases with higher temperatures and increased drought, we found that wetter and cooler climates cause increased burning in the study region, owing to a shift in rainfall amount and seasonality (and thus vegetation flammability). We also show that charcoal morphology (i.e., the particle's length-to-width ratio) can be used to reconstruct changes in fire activity as well as biome shifts over time. Our results provide essential context for understanding current and future grassland-fire dynamics and their associated carbon emissions.

23. U4705X
DeLeon-Rodriguez N. и др. Microbiome of the upper troposphere: Species composition and prevalence, effects of tropical storms, and atmospheric implications // Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2013. Т. 110. № 7. С. 2575–2580.

The composition and prevalence of microorganisms in the middle-to-upper troposphere (8-15 km altitude) and their role in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions represent important, unresolved questions for biological and atmospheric science. In particular, airborne microorganisms above the oceans remain essentially uncharacterized, as most work to date is restricted to samples taken near the Earth's surface. Here we report on the microbiome of low-and high-altitude air masses sampled onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration DC-8 platform during the 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes campaign in the Caribbean Sea. The samples were collected in cloudy and cloud-free air masses before, during, and after two major tropical hurricanes, Earl and Karl. Quantitative PCR and microscopy revealed that viable bacterial cells represented on average around 20% of the total particles in the 0.25- to 1-mu m diameter range and were at least an order of magnitude more abundant than fungal cells, suggesting that bacteria represent an important and underestimated fraction of micrometer-sized atmospheric aerosols. The samples from the two hurricanes were characterized by significantly different bacterial communities, revealing that hurricanes aerosolize a large amount of new cells. Nonetheless, 17 bacterial taxa, including taxa that are known to use C1-C4 carbon compounds present in the atmosphere, were found in all samples, indicating that these organisms possess traits that allow survival in the troposphere. The findings presented here suggest that the microbiome is a dynamic and underappreciated aspect of the upper troposphere with potentially important impacts on the hydrological cycle, clouds, and climate.

24.U29507
Farlin J., Lai C.-T., Yoshimura K. Influence of synoptic weather events on the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture in a coastal city of the western United States // Water Resources Research. 2013. Т. 49. № 6. С. 3685–3696.

Synoptic weather events are known to strongly influence the isotope composition of precipitation in continental locations. In this study, we present hourly values of water vapor isotopologues (HDO and (H2O)-O-18) measured over a 30 day period in locally extreme weather conditions, including Santa Ana winds and winter rainstorms, in San Diego, California, USA. We investigate how atmospheric and hydrological processes influence HDO and (H2O)-O-18 using an isotope-enabled GCM model (IsoGSM). Combining measurements and IsoGSM simulation, we demonstrate that convective mixing of marine and continental air masses are responsible for the isotopic variation of near-surface water vapor in this coastal location. The isotopic variability is most pronounced during Santa Ana winds. The Santa Ana winds represent a unique boundary layer condition in which atmospheric mixing becomes the process that dominantly controls the changes in the isotopic composition relative to air humidity. We demonstrate that a two-source mixing approach (Keeling plot) can reliably be used to estimate the isotopic composition of the source moisture, and from that, to infer the location of the moisture origin that contributes to the atmospheric moisture content in southern California. The present study is unique because it combines large-scale isotope GCM modeling with a robust and high-resolution isotope data set to disentangle the control of atmospheric and hydrologic processes on the atmospheric humidity in an extratropical climate. Our results demonstrate the utility of using single-point, ground-based isotope observations as a complementary resource to existing satellite isotope measurements for constraining isotope-enabled GCMs in future investigation of atmospheric water cycle.

25. U0588X
Meehl G.A. и др. DECADAL CLIMATE PREDICTION An Update from the Trenches // Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2014. Т. 95. № 2. С. 243–267

