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Теоретическая механика

Журнальные статьи

1. PDF
Aleksandrova A.G., Galushina T.Y., Kholshevnikov K.V. Comparison of different methods for preventive destruction of a hazardous asteroid // Vii International Conference on Current Issues of Continuum Mechanics and Celestial Mechanics / ed. Orlov M.Y. 2019. Vol. 1214. P. UNSP 012007.

This paper deals with one of the methods asteroid hazard mitigation. The preventive destruction of a hazardous asteroid during the previous close encounter before its predicted collision is considered. Two variants of the explosion are considered: in the first case a projectile overtakes an asteroid; in the second one the situation is contrary. The second way requires significantly lower velocity of spacecraft delivery. On the other hand, it loses to the first way, since the number of fragments falling to the Earth is about an order of magnitude larger. However, with a more careful approach (non-isotropic explosion), this unfavorable factor can be likely reduced.

2. PDF
Arm P. et al. SpaceBok: A Dynamic Legged Robot for Space Exploration // 2019 International Conference on Robotics and Automation (icra) / ed. Howard A. et al. 2019. P. 6288–6294.

This paper introduces SpaceBok, a quadrupedal robot created to investigate dynamic legged locomotion for the exploration of low-gravity celestial bodies. With a hip height of 500mm and a mass of 20 kg, its dimensions are comparable to a medium-sized dog. The robot's leg configuration is based on an optimized parallel motion mechanism that allows the integration of parallel elastic elements to store and release energy for powerful jumping maneuvers. High-torque brushless motors in combination with customized single-stage planetary gear transmissions enable force control at the foot contact points based on an optimized parallel motion mechanism that allows the integration of parallel elastic elements to store and release energy for powerful jumping maneuvers. High-torque brushless motors in combination with customized single-stage planetary gear transmissions enable force control at the foot contact points based on motor currents. We present successful walking, trotting, and pronking experiments. Thereby, Spacebok achieved maximal jump heights in single jump experiments of up to 1.05m (more than twice the hip height) and a walking velocity of 1 m/s. Moreover, simulation results for low gravity on the moon suggest that our robot can move with up to 1.1 m/s at an approximate cost of transport of 1 in moon gravity when using the pronking gait.

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Barrett B. et al. Multidimensional Atom Optics and Interferometry // Physical Review Letters. 2019. Vol. 122, № 4. P. 043604.

We propose new multidimensional atom optics that can create coherent superpositions of atomic wave packets along three spatial directions. These tools can be used to generate light-pulse atom interferometers that are simultaneously sensitive to the three components of acceleration and rotation, and we discuss how to isolate these inertial components in a single experimental shot. We also present a new type of atomic gyroscope that is insensitive to parasitic accelerations and initial velocities. The ability to measure the full acceleration and rotation vectors with a compact, high-precision, low-bias inertial sensor could strongly impact the fields of inertial navigation, gravity gradiometry, and gyroscopy.


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Borreguero D., Velasco O., Valente J. Experimental Design of a Mobile Landing Platform to Assist Aerial Surveys in Fluvial Environments // Appl. Sci.-Basel. 2019. Vol. 9, № 1. P. 38.

Sampling aquatic ecosystems is a laborious and expensive task, especially when covering large areas. This can be improved using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with various remote sensing sensors. However, the UAV performance and autonomy may vary due to external factors when it is operated outdoors. In some cases, an emergency landing maneuver is necessary to avoid an accident, since in fluvial environments, the UAV control landing becomes a difficult operation. Therefore, it is important to have a backup platform on the water to fix this problem. This paper presents the design and development of a custom-built unmanned surface vehicle using open-source tools and with two types of operation-remotely piloted and autonomous-to support remote sensing practices with UAVs in fluvial environments. Finally, part of the software developed within this project was released in an open-source repository.


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Boutin C. et al. Dynamics of ribbed plates with inner resonance: Analytical homogenized models and experimental validation // Eur. J. Mech. A-Solids. 2020. Vol. 79. P. 103838.

