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XXIII Международные Биогеохимические чтения памяти В.В. Ковальского. «Биогеохимические идеи В.И. Вернадского и их развитие»

Журнальные статьи

1. PDF
Armynot du Chatelet E. et al. Environmental control on a land–sea transitional setting: integrated sedimentological, geochemical and faunal approaches // Environ Earth Sci. 2016. Vol. 75, № 2. P. 123.

Because of their location at the interface between sea and emerged lands, so-called transitional environments are characterized by strong spatial and temporal variability in terms of sedimentological, physicochemical, and geochemical parameters. An increasing number of studies put forward the use of bioindicators as a tool for environmental monitoring. However, the sensitivity to these environmental parameters is commonly tested separately, even though it is known that interactions are numerous within this complex ecosystem. An integrated methodological study was conducted in Lake Varano (Italy). On the basis of 45 spatially distributed samples throughout the area and selected environmental parameters (trace elements, organic matter, clay mineral assemblages, grain size of sediment, and water characteristics), four factors are identified. The Lake Varano ecosystem is predominantly influenced by terrigenous inputs (first-order factor). The clastic fractions of the sediments supply a large range of trace elements, occasionally in relatively high concentrations. Under such circumstances, despite occasionally exceeding of threshold limits, the trace element pollution can generally be ruled out. The organic content combined with depth is the second key factor. In Lake Varano, the organic content is high and may lead to seasonal eutrophication. As a third-order factor, although only analyzed once, oxygen, ORP, salinity, and pH gradients show that foraminiferal diversity is positively influenced by more saline conditions. The fourth-order factor is the sediment size. To conclude, this paper illustrates the interest in and need to conduct a detailed, integrated, sedimentological study of a site prior to any examination of its ecological status (possible occurrences of sources of pollution).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs12665-015-4957-7

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Bailey R.T. Review: Selenium contamination, fate, and reactive transport in groundwater in relation to human health // Hydrogeol J. 2017. Vol. 25, № 4. P. 1191–1217.

Selenium (Se) is an essential micro-nutrient for humans, but can be toxic at high levels of intake. Se deficiency and Se toxicity are linked with serious diseases, with some regions worldwide experiencing Se deficiency due to Se-poor rocks and soils and other areas dealing with Se toxicity due to the presence of Se-enriched geologic materials. In addition, Se is consumed primarily through plants that take up Se from soil and through animal products that consume these plants. Hence, the soil and groundwater system play important roles in determining the effect of Se on human health. This paper reviews current understanding of Se fate and transport in soil and groundwater systems and its relation to human health, with a focus on alluvial systems, soil systems, and the interface between alluvial systems and Cretaceous shale that release Se via oxidation processes. The review focuses first on the relation between Se and human health, followed by a summary of Se distribution in soil-aquifer systems, with an emphasis on the quantitative relationship between Se content in soil and Se concentration in underlying groundwater. The physical, chemical, and microbial processes that govern Se fate and transport in subsurface systems then are presented, followed by numerical modeling techniques used to simulate these processes in study regions and available remediation strategies for either Se-deficient or Se-toxic regions. This paper can serve as a guide to any field, laboratory or modeling study aimed at assessing Se fate and transport in groundwater systems and its relation to human health.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs10040-016-1506-8

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Barbosa C.F. et al. Health environmental assessment of the coral reef-supporting Tamandare Bay (NE, Brazil) // Marine Micropaleontology. 2016. Vol. 127. P. 63–73.