This paper provides an update on research in the relatively new and fast-moving field of decadal climate prediction, and addresses the use of decadal climate predictions not only for potential users of such information but also for improving our understanding of processes in the climate system. External forcing influences the predictions throughout, but their contributions to predictive skill become dominant after most of the improved skill from initialization with observations vanishes after about 6-9 years. Recent multimodel results suggest that there is relatively more decadal predictive skill in the North Atlantic, western Pacific, and Indian Oceans than in other regions of the world oceans. Aspects of decadal variability of SSTs, like the mid-1970s shift in the Pacific, the mid-1990s shift in the northern North Atlantic and western Pacific, and the early-2000s hiatus, are better represented in initialized hindcasts compared to uninitialized simulations. There is evidence of higher skill in initialized multimodel ensemble decadal hindcasts than in single model results, with multimodel initialized predictions for near-term climate showing somewhat less global warming than uninitialized simulations. Some decadal hindcasts have shown statistically reliable predictions of surface temperature over various land and ocean regions for lead times of up to 6-9 years, but this needs to be investigated in a wider set of models. As in the early days of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prediction, improvements to models will reduce the need for bias adjustment, and increase the reliability, and thus usefulness, of decadal climate predictions in the future.

26. U59979
Pappas C. и др. Sensitivity analysis of a process-based ecosystem model: Pinpointing parameterization and structural issues // Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. 2013. Т. 118. № 2. С. 505–528.

Dynamic vegetation models have been widely used for analyzing ecosystem dynamics and their interactions with climate. Their performance has been tested extensively against observations and by model intercomparison studies. In the present analysis, Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS), a state-of-the-art ecosystem model, was evaluated by performing a global sensitivity analysis. The study aims at examining potential model limitations, particularly with regard to long-term applications. A detailed sensitivity analysis based on variance decomposition is presented to investigate structural model assumptions and to highlight processes and parameters that cause the highest variability in the output. First- and total-order sensitivity indices were calculated for selected parameters using Sobol's methodology. In order to elucidate the role of climate on model sensitivity, different climate forcings were used based on observations from Switzerland. The results clearly indicate a very high sensitivity of LPJ-GUESS to photosynthetic parameters. Intrinsic quantum efficiency alone is able to explain about 60% of the variability in vegetation carbon fluxes and pools for a wide range of climate forcings. Processes related to light harvesting were also found to be important together with parameters affecting forest structure (growth, establishment, and mortality). The model shows minor sensitivity to hydrological and soil texture parameters, questioning its skills in representing spatial vegetation heterogeneity at regional or watershed scales. In the light of these results, we discuss the deficiencies of LPJ-GUESS and possibly that of other, structurally similar, dynamic vegetation models and we highlight potential directions for further model improvements.

27.U0588X
Straneo F. и др. Challenges to Understanding the Dynamic Response of Greenland’s Marine Terminating Glaciers to Oceanic and Atmospheric Forcing // Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2013. Т. 94. № 8. С. 1131–1144.

The recent retreat and speedup of outlet glaciers, as well as enhanced surface melting around the ice sheet margin, have increased Greenland's contribution to sea level rise to 0.6 +/- 0.1 mm yr(-1) and its discharge of freshwater into the North Atlantic. The widespread, near-synchronous glacier retreat, and its coincidence with a period of oceanic and atmospheric warming, suggests a common climate driver. Evidence points to the marine margins of these glaciers as the region from which changes propagated inland. Yet, the forcings and mechanisms behind these dynamic responses are poorly understood and are either missing or crudely parameterized in climate and ice sheet models. Resulting projected sea level rise contributions from Greenland by 2100 remain highly uncertain. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge and highlights key physical aspects of Greenland's coupled ice sheet-ocean-atmosphere system. Three research thrusts are identified to yield fundamental insights into ice sheet, ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions, their role in Earth's climate system, and probable trajectories of future changes: 1) focused process studies addressing critical glacier, ocean, atmosphere, and coupled dynamics; 2) sustained observations at key sites; and 3) inclusion of relevant dynamics in Earth system models. Understanding the dynamic response of Greenland's glaciers to climate forcing constitutes both a scientific and technological frontier, given the challenges of obtaining the appropriate measurements from the glaciers' marine termini and the complexity of the dynamics involved, including the coupling of the ocean, atmosphere, glacier, and sea ice systems. Interdisciplinary and international cooperation are crucial to making progress on this novel and complex problem.

28.U4705X
Tsushima Y., Manabe S. Assessment of radiative feedback in climate models using satellite observations of annual flux variation // Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2013. Т. 110. № 19. С. 7568–7573.