This paper deals with the theoretical, numerical and experimental behavior of periodic orthogonally ribbed plates. It extends the paper (Fossat et al., 2018) in which a comprehensive homogenized model has been established for flexural and torsional motion of periodic 1D-ribbed plates. New theoretical results describing the out-of-plane behavior of cellular plates involving inner resonance phenomena, are derived using an asymptotic approach. In this aim, the out-of-plane model of beam grids accounting for local bending and torsion is first established through the asymptotic method of homogenization of periodic discrete media. Then, the coupling between the beam grid and the internal plates (fully or partially connected to it) is detailed. This lead to an explicit analytical formulation of the equivalent plate model whose effective parameters arise from the geometry and mechanical properties of the unit cell. The unconventional features of the flexural wave dispersion are shown to be straightforwardly related to inner-resonance phenomena. These theoretical results are successfully compared to numerical computations conducted using WFEM. Furthermore, experiments performed on two prototypes of ribbed plates evidence the ability of the homogenized model to describe their complex dynamic behavior. The latter is characterized by the co-existence of a dynamic regime at both the micro-scale of the period and the macro-scale of the whole structure, that results in an inhomogeneous kinematics where the plate and beam displacements differ at the leading order. These unique features depart from the usual assumptions retained in plate mechanics and generates the observed non-conventional features. In conclusion, it is stressed that the study yields design rules to tailor cellular panels having specific atypical features in a given frequency range.


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Brown L. et al. Elbow Detection in Pipes for Autonomous Navigation of Inspection Robots // J. Intell. Robot. Syst. 2019. Vol. 95, № 2. P. 527–541.

Nuclear decommissioning is a global challenge with high costs associated with it due to the hazardous environments created by radioactive materials. Most nuclear decommissioning sites contain significant amounts of pipework, the majority of which is uncharacterised with regards radioactive contamination. If there is any uncertainty as to the contamination status of a pipe, it must be treated as contaminated waste, which can lead to very high disposal costs. To overcome this challenge, an in-pipe autonomous robot for characterisation is being developed. One of the most significant mechatronic challenges with the development of such a robot is the detection of elbows in the unknown pipe networks to allow the robotic system to autonomously navigate around them. This paper presents a novel method of predicting the direction and radius of the corner using whisker-like sensors. Experiments have shown that the proposed system has a mean error of 4.69 degrees in the direction estimation.


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Chen J. et al. Code verification of soil dynamics simulations: A case study using the method of numerically manufactured solutions // Comput. Geotech. 2020. Vol. 117. P. UNSP 103258.

Through quantitative measurement of the accuracy and the convergence of error, code verification can objectively assess the quality of a simulation code. A lack of analytical benchmark solution for nonlinear problems makes it difficult to verify soil dynamics simulations in geotechnical engineering. To overcome such difficulty, this study makes use of a novel code verification technique, the method of numerically manufactured solutions (MNMS). By utilizing MNMS, the accuracy of a simulation code for nonlinear soil dynamics problems was measured. The orders of the convergence rate of the errors, with respect to the spatial and to the temporal discretization, were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical orders of the numerical methods. By demonstrating the applicability of MNMS for verifying nonlinear soil dynamics simulations, it is hoped that the concept and the necessity of code verifications can be appreciated for simulations of geotechnical engineering problems.


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Dragomir F. et al. Modelling and Control of Mechatronics Lines Served by Complex Autonomous Systems // Sensors. 2019. Vol. 19, № 15. P. 3266.

The aim of this paper is to reverse an assembly line, to be able to perform disassembly, using two complex autonomous systems (CASs). The disassembly is functioning only in case of quality default identified in the final product. The CASs are wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) equipped with robotic manipulators (RMs), working in parallel or collaboratively. The reversible assembly/disassembly mechatronics line (A/DML) assisted by CASs has a specific typology and is modelled by specialized hybrid instruments belonging to the Petri nets class, precisely synchronized hybrid Petri nets (SHPN). The need of this type of models is justified by the necessity of collaboration between the A/DML and CASs, both having characteristics and physical constraints that should be considered and to make all systems compatible. Firstly, the paper proposes the planning and scheduling of tasks necessary in modelling stage as well as in real time control. Secondly, two different approaches are proposed, related to CASs collaboration: a parallel approach with two CASs have simultaneous actions: one is equipped with robotic manipulator, used for manipulation, and the other is used for transporting. This approach is correlated with industrial A/D manufacturing lines where have to transport and handle weights in a wide range of variation. The other is a collaborative approach, A/DML is served by two CASs used for manipulation and transporting, both having simultaneous movements, following their own trajectories. One will assist the disassembly in even, while the other in odd workstations. The added value of this second approach consists in the optimization of a complete disassembly cycle. Thirdly, it is proposed in the paper the real time control of mechatronics line served by CASs working in parallel, based on the SHPN model. The novelty of the control procedure consists in the use of the synchronization signals, in absence of the visual servoing systems, for a precise positioning of the CASs serving the reversible mechatronics line.


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Fan J. et al. On discontinuous dynamics of a 2-DOF oscillator with an one-sided rigid obstacle // Int. J. Non-Linear Mech. 2020. Vol. 118. P. 103261.