This study aimed to assess spatial and temporal ecosystem health variability of coral reefs in the Tamandare open embayment, located in Northeast Brazil, Southwest Atlantic Ocean, using water and sediment parameters and benthic foraminifera as bioindicators. Sediment samples were collected during the summer and winter of 2005 at the reef base, generally built over beachrock structures. The FORAM index (FI, a foraminiferal functional group, community-based water quality assessment), and the FORAM Stress Index (FSI, which is more related to ecological affinities than to functional groups and assesses sediment or substrata quality) together with geochemical data were interpreted using uni- and multi-variate analysis. This is the first application of FSI outside of Mediterranean waters. The dominance of the Quinqueloculina and Textularia, along with negligible numbers of living specimens, low counts of symbiont-bearing foraminifera (and thus low FI), high turbidity and high phosphorus concentrations confirm the anthropogenic influence of river inputs. All parameters suggest that the water and sediment of the Tamandare embayment are marginal for coral population settlement, although the FSI, which presents higher values at unpolluted ecosystems, suggests more sustainable conditions during summer than winter, as found for FI. The FI indication of marginal environmental health is not in agreement with the FSI and the currently stable coral population found over the underlying beachrock, especially at the established no-take zone where good conditions have been described. The central transect, influenced by the no-take zone, presents the most favorable sedimentary sector for conservation initiatives, as indicated by foraminifera and other variables, preferentially on the summer season due to low river discharge of sediments. Local scientific- and community-based coral conservation initiatives have improved ecosystem health.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.marmicro.2016.07.004

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Borghesi F. et al. Assessing environmental pollution in birds: a new methodological approach for interpreting bioaccumulation of trace elements in feather shafts using geochemical sediment data // Methods Ecol. Evol. 2017. Vol. 8, № 1. P. 96–108.

Environmental trace element composition can have an important impact on ecosystem and population health as well individual fitness. Therefore, carefully assessing bioaccumulation of trace elements is central to studies investigating the ecological impact of pollution. Colonial birds are important bioindicators since non-invasive sampling can easily be achieved through sampling of chick feathers, which controls for some confounding factors of variability (age and environmental heterogeneity). However, an additional confounding factor, external contamination (ExCo), which remains even after washing feathers, has frequently been overlooked in the literature. We developed a new method to reliably interpret bioaccumulation of 10 trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn and Zn) in feathers using chicks of a colonial species: the Greater Flamingo, Phoenicopterus roseus. First, only shafts were used to remove ExCo retained in vanes. Secondly, we applied a thorough washing procedure. Thirdly, we applied a new analytical method to control for ExCo, which assumes that ExCo is mainly due to adhered sediment particles and that the relative concentration of each trace element will be similar to the sediment geochemical composition of sampling sites. We validated this new methodology by comparing trace element composition and particle composition (by scanning electron microscopy and mass spectrometry) of washed and unwashed feathers. The washing procedure removed >99% of K indicating that most of the ExCo from salt was removed. Scanning electron microscopy and mass spectrometry revealed that some sediment particles remained after washing, especially clays which are likely to severely bias bioaccumulation interpretation. We successfully controlled for ExCo by calculating the ratio of ExCo due to sediment using the geochemical fingerprint of sediment samples. Our methodology leads to conservative estimates of bioaccumulation for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn and Zn. We have validated a new more reliable method of analysing trace element concentrations in feathers, which effectively controls for ExCo, if geochemical sediment data can be meaningfully compared to ExCo of feathers. We have demonstrated that overlooking ExCo leads to potentially erroneous conclusions, and we urge that the method applied in this study be considered in future studies.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2F2041-210X.12644

5. U12332
Johnston S.G. et al. Landslide-induced iron mobilisation shapes benthic accumulation of nutrients, trace metals and REE fractionation in an oligotrophic alpine stream // Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2015. Vol. 148. P. 1–22.