In the climate system, two types of radiative feedback are in operation. The feedback of the first kind involves the radiative damping of the vertically uniform temperature perturbation of the troposphere and Earth's surface that approximately follows the Stefan-Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation. The second kind involves the change in the vertical lapse rate of temperature, water vapor, and clouds in the troposphere and albedo of the Earth's surface. Using satellite observations of the annual variation of the outgoing flux of longwave radiation and that of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, this study estimates the so-called "gain factor," which characterizes the strength of radiative feedback of the second kind that operates on the annually varying, global-scale perturbation of temperature at the Earth's surface. The gain factor is computed not only for all sky but also for clear sky. The gain factor of so-called "cloud radiative forcing" is then computed as the difference between the two. The gain factors thus obtained are compared with those obtained from 35 models that were used for the fourth and fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Here, we show that the gain factors obtained from satellite observations of cloud radiative forcing are effective for identifying systematic biases of the feedback processes that control the sensitivity of simulated climate, providing useful information for validating and improving a climate model.

29.U10426
Ward S.E. и др. Vegetation exerts a greater control on litter decomposition than climate warming in peatlands // Ecology. 2015. Т. 96. № 1. С. 113–123.

Historically, slow decomposition rates have resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of carbon in northern peatlands. Both climate warming and vegetation change can alter rates of decomposition, and hence affect rates of atmospheric CO2 exchange, with consequences for climate change feedbacks. Although warming and vegetation change are happening concurrently, little is known about their relative and interactive effects on decomposition processes. To test the effects of warming and vegetation change on decomposition rates, we placed litter of three dominant species (Calluna vulgaris, Eriophorum vaginatum, Hypnum jutlandicum) into a peatland field experiment that combined warming with plant functional group removals, and measured mass loss over two years. To identify potential mechanisms behind effects, we also measured nutrient cycling and soil biota. We found that plant functional group removals exerted a stronger control over short-term litter decomposition than did similar to 1 degrees C warming, and that the plant removal effect depended on litter species identity. Specifically, rates of litter decomposition were faster when shrubs were removed from the plant community, and these effects were strongest for graminoid and bryophyte litter. Plant functional group removals also had strong effects on soil biota and nutrient cycling associated with decomposition, whereby shrub removal had cascading effects on soil fungal community composition, increased enchytraeid abundance, and increased rates of N mineralization. Our findings demonstrate that, in addition to litter quality, changes in vegetation composition play a significant role in regulating short-teem litter decomposition and belowground communities in peatland, and that these impacts can be greater than moderate warming effects. Our findings, albeit from a relatively short-term study, highlight the need to consider both vegetation change and its impacts below ground alongside climatic effects when predicting future decomposition rates and carbon storage in peatlands.

30. U46625
Wen G. и др. Reconciliation of modeled climate responses to spectral solar forcing // Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 2013. Т. 118. № 12. С. 6281–6289.

The SIM (Spectral Irradiance Monitor) on SORCE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment) provides more spectrally complete daily SSI (spectral solar irradiance) measurements than ever before, allowing us to explore chemical and physical processes in the Earth's ocean and atmosphere system. However, the newly observed SSI instigated controversies in the Sun-climate community on whether the SIM-observed trends are true solar variations and on whether climate responses are in phase or out of phase with solar forcing. In this study, we focus on resolving two apparently contradictory results published on possible temperature responses to SIM-derived solar forcing. When applying extreme scenarios of SIM-based spectral solar forcing in a radiative-convective model (RCM), we find that some apparently contradictory results can be explained by the different methods used to apply the SIM SSI data. It is clear that accurate SSI data are essential for accurate climate simulations and that climate modelers need to take care how they apply these data.

31. 01140X
Антохин П.Н., Аршинова В.Г., Аршинов М.Ю., Белан Б.Д., Белан С.Б., Давыдов Д.К., Ивлев Г.А., Козлов А.В., Nedelec P., Paris J.D., Рассказчикова Т.М., Савкин Д.Е., Симоненков Д.В., Скляднева Т.К., Толмачев Г.Н., Фофонов А.В. КРУПНОМАСШТАБНЫЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ ГАЗОВОГО И АЭРОЗОЛЬНОГО СОСТАВА ВОЗДУХА НАД СИБИРСКИМ РЕГИОНОМ // Оптика атмосферы и океана. 2014. Т. 27. № 3 (302). С. 232-239.