A 2-DOF (two-degree-of-freedom) oscillator with an one-sided rigid obstacle in the presence of dry friction and external excitations is presented. Based on friction and the unilateral rigid barrier, the different motions for the masses, i.e., free-flight or nonstick, stick, stuck and impact motions, are discussed, and the different domains are obtained by partitioning the phase spaces. Then the analytical conditions are given for the switching of the above mentioned four motion states. By defining mapping structures and different generic mappings, the periodic motions of this system are developed. Numerical simulations are used to study the grazing, stick, nonstick, stuck and specified periodic motions. The investigation on such system is of great significance to the optimization design of engineering systems with one-sided rigid obstacle.


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Goufo E.F.D. Multi-Directional and Saturated Chaotic Attractors with Many Scrolls for Fractional Dynamical Systems // Discret. Contin. Dyn. Syst.-Ser. S. 2020. Vol. 13, № 3. P. 629–643.

Chaotic dynamical attractors are themselves very captivating in Science and Engineering, but systems with multi-dimensional and saturated chaotic attractors with many scrolls are even more fascinating for their multi-directional features. In this paper, the dynamics of a Caputo three-dimensional saturated system is successfully investigated by means of numerical techniques. The continuity property for the saturated function series involved in the model preludes suitable analytical conditions for existence and stability of the solution to the model. The Haar wavelet numerical method is applied to the saturated system and its convergence is shown thanks to error analysis. Therefore, the performance of numerical approximations clearly reveals that the Caputo model and its general initial conditions display some chaotic features with many directions. Such a chaos shows attractors with many scrolls and many directions. Then, the saturated Caputo system is indeed chaotic in the standard integer case (Caputo derivative order alpha = 1) and this chaos remains in the fractional case (alpha = 0.9). Moreover the dynamics of the system change depending on the parameter alpha, leading to an important observation that the saturated system is likely to be regulated or controlled via such a parameter.


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Hurski N.N. et al. Control of Mechatronic System Based on Multilink Robot-Manipulators // Sci. Tech. 2019. Vol. 18, № 4. P. 350–354.

The task of controlling multi-link robots with manipulators for implementation of high-tech processes in industry has been considered in the paper. The paper presents sequential steps of using computer technology in construction of robotic manipulators, including mathematical, algorithmic, and hardware and software tools for creating a multi-drive mechatronic system controlled by OMRON industrial microcontroller. A kinematic scheme of a robot manipulator has been described in the paper and it performs the following two types of movements - rotation around the z axis and rectilinear movement of a working element along a turning radius with precise positioning at a given point in the working space. Electromechanical design of the manipulator allows to ensure transportation of production objects in accordance with a given technological process. For designing the technological process of transporting production objects, a software module has been developed that makes it possible to automate description of basic operations for movement of the robot manipulator working body with subsequent automatic generation of a command sequence for a control program ensuring operation of electric drives in manipulator links in real time. To speed up the process of designing trajectory of the working body, a spatial simulation model of a robot-manipulator in the MatLab-Simulink environment has been developed. The paper considers a generalized diagram of a mechatronic control system for a robot-manipulator based on the OMRON programmable logic controller operating under control of a program developed in the programming environment Sysmac Studio Automation. A program for a programmable terminal with interface elements and animation elements has been developed for industrial use of the mechatronic system during adjustment and operation period. The paper provides an appearance of a robot-manipulator prototype. The developed mechatronic system of the robot-manipulator can be technologically oriented towards solving other problems of industrial production.


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Lopez Orti J.A., Forner Gumbau M., Barreda Rochera M. An improved algorithm of second order to construct consistent theories of equilibrium figures of rotating celestial bodies // J. Comput. Appl. Math. 2019. Vol. 354. P. 402–413

One of the main problems in celestial mechanics is the study of the figure adopted by large deformable bodies in slow rotation around an axis with a constant angular velocity it) when they reach their equilibrium configuration. This figure corresponds to the lowest equipotential surface containing the entire mass and, in order to determine it, calculating its potential at an arbitrary point is required. Classical methods address this problem generally by performing a series development of the inverse -distance by using Clairaut's coordinates. These methods show convergence problems, already in first order in (D2, so that to avoid them they must assume no demonstrated hypotheses. The authors of this paper warned and proved this fact in a previous work, for which they used two methods: 1. Taking into account the asymptotic properties of numeric quadrature formulas. 2. By a process similar to that used by Laplace to develop the inverse of the distance between two planets. Thus, the authors demonstrated that, although the intermediate formulas obtained by the classical methods are wrong, the self -gravitational potential, up to first order in w2, obtained with them, were coincident with those obtained by other methods. Now, in this paper an extension up to second order in w2 of the first method mentioned above is proposed. It shows rigorously that up to second order in w2, the intermediate formulas obtained by the classical methods are erroneous. In addition, the correct developments, up to second order in w2, of those intermediate formulas are obtained. In spite of these discrepancies, the auto -gravitational potential, up to second order in w2, obtained by the classical methods and the one obtained in this work are coincident, consequently it is proved that the classical theory is correct until second order in w2. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


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Marconi D. et al. A novel hand exoskeleton with series elastic actuation for modulated torque transfer // Mechatronics. 2019. Vol. 61. P. 69–82.