Large alpine landslides that entrain substantial organic material below the water table and create suspended floodplains may have long-term consequences for the mobilisation of redox sensitive elements, such as Fe, into streamwaters. In turn, the cycling of iron in aquatic systems can influence the fate of nutrients, alter primary productivity, enhance accumulation of trace metals and induce fractionation of rare earth elements (REE). In this study we examine a reach of a pristine oligotrophic alpine stream bracketing a 30year-old landslide and explore the consequences of landslide-induced Fe mobilisation for aqueous geochemistry and the composition of benthic stream cobble biofilm. Elevated Fe2+ and Mn in landslide zone stream waters reflect inputs of circumneutral groundwater from the landslide debris-zone floodplain. Geochemical characteristics are consistent with reductive dissolution being a primary mechanism of Fe2+ and Mn mobilisation. Stream cobble biofilm in the landslide zone is significantly (P<0.01) enriched in poorly crystalline Fe(III) (?10–400 times background) and Mn (?15–150 times background) (1M HCl extractable; Fe(III)Ab). While the landslide zone accounts for less than ?9% of the total stream length, we estimate it is responsible for approximately 60–80% of the stream’s benthic biofilm load of poorly crystalline Fe(III) and Mn. Biofilm Fe(III) precipitates are comprised mainly of ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite and an organic-Fe species, while precipitate samples collected proximal to hyporheic seeps contain abundant sheath structures characteristic of the neutrophilic Fe(II)-oxidising bacteria Leptothrix spp. Stream-cobble Fe(III)-rich biofilm is accumulating PO43? (?3–30 times background) and behaving as a preferential substrate for photosynthetic periphyton, with benthic PO43?, chlorophyll a, organic carbonHCl and total N all significantly positively correlated with Fe(III)Ab and significantly elevated within the landslide zone (P<0.01). P K-edge XANES indicates P is associated with both ferric and Ca-phosphate minerals, while SEM-EDX elemental mapping of Fe(III) precipitates reveal strong spatial associations between P, Ca and Fe. Cobble Fe(III)-rich biofilm is also sorbing and accumulating multiple trace metals and REE. Within the landslide zone there are significant (P<0.01) enrichments (up to ?10–100 times background) for most trace metals examined here and metals display significant positive linear correlations with Fe(III)Ab on a log transformed basis. Stream cobble biofilm also exhibits distinct REE fractionation along the flow path, with light REE (La, Ce, Nd, Pr) preferentially partitioning to the Fe(III) and Mn-rich biofilm within the landslide zone. Accumulation of PO43? and trace metals in this relatively environmentally labile form may have implications for their bioavailability and downstream transport, but further research is required to assess possible ecological consequences. This study demonstrates the potential for large alpine landslides to encourage reach-scale circumneutral Fe mobilisation in adjacent streams, thereby shaping multiple aspects of benthic stream geochemistry for many years after the landslide event itself.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.gca.2014.10.022

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Kobierski M., Malczyk P. Mercury in the soils of the hunting plots and the surrounding forests // Sylwan. 2016. Vol. 160, № 5. P. 433–440.

Some trace elements, because of their high capacity for bioaccumulation, can pose a threat to the adequate development and growth of plants, animals and humans, which concerns mostly mercury (Hg) and its compounds that characterize by strong toxic properties. The aim of the research was to compare the Hg content in the Arenosols of arable fields (food plots), referred to as hunting plots, as well as in the soils of neighbouring forests. Research was performed in the Szubin Forest District (northern Poland). To assess the effect of mercury on the environment, we used dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) as a bioindicator. The samples were collected from the soil profiles from 8 hunting plots and 8 woodland areas in close vicinity of these plots. Mercury was assayed with the atomic absorption spectrometry applying the AMA 254 analyser. The mercury contamination factor (CF) and the potential ecological risk index (Er) values were determined with the local Hg value of the geochemical background (5.7 mu g/kg). Assuming such very low Hg concentration as the reference value for the parent material of the soils, the mean CF value points to a considerable anthropogenic mercury accumulation in the surface horizons. The soils of hunting plots as well as forest soils are not contaminated with mercury. The total Hg content falls within the natural content level and reaches in the mineral horizons from 3.5 to 20.7 mu g/kg, while in the litter layer from 60.3 to 166.7 mu g/kg. The mercury bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) values point to a clear accumulation in the aboveground parts of dandelion. We found a significantly positive correlation between the content of mercury and organic carbon as well as the clay fraction. The mercury content in the soils under study varies and it depends on the soil origin and the effect of anthropogenic factors. In the forest soils of the Pomorze and Kujawy Province the mercury content of the geochemical background is relatively low. The areas of the Szubin Forest District do not undergo an excessive anthropopressure and sources of Hg depositions in soil surfaces can be the deposition of mercury from air.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305267781_Mercury_in_the_soils_of_the_hunting_plots_and_the_surrounding_forests