32. 01140X
Аршинов М.Ю., Белан Б.Д., Воронецкая Н.Г., Головко А.К., Давыдов Д.К., Козлов А.С., Малышкин С.Б., Певнева Г.С., Симоненков Д.В., Толмачев Г.Н ГОДОВАЯ ДИНАМИКА ОРГАНИЧЕСКОЙ СОСТАВЛЯЮЩЕЙ АЭРОЗОЛЯ В СВОБОДНОЙ АТМОСФЕРЕ НАД ЮГОМ ЗАПАДНОЙ СИБИРИ // Оптика атмосферы и океана. 2015. Т. 28. № 10. С. 879-882.

Исследуется годовой ход концентрации органической составляющей атмосферного аэрозоля, отобранного с борта самолета-лаборатории Ту-134 «Оптик» в слое атмосферы 500-8500 м. Выявлено, что наибольшая концентрация органической компоненты в составе аэрозоля наблюдается весной, наименьшая - осенью. В составе аэрозольных частиц обнаруживаются соединения от С 8Н 18 до С 35Н 72. Наиболее широкий диапазон углеводородов отмечается в зимний период (С 12Н 26-С 35Н 72) и весной (С 8Н 18-С 31Н 64). Летом (С 18Н 38-С 33Н 68) и осенью (С 16Н 34-С 31Н 64) он заметно уже. В течение всего года в составе аэрозоля доминирует одна мода (н-алкан состава С 20Н 42). В летний период появляется вторичный максимум, приходящийся на н-алкан состава С 29Н 60.

33. 01140X
Бизин М.А., Попова С.А., Чанкина О.В., Макаров В.И., Шинкоренко М.П., Смоляков Б.С., Куценогий К.П. ВЛИЯНИЕ ЛЕСНЫХ ПОЖАРОВ НА МАССОВУЮ КОНЦЕНТРАЦИЮ, ДИСПЕРСНЫЙ И ХИМИЧЕСКИЙ СОСТАВ АТМОСФЕРНОГО АЭРОЗОЛЯ В РЕГИОНАЛЬНОМ МАСШТАБЕ // Оптика атмосферы и океана. 2013. Т. 26. № 6 (293). С. 484-489.

Представлена динамика основных химических компонентов аэрозольной фазы в период задымленности атмосферы в г. Новосибирске и его пригороде от лесных пожаров Томской области и Красноярского края. По сравнению с наблюдениями в тех же пунктах в 2010 и 2011 гг. в задымленные периоды 2012 г. зафиксирован существенный рост массовой концентрации субмикронной фракции атмосферного аэрозоля (АА). Это увеличение связано с высоким содержанием органического вещества в атмосфере и сопровождается повышенной кислотностью и более высокой концентрацией ионов калия K + и формиата HCOO – при отсутствии изменений в элементном составе АА.

34. 01140X
Бурлаков В.Д., Долгий С.И., Макеев А.П., Матвиенко Г.Г., Невзоров А.В., Солдатов А.Н., Романовский О.А., Харченко О.В., Яковлев С.В. ЛИДАРНЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ДИСТАНЦИОННОГО ЗОНДИРОВАНИЯ ПАРАМЕТРОВ АТМОСФЕРЫ // Оптика атмосферы и океана. 2013. Т. 26. № 10. С. 829-837.

Рассмотрены характеристики модернизированного измерительного комплекса Сибирская лидарная станция, а также некоторые другие лидарные установки, разработанные в Институте оптики атмосферы им. В.Е. Зуева СО РАН в сотрудничестве с Томским государственным университетом, и их возможности для зондирования параметров атмосферы. Представлены результаты лидарных измерений вертикальных профилей температуры в сравнении с данными шаров-зондов и спутниковыми данными. Описан лидар для измерений вертикального распределения озона в верхней тропосфере–стратосфере. Приведены восстановленные профили вертикального распределения озона. Представлены результаты тестовых экспериментов по лазерному зондированию газового состава атмосферы с помощью перспективных для газоанализа ИК-лазеров.

35. 004302
Бусыгин В.П., Гинзбург А.С. АТМОСФЕРНЫЕ И ГИДРОГЕОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ЭФФЕКТЫ ПОДЗЕМНЫХ ЯДЕРНЫХ ВЗРЫВОВ: ТЕОРИЯ, ЭКСПЕРИМЕНТ И МОНИТОРИНГ // Метеорология и гидрология. 2016. № 2. С. 55-66.