Among wearable robotic devices, hand exoskeletons present an important and persistent challenge due to the compact dimensions and kinematic complexity of the human hand. To address these challenges, this paper introduces HandeXos-Beta (HX-beta), a novel index finger-thumb exoskeleton for hand rehabilitation. The HX-beta system features an innovative kinematic architecture that allows independent actuation of thumb flexion/extension and circumduction (opposition), thus enabling a variety of naturalistic and functional grip configurations. Furthermore, HX-beta features a novel series-elastic actuators (SEA) architecture that directly measures externally transferred torque in real-time, and thus enables both position- and torque-controlled modes of operation, allowing implementation of both robot-in-charge and user-in-charge exercise paradigms. Finally, HX-beta's adjustable orthosis, passive degrees of freedom, and under-actuated control scheme allow for optimal comfort, robot-user joint alignment, and flexible actuation for users of various hand sizes. In addition to the mechatronic design and resulting functional capabilities of HX-beta, this work presents a series of physical performance characterizations, including the position- and torque-control system performance, frequency response, end effector force, and output impedance. By each measure, the HX-beta exhibited performance comparable or superior to previously reported hand exoskeletons, including position and torque step response times on the order of 0.3 s, -3 dB cut-off frequencies ranging from approximately 2.5 to 4 Hz, and fingertip output forces on the order of 4 N. During use by a healthy subject in torque-controlled transparent mode, the HX-beta orthosis joints exhibited appropriately low output impedance, ranging from 0.42 to -0.042 Nm/rad at 1 Hz, over a range of functional grasps performed at real-life speeds. This combination of lab bench characterizations and functional evaluation provides a comprehensive verification of the design and performance of the HandeXos Beta exoskeleton, and its suitability for clinical application in hand rehabilitation.


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Nasreen N. et al. Dispersive solitary wave and soliton solutions of the gernalized third order nonlinear Schrodinger dynamical equation by modified analytical method // Results Phys. 2019. Vol. 15. P. 102641.

In this article, Generalized Riccati mapping method is analysed to drive the several sorts of solitons such as dark and bright solitons, periodic solitons, trigonometric function and solitary waves solutions of generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation of third order. This dynamical model has significance application in various fields such as it is utilized in optical fibers to model pulses of ultra-short. We also present graphical presentation of various types of solution in 3 dimensional, 2 dimensional and counter plot to make understand the physical phenomena's. The computing exertion and attained results confirm the influence and effectiveness of current methods.


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Petrescu F.I.T., Petrescu R.V.V. An Algorithm to Determining the Gear Efficiency to a Simple Planetary Train // Indep. J. Manag. Prod. 2019. Vol. 10, № 5. P. 1392–1404.

The paper presents an original algorithm composed by authors in order to determine through exact calculations the efficiency value of a simple planetary mechanism, increasingly used in aerospace, robotics, mechatronics, machine building, and various automation. The calculation program is written in excel and for its simple automation four sign-type switches, are used plus or minus 1, and a logic function for checking the status and choosing the corresponding value. In this way, the program is generalized to be used for any type of simple planetary mechanism for the purpose of accurately determining its yield.


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Semeniuta O., Falkman P. Event-driven industrial robot control architecture for the Adept V+ platform // PeerJ Comput. Sci. 2019. P. e207.

Modern industrial robotic systems are highly interconnected. They operate in a distributed environment and communicate with sensors, computer vision systems, mechatronic devices, and computational components. On the fundamental level, communication and coordination between all parties in such distributed system are characterized by discrete event behavior. The latter is largely attributed to the specifics of communication over the network, which, in terms, facilitates asynchronous programming and explicit event handling. In addition, on the conceptual level, events are an important building block for realizing reactivity and coordination. Eventdriven architecture has manifested its effectiveness for building loosely-coupled systems based on publish-subscribe middleware, either general-purpose or robotic-oriented. Despite all the advances in middleware, industrial robots remain difficult to program in context of distributed systems, to a large extent due to the limitation of the native robot platforms. This paper proposes an architecture for flexible event-based control of industrial robots based on the Adept V+ platform. The architecture is based on the robot controller providing a TCP/IP server and a collection of robot skills, and a high-level control module deployed to a dedicated computing device. The control module possesses bidirectional communication with the robot controller and publish/subscribe messaging with external systems. It is programmed in asynchronous style using pyadept, a Python library based on Python coroutines, AsyncIO event loop and ZeroMQ middleware. The proposed solution facilitates integration of Adept robots into distributed environments and building more flexible robotic solutions with eventbased logic.