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Li J. et al. Fluoride and iodine enrichment in groundwater of North China Plain: Evidences from speciation analysis and geochemical modeling // Science of The Total Environment. 2017. Vol. 598. P. 239–248.

To better understand the enrichment of fluoride and iodine in groundwater at North China Plain (NCP), speciation analysis and geochemical modeling were conducted to identify the key hydrochemical processes controlling their mobilization in groundwater system. Groundwater fluoride and iodine concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 5.59mg/L and from 1.51 to 1106?g/L, respectively, and approximately 63% and 32.3% of groundwater fluoride and iodine were higher than the guidelines for drinking water (1.5mg/L and 150?g/L). High fluoride concentration (>1.5mg/L) can be detected in groundwater from the flow-through and discharge areas of NCP, and high iodine groundwater (>150?g/L) is mainly scattered in the coastal area. Na-HCO3/Cl type water resulted from water-rock interaction and seawater intrusion favors fluoride and iodine enrichment in groundwater. Speciation analysis results indicate that (1) fluoride complexes in groundwater are dominated by free fluoride, the negative charge of which favors fluoride enrichment in groundwater under basic conditions, and (2) iodide, iodate and organic iodine co-occur in groundwater at NCP with iodide as the dominant species. The geochemical modeling results indicate that groundwater fluoride is mainly associated with the saturation states of fluorite and calcite, as well as the adsorption equilibrium onto goethite and gibbsite, including the competitive adsorption between fluoride and carbonate. Groundwater iodine is mainly controlled by redox potential and pH condition of groundwater system. Reducing condition favors the mobilization and enrichment of groundwater iodide, which has the highest mobility among iodine species. Under reducing condition, reductive dissolution of iron (oxy)hydroxides is a potential geochemical process responsible for iodine release from sediment into groundwater. Under (sub)oxidizing condition, as groundwater pH over the ‘point of zero charge’ of iron (oxy)hydroxides, the lowering adsorption capacity of groundwater iodide/iodate on minerals leads to the release of sediment iodine into groundwater.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.scitotenv.2017.04.158

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Lu G. et al. Establishing baseline trace metals in marine bivalves in China and worldwide: Meta-analysis and modeling approach // Science of The Total Environment. 2019. Vol. 669. P. 746–753.

Bivalves are extensively employed as biomonitors of coastal pollution, but the comparability among different species and geographic environments needs to be further scrutinized. The present study conducted a meta-analysis of trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn) in the soft tissues of three groups of marine bivalves (oysters, mussels, and clams) collected from China and worldwide. By conducting cumulative frequency distribution analysis of metal distribution, we modeled the 5% cumulative values as the bio-baseline metal concentrations in these bivalves. We further modeled their potential baseline concentrations using a well-developed biokinetic model. The baseline concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the tissue-specific Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for China were 0.99, 34.5, and 340??g/g dw in oysters, 0.38, 4.32, and 49.6??g/g dw in mussels, and 0.35, 3.02, 51.4??g/g dw in clams, respectively. Of the 8 metals examined in this study, the calculated baseline concentrations of Ag, Cr, Cd, Cu and Zn in the oysters were 3.7–48, 2.7–3.6, 2.6–2.8, 8.0–11.4, 6.6–6.8 times higher than those in the mussels and clams, and only Ti showed comparable baseline concentrations among the three bivalves (8.43–9.67??g/g dw). These data strongly suggested the inter-group as well as inter-metal difference in the baseline metal concentrations in marine bivalves. Further, the potential baseline concentrations of Cd and Cu predicted by the biokinetic model were comparable to those modeled by the probability frequency distribution. Combined statistical frequency analysis and biokinetic modeling therefore provided an innovative method to establish the baseline metal concentrations in bivalves and the tissue-specific EQSs, which are now urgently needed for coastal management, biomonitoring, and geochemical records in the world.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.scitotenv.2019.03.164

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Marques J.A. et al. Environmental health in southwestern Atlantic coral reefs: Geochemical, water quality and ecological indicators // Science of The Total Environment. 2019. Vol. 651. P. 261–270.