В 1980-1990 гг. в работах академика Г. С. Голицына и других ученых дана оценка возможных климатических последствий ядерной войны. Оценка основывалась на данных моделирования радиационных и циркуляционных процессов в атмосфере при разных сценариях обмена наземными и воздушными ядерными ударами. Возможно, что подземные ядерные взрывы не могут приводить к заметным климатическим эффектам из-за выброса большого количества аэрозоля в атмосферу, однако они могут вызвать изменение структуры породы на большой глубине, состава подземных вод, жидких и газообразных углеводородов, а также миграцию радиоактивных продуктов из котловой полости взрыва в водные и углеводородные слои. О незавершенности ядерных реакций и тепловыделения в котловой полости позволяют косвенно судить результаты тепловой съемки поверхности земли в эпицентральной зоне взрыва. Показано, что здесь образуется тепловая аномалия с температурой на 8-10°С выше фоновой температуры поверхности земли. Рассмотрена возможность космического мониторинга тепловых аномалий с борта низкоорбитальных спутников. Показано, что при безоблачной атмосфере для типичных размеров и температуры тепловых аномалий плотность потока на орбите космического аппарата в спектральном интервале 8-14 мкм составляет около 9 Ч 10-10-2 Ч 10-9 Вт/см2, что позволяет проводить регистрацию данных объектов.

36. 01140X
Головко В.В., Куценогий К.П., Истомин В.Л. АГРЕГАТНЫЙ СОСТАВ ПЫЛЬЦЕВОГО АЭРОЗОЛЯ В АТМОСФЕРЕ Г. НОВОСИБИРСКА // Оптика атмосферы и океана. 2014. Т. 27. № 6. С. 553-559.

Проведены исследования пыльцевого компонента атмосферного аэрозоля, присутствовавшего в воздухе г. Новосибирска на протяжении вегетационного периода 2004 г. Определены таксономический состав, сроки поступления в атмосферу пыльцы различных таксонов анемофильных растений, а также ее счетные и массовые концентрации на протяжении периодов цветения. Показано, что во время всего вегетационного периода пыльцевой компонент атмосферного аэрозоля в г. Новосибирске представлен не только одиночными зернами пыльцы, но и их агломератами. Найдены аэродинамические характеристики индивидуальных пыльцевых зерен анемофильных растений и их агломератов. Установлен агломератный состав пыльцевого аэрозоля г. Новосибирска.

37.004302
Голубев В.Н. РОЛЬ АЭРОЗОЛЬНЫХ ЧАСТИЦ В ЗАРОЖДЕНИИ АТМОСФЕРНОГО ЛЬДА // Метеорология и гидрология. 2015. № 12. С. 19-28.

Рассматривается процесс зарождения льда в атмосфере, происходящий в результате гетерогенной конденсации водяного пара в неоднородностях поверхности аэрозольных частиц и последующей гетерогенной кристаллизации скоплений переохлажденной воды. Установлено, что размеры, строение и состав аэрозольных частиц определяют термический режим кристаллизации.

38. 00228X
Зацепин А.Г., Островский А.Г., Кременецкий В.В., Низов С.C., Пиотух В.Б., Соловьев В.А., Швоев Д.А., Цибульский А.Л., Куклев С.Б., Куклева О.Н., Москаленко Л.В., Подымов О.И., Баранов В.И., Кондрашов А.А., Корж А.О., Кубряков А.А., Соловьев Д.М., Станичный С.В. ПОДСПУТНИКОВЫЙ ПОЛИГОН ДЛЯ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ ГИДРОФИЗИЧЕСКИХ ПРОЦЕССОВ В ШЕЛЬФОВО-СКЛОНОВОЙ ЗОНЕ ЧЕРНОГО МОРЯ // Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2014. Т. 50. № 1. С. 16.