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Sliz-Balogh J., Barta A., Horvath G. Celestial mechanics and polarization optics of the Kordylewski dust cloud in the Earth-Moon Lagrange point L5-Part II. Imaging polarimetric observation: new evidence for the existence of Kordylewski dust cloud // Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2019. Vol. 482, № 1. P. 762–770.

Telescopes mounted with polarizers can study the neutral points of the Earth's atmosphere, the solar corona, the surface of planets/moons of the Solar system, distant stars, galaxies, and nebulae. These examples demonstrate well that polarimetry is a useful technique to gather astronomical information from spatially extended phenomena. There are two enigmatic celestial objects that can also effectively be studied with imaging polarimetry, namely the Kordylewski dust clouds (KDCs) positioned around the L4 and L5 triangular Lagrangian libration points of the Earth-Moon system. Although in 1961 the Polish astronomer Kazimierz Kordylewski had observed two bright patches near the L5 point with photography, many astronomers assume that these dust clouds do not exist, because the gravitational perturbation of the Sun, solar wind, and other planets may disrupt the stabilizing effect of the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of the Earth and Moon. Using ground-born imaging polarimetry, we present here new observational evidence for the existence of the KDC around the L5 point of the Earth-Moon system. Excluding artefacts induced by the telescope, cirrus clouds, or condensation trails of airplanes, the only explanation remains the polarized scattering of sunlight on the particles collected around the


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Wilson S. et al. Formulation of a new gradient descent MARG orientation algorithm: Case study on robot teleoperation // Mech. Syst. Signal Proc. 2019. Vol. 130. P. 183–200.

We introduce a novel magnetic angular rate gravity (MARG) sensor fusion algorithm for inertial measurement. The new algorithm improves the popular gradient descent ('Madgwick') algorithm increasing accuracy and robustness while preserving computational efficiency. Analytic and experimental results demonstrate faster convergence for multiple variations of the algorithm through changing magnetic inclination. Furthermore, decoupling of magnetic field variance from roll and pitch estimation is proven for enhanced robustness. The algorithm is validated in a human-machine interface (HMI) case study. The case study involves hardware implementation for wearable robot teleoperation in both Virtual Reality (VR) and in real-time on a 14 degree-of-freedom (DoF) humanoid robot. The experiment fuses inertial (movement) and mechanomyography (MMG) muscle sensing to control robot arm movement and grasp simultaneously, demonstrating algorithm efficacy and capacity to interface with other physiological sensors. To our knowledge, this is the first such formulation and the first fusion of inertial measurement and MMG in HMI. We believe the new algorithm holds the potential to impact a very wide range of inertial measurement applications where full orientation necessary. Physiological sensor synthesis and hardware interface further provides a foundation for robotic teleoperation systems with necessary robustness for use in the field. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


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Yang H. et al. Research on Drilling Bit Positioning Strategy Based on SINS MWD System // Ieee Access. 2019. Vol. 7. P. 109398–109410.

Accurate measurement of drill bit position and direction is the main technology to realize automation and intelligence in oil drilling field. In recent years, with the rapid development of complex drilling technologies such as high deviation wells, directional wells and horizontal wells, higher requirements have been put forward for measurement technology, especially for real-time monitoring of bit attitude and position during the drilling process. Therefore, for the past few years, the measurement while drilling (MWD) system has been widely recognized and developed rapidly in precision targeted drilling. among them, strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) consisting of accelerometer and gyroscope is the key of down-hole measurement while drilling. To solve the problem of accumulated errors in SINS, in this paper, a positioning error correction method based on kinematic constraint-aided (KC) SINS zero velocity updated (ZUPT) model is proposed. Firstly, based on the acceleration and angular velocity information measured by SINS, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and wavelet de-noising reconstruction are performed for MWD signals. Secondly, the static detection model of the drill bit is established by using the reconstructed signal. Thirdly, using drilling technology to analyze the motion attitude of the bit, the KC model of the down-hole bit is established. By analysis the alternating effect of the KC model and the ZUPT model in the process of the bit movement and stop, the ZUPT model of the SINS is established. Finally, experimental verification is performed by building a drilling platform. The experimental results show that the maximum positioning error of the proposed positioning model is 0.15 m within 300 s. Comparing with a single KC model and a single ZUPT model, the bit positioning accuracy is improved to 92.6%, which effectively suppresses the original cumulative error, and verifies the feasibility of the proposed method.