Представлены первые результаты по созданию и планы работы по поддержанию и развитию подспутникового полигона на шельфе и континентальном склоне Черного моря в районе г. Геленджик, предназначенного для перманентного мониторинга состояния водной среды и биоты. Размещаемые на полигоне автономные измерительные системы в составе донных станций с акустическими доплеровскими профилографами скорости течения (ADCP) автоматических зондов-профилографов “Аквалог” и термокос на заякоренных буйковых станциях должны обеспечивать регулярное получение гидрофизических, гидрохимических и биооптических данных с высоким пространственно-временны м разрешением и их оперативную передачу в береговой центр. Эти натурные данные необходимы для исследования характеристик и механизмов формирования изменчивости морской среды и биоты, водообменных процессов в системе “шельф?глубоководный бассейн”, взаимодействия океан?атмосфера и многих других. Они востребованы для калибрации спутниковых измерений, верификации результатов численного моделирования циркуляции вод. Их предполагается использовать в целях предупреждения об опасных природных явлениях, а также для контроля экологического состояния морской среды и его изменения под влиянием антропогенных и природных факторов, включая климатические тренды. Планируется распространение методов и средств полигонного подспутникового мониторинга водной среды на другие прибрежные акватории, в том числе на другие сектора Черного моря с целью создания единой системы мониторинга шельфово-склоновой зоны Черного моря. м разрешением и их оперативную передачу в береговой центр. Эти натурные данные необходимы для исследования характеристик и механизмов формирования изменчивости морской среды и биоты, водообменных процессов в системе “шельф?глубоководный бассейн”, взаимодействия океан?атмосфера и многих других. Они востребованы для калибрации спутниковых измерений, верификации результатов численного моделирования циркуляции вод. Их предполагается использовать в целях предупреждения об опасных природных явлениях, а также для контроля экологического состояния морской среды и его изменения под влиянием антропогенных и природных факторов, включая климатические тренды. Планируется распространение методов и средств полигонного подспутникового мониторинга водной среды на другие прибрежные акватории, в том числе на другие сектора Черного моря с целью создания единой системы мониторинга шельфово-склоновой зоны Черного моря.

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Назаркина А.В., Арефьева О.Д., Дербенцева А.М. ВЗАИМОСВЯЗЬ ФИЗИКО-МЕХАНИЧЕСКИХ, ПРОТИВОЭРОЗИОННЫХ И ВОДНЫХ СВОЙСТВ АРТИИНДУСТРАТОВ ТЭЦ ЮГА ДАЛЬНЕГО ВОСТОКА // Проблемы региональной экологии. 2013. № 2. С. 140-143.

Увеличение потребления угля вызывает рост количества золоотвалов и создает сложные экологические условия в промышленных зонах ТЭЦ. Эрозионные процессы на золоотвалах связаны с их преимущественно пылеватым гранулометрическим составом, низкой оструктуренностью материала, его высокой набухаемостью. Показано, что в муссонных климатических условиях юга Дальнего Востока, в засушливые периоды золоотвал сильно распыляется, а в сезон дождей быстро достигает верхней границы текучести, что необходимо учитывать при проведении рекультивационных работ.

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Рахимов Р.Ф., Козлов В.С., Панченко М.В., Тумаков А.Г., Шмаргунов В.П. CВОЙСТВА АТМОСФЕРНОГО АЭРОЗОЛЯ В ДЫМОВЫХ ШЛЕЙФАХ ЛЕСНЫХ ПОЖАРОВ ПО ДАННЫМ СПЕКТРОНЕФЕЛОМЕТРИЧЕСКИХ ИЗМЕРЕНИЙ // Оптика атмосферы и океана. 2014. Т. 27. № 2 (301). С. 126-133.

В июле–августе 2012 г. в г. Томске с помощью поляризационного спектронефелометра был выполнен цикл измерений коэффициентов направленного аэрозольного рассеяния в условиях экстремально плотной дымовой мглы лесных пожаров в Сибири. Дисперсный состав мглы содержал микродисперсную (с радиусами < 150 нм) и среднедисперсную (с максимумом объемного распределения около 350 нм) фракции частиц. Эффективный радиус частиц составил около 220 нм. Дымовая мгла характеризовалась слабым поглощением: значения показателей поглощения микродисперсных и среднедисперсных частиц равнялись ~ 0,038 и ~ 0,012 соответственно. Среднее значение альбедо однократного рассеяния на длине волны 525 нм составило около 0,91. В плотной дымовой мгле наблюдалась высокая корреляционная связь между объемными коэффициентами обратного рассеяния и ослабления, свидетельствующая в пользу применимости однопараметрической модели для описания оптико-микрофизических свойств задымленной атмосферы. При «распаде» дымовой мглы (в периферийных зонах дымовых шлейфов) возрастает оптический вклад микродисперсной фракции, проявляющийся в увеличении показателя поглощения микродисперсных частиц до ~ 0,5 и в уменьшении альбедо от 0,91 до 0,84.

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