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Zhong J., Ross S.D. Geometry of escape and transition dynamics in the presence of dissipative and gyroscopic forces in two degree of freedom systems // Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 2020. Vol. 82. P. UNSP 105033.

Escape from a potential well can occur in different physical systems, such as capsize of ships, resonance transitions in celestial mechanics, and dynamic snap-through of arches and shells, as well as molecular reconfigurations in chemical reactions. The criteria and routes of escape in one-degree of freedom systems have been well studied theoretically with reasonable agreement with experiment. The trajectory can only transit from the hilltop of the one-dimensional potential energy surface. The situation becomes more complicated when the system has higher degrees of freedom since the system state has multiple routes to escape through an equilibrium of saddle-type, specifically, an index-1 saddle. This paper summarizes the geometry of escape across a saddle in some widely known physical systems with two degrees of freedom and establishes the criteria of escape providing both a methodology and results under the conceptual framework known as tube dynamics. These problems are classified into two categories based on whether the saddle projection and focus projection in the symplectic eigenspace are coupled or uncoupled when damping and/or gyroscopic effects are considered. For simplicity, only the linearized system around the saddle points is analyzed, but the results generalize to the nonlinear system. We define a transition region, T-h, as the region of initial conditions of a given initial energy h which transit from one side of a saddle to the other. We find that in conservative systems, the boundary of the transition region, partial derivative T-h, is a cylinder, while in dissipative systems, partial derivative T-h is an ellipsoid. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


21. 047666
Белоножко П.П. КОСМИЧЕСКАЯ РОБОТОТЕХНИКА: ОПЫТ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ РАЗВИТИЯ // Воздушно-космическая сфера. 2018. № 1 (94). С. 84-93

В статье проанализирована логика развития космической робототехники. Обобщен многолетний опыт орбитальной эксплуатации уникальных объектов - манипуляторов Canadarm и Canadarm-2, мобильной системы обслуживания МКС. Рассмотрены роботизированные элементы в составе станции «Мир» - грузовые стрелы и манипулятор-перестыковщик, манипулятор системы «Буран». Выделены направления дальнейшего развития робототехники космического назначения. Показано, что одной из актуальных является задача автоматизированного монтажа и обслуживания перспективных модульных многофункциональных наращиваемых космических систем.


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В данной статье приводится обзор современного состояния систем высокоточной навигации, основанных на ГНСС. Кратко описаны основные методы получения высокоточных координатных решений и их характеристики. Оцениваются перспективы развития методов высокоточной навигации. Представлены сравнения точности для режима реального времени и постобработки, время сходимости данных решений. Так же в статье даны оценки необходимой инфраструктуры для создания системы высокоточной навигации на территории РФ.


23. 005451

На основании неособого преобразования получена редукция уравнений Гриоли к уравнениям Яхьи. Указан класс решений уравнений движения твердого тела под действием потенциальных и гироскопических сил, зависящий от произвольной вектор-функции компонент единичного вектора оси симметрии силовых полей. Рассмотрены асимптотические решения по Ляпунову в случае, когда предельное решение описывается линейной вектор-функцией.


24. 046659
Журавлева Л.В., Зобов О.В., Клынкин К.О. ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ ЛАЗЕРНОГО ДАЛЬНОМЕРА VL53L0X ДЛЯ НАВИГАЦИИ И ПОЗИЦИОНИРОВАНИЯ МОБИЛЬНОГО РОБОТА. // Технологии инженерных и информационных систем. 2019. № 3. С. 8-17

В работе описана процедура калибровки, настройки лазерного дальномера VL53l0X, реализация информационно-измерительной системы и обработка полученных данных с помощью операционной системы реального времени, развернутой на микроконтроллере STM32F407VGT. Рассмотрен выбор режимов работы датчика и оперативного получения информации с использованием средств операционной системы реального времени. Разработанная методика применения дальномера может быть полезна разработчикам робототехнических систем, а также в тех системах, где требуется гарантированное время реакции на внешние события.


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В настоящее время аппаратура спутниковой навигации (АСН) нашла широкое применение в различных областях для повышения безопасности и эффективности отраслей экономики. Однако АСН потенциально подвержена влиянию информационно-технических воздействий (ИТВ), создающих опасность нарушения ее устойчивости функционирования. Принципиально новым требованием со стороны потребительского сегмента системы ГЛОНАСС является обеспечение устойчивого получения навигационной информации и ее обработки в АСН сложных технических систем в условиях ИТВ.

https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=41415244 https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=39169144

26. 042840
Крахмалев О.Н. МЕТОДЫ ОБЪЕКТНО-ОРИЕНТИРОВАННОГО МОДЕЛИРОВАНИЯ МАНИПУЛЯЦИОННЫХ СИСТЕМ РОБОТОВ //Фундаментальные и прикладные проблемы техники и технологии. 2018. № 1 (327). С. 96-105.

Рассмотрены методы моделирования движения манипуляционных систем роботов, реализованные на основе объектно-ориентированного подхода. Объектно-ориентированный подход реализуется путём выделения в структуре данных и алгоритмов, используемых при моделировании, базовых классов, на основе которых создаются другие более сложные классы, из которых уже непосредственно формируются математические модели. В качестве базовых классов выделены геометрическая и инерционная модели манипуляционных систем. Последующее определение классов, наследующих свойства базовых, позволяет использовать объектно-ориентированный подход при составлении математических моделей манипуляционных систем и программировании алгоритмов, реализующих эти модели. Метод визуального конструирования математических моделей состоит в том, что различные математические модели строятся из отдельных, независимых друг от друга, частей-объектов. Эти части в свою очередь могут состоять из других более простых частей. В основе таких составных частей находятся объекты базовых классов или объекты, наследующие их свойства...


27. 011452

Рассмотрено использование метода целенаправленных структурных мутаций математических моделей. Метод позволяет создавать приближённые модели манипуляционных систем роботов путём модификации их объектно-ориентированных математических моделей. Манипуляционные системы рассматриваются как непрерывно-детерминированные системы, описываемые системами алгебраических и обыкновенных дифференциальных уравнений. Реализация данного метода основывается на возможностях предоставляемых методом визуального конструирования объектных схем математических моделей. Модификации объектных схем проводятся путём замены выбранных в них частей на альтернативные этим частям объекты. Применение метода структурных мутаций позволяет компенсировать влияние случайных факторов, не учитываемых исходной математической моделью, полученной аналитическим способом.


28. PDF
Крахмалев О.Н. ОБЪЕКТНО-ОРИЕНТИРОВАННОЕ МОДЕЛИРОВАНИЕ МАНИПУЛЯЦИОННЫХ СИСТЕМ РОБОТОВ // Робототехника и техническая кибернетика. 2018. № 4 (21). С. 41-47

Рассмотрены методы моделирования движения манипуляционных систем роботов, реализованные на основе объектно-ориентированного подхода. Объектно-ориентированный подход реализуется путём выделения в структуре данных и алгоритмов, используемых при моделировании, базовых классов, на основе которых создаются другие более сложные классы, из которых уже непосредственно формируются математические модели. В качестве базовых классов выделены геометрическая и инерционная модели манипуляционных систем. Последующее определение классов, наследующих свойства базовых, позволяет использовать объектно-ориентированный подход при составлении математических моделей манипуляционных систем и программировании алгоритмов, реализующих эти модели. Метод визуального конструирования математических моделей состоит в том, что различные математические модели строятся из отдельных, независимых друг от друга, частей-объектов. Эти части в свою очередь могут состоять из других более простых частей. В основе таких составных частей находятся объекты базовых классов или объекты, наследующие их свойства...


29. PDF

Робототехника и автономные системы сыграли важную р оль в освоении космоса,позволив осуществить человеческое любопытство и стремление покорить новые миры. Космическая робототехника предоставляет несколько ключевых возможностей для широкого спектра будущих космических миссий с роботами и экипажами, а также предоставляет возможности для передачи знаний и технологий во многие наземные сектора. В более широком гуманитарном контексте космическая робототехника вдохновляет как нынешнее, так и будущие поколения к исследованию и критическому изучению науки и технологий. В данной статье представлен обзор космической робототехники как быстро развивающейся области, охватывающей основные понятия, определения, историю и эволюцию.


30. 044916
Кулаков Ф.М., Алфёров Г.В., Ефимова П.А. ДИСТАНЦИОННОЕ УПРАВЛЕНИЕ МАНИПУЛЯЦИОННЫМИ РОБОТАМИ // Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: Математика. Механика. Информатика. 2019. № 4 (47). С. 34-43

Предложен и обоснован метод дистанционного управления космическим роботом, предназначенным для выполнения в недетерминированной внешней среде разнообразных операций с предметами как свободно перемещаемыми в пространстве, так и имеющими голономные связи. Последнее характерно при выполнении сборочных операций при освоении космоса. Метод базируется на использовании важной особенности, характеризующей каждую выполняемую операцию - наличие так называемого паспорта выполняемой операции по взаимодействию рабочего инструмента робота с объектами внешней среды.


31. PDF

В статье рассматриваеться задача построения интегрированной системы навигации и управления автономным колесным роботом-манипулятором, предназначенным для автоматического выполнения технологических операций в труднодоступных и стесненных условиях. Полученные уравнения движения мобильного робота-манипулятора использованы для построения оптимального по быстродействию управления движением. Построена информационно-вычислительная схема для оптимальной по Калману оценки состояния робота.


32. PDF

Объектом исследования являются способы навигации беспилотных летательных аппаратов и алгоритмы компьютерного зрения.


33. 029314

Рассмотрены адаптивные электромеханические следящие системы управления многозвенными механическими объектами с исполнительными электроприводами, синтезированные с учетом и без учета электромагнитной динамики электроприводов. Разработана математическая модель многозвенного механического объекта, учитывающая электромагнитную динамику исполнительных электроприводов и представляемая в виде двухкаскадной структуры. Синтезированы адаптивные электромеханические следящие системы, построенные на основе метода вычисленного момента (метод Li-Slotine) и пошаговой процедуры. Рассмотренно построение матрицы-регрессора специального вида, учитывающей структуру исполнительных электроприводов. Предложенная методика двухкаскадного синтеза адаптивных электромеханических следящих систем, строящихся с учетом электромагнитной динамики исполнительных электроприводов, иллюстрируется детальным применением разработанных методов синтеза на примере построения адаптивных электромеханических следящих системы управления четырехзвенным манипуляционным роботом компании Igus...


34. 002523

Рассматриваются полуавтоматические системы управления работой манипуляцион- ных роботов с использованием различных алгоритмов управления по векторам скорости, положения и силы рабочего органа робота в соответствии с выполняемыми им технологическими операциями. Представлен комплекс компьютерных моделей для исследования динамических процессов в системах рассматриваемых классов. Приведены схемы алгоритмов и описаны блоки разработанных компьютерных моделей для исследования систем разомкнутого и замкнутого скоростного управления. Приведены результаты моделирования систем полуавтоматического управления по вектору скорости, задаваемому человеком-оператором. Даны рекомендации по применению разработанных моделей в компьютерных тренажерах для обучения операторов систем управления манипуляционными роботами.


35. 045660
Спасский Б.А. Робототехника и техническая кибернетика. // 2019. Т. 7. № 1. С. 5-13.

Рассматриваются актуальные задачи освоения космического пространства и физических тел солнечной системы, решение которых требует широкого использования космических роботов различного назначения. Описаны ключевые технологии, необходимые для реализации космических миссий с использованием космических роботов и манипуляторов. Приведены примеры завершенных, текущих и планируемых космических миссий. Показано, что удешевить и ускорить процесс развития космической робототехники можно за счёт модульного подхода к проектированию таких систем, позволяющему серийно выпускать реконфигурируемые многофункциональные образцы, легко адаптируемые к изменению задач миссии, снизить сроки их разработки, а значит, и затраты на их изготовление. Для этого необходимо направить усилия на разработку унифицированных аппаратных и программных модулей, которые станут основой построения таких роботов.


36. 011452
Фимин Н.Н., Орлов Ю.Н., Чечеткин В.М. АНАЛИТИЧЕСКОЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ДИНАМИКИ МАССИВНЫХ ЧАСТИЦ В МЕТРИКЕ КРУСКАЛА // Математическое моделирование. 2019. Т. 31. № 3. С. 55-68

Рассматриваются свойства динамики отдельной массивной частицы и системы массивных частиц в метрике Крускала, являющейся максимальным аналитическим расширением метрики Гильберта гравитирующей точки в вакууме.


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Исследуется задача о пространственном свободном торможении твердого тела в сопротивляющейся среде, при этом предполагается, что однородное осесимметричное тело взаимодействует со средой лишьчерез переднюю часть своей внешней поверхности, имеющей форму плоского круглого диска. При простейших предположениях о силах воздействия со стороны среды показана невозможностьколебаний с ограниченной амплитудой. При этом точное аналитическое описание силомоментных характеристик воздействия среды на диск отсутствует. По этой причине используется прием «погружения» данной задачи в более широкий класс задач. Это позволяет получитьотносительно полное качественное описание движения тела. Для исследуемых динамических систем удается получитьчастные решения, а также семейства фазовых портретов в трехмерном пространстве квазискоростей, состоящие из счетного множества траекторно неэквивалентных портретов с различными нелинейными качественными свойствами.


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