Climate change, pollution and increased runoff are some of the main drivers of coral reefs degradation worldwide. However, the occurrence of runoff and marine pollution, as well as its ecological effects in South Atlantic coral reefs are still poorly understood. The aim of the present work is to characterize the terrigenous influence and contamination impact on the environmental health of five reefs located along a gradient of distance from a river source, using geochemical, water quality, and ecological indicators. Stable isotopes and sterols were used as geochemical indicators of sewage and terrigenous organic matter. Dissolved metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) were used as indicators of water quality. Population density, bleaching and chlorophyll ? content of the symbiont-bearing foraminifer Amphistegina gibbosa, were used as indicators of ecological effects. Sampling was performed four times during the year to assess temporal variability. Sediment and water quality indicators showed that reefs close to the river discharge experience nutrient enrichment and sewage contamination, and metals concentrations above international environmental quality guidelines. Higher levels of contamination were strongly related to the higher frequency of bleaching and lower density in A. gibbosa populations. The integrated evaluation of stable isotopes, sterols and metals provided a consistent diagnostic about sewage influence on the studied reefs. Additionally, the observed bioindicator responses evidenced relevant ecological effects. The water quality, geochemical and ecological indicators employed in the present study were effective as biomonitoring tools to be applied in reefs worldwide.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.scitotenv.2018.09.154

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McCormack J. et al. Ostracods as ecological and isotopic indicators of lake water salinity changes: the Lake Van example // Biogeosciences. 2019. Vol. 16, № 10. P. 2095–2114.

Ostracods are common lacustrine calcitic microfossils. Their faunal assemblage and morphological characteristics are important ecological proxies, and their valves are archives of geochemical information related to palaeoclimatic and palaeohydrological changes. In an attempt to assess ostracod ecology (taxonomic diversity and valve morphology) combined with valve geochemistry (?18O and ?13C) as palaeosalinity indicators, we analysed sedimentary material from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Ahlat Ridge site from a terminal and alkaline lake, Lake Van (Turkey), covering the last 150?kyr. Despite a low species diversity, the ostracod faunal assemblage reacted sensitively to changes in the concentration of total dissolved salts in their aquatic environment. Limnocythere inopinata is present throughout the studied interval, while Limnocythere sp. A is restricted to the Last Glacial period and related to increased lake water salinity and alkalinity. The presence of species belonging to the genus Candona is limited to periods of lower salinity. Valves of Limnocytherinae species (incl. L. inopinata) display nodes (hollow protrusions) during intervals of increased salinity. Both the number of noded valves and the number of nodes per valve appear to increase with rising salinity, suggesting that node formation is related to hydrological changes (salinity and/or alkalinity). In contrast to Lake Van's bulk ?18O record, the ?18O values of ostracod valves do record relative changes of the lake volume, with lower values during high lake level periods. The ?13C values of different species reflect ostracod habitat preferences (i.e. infaunal vs. epifaunal) but are less sensitive to hydrological changes. However, combined with other proxies, decreasing Holocene ?13C values may indicate a freshening of the lake water compared to the low lake level during the Last Glacial period. The Lake Van example underscores the significance and value of coupling ostracod ecology and valve geochemistry in palaeoenvironmental studies of endorheic lake basins.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5194%2Fbg-16-2095-2019

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Meindl G.A., Ashman T.-L. Effects of soil metals on pollen germination, fruit production, and seeds per fruit differ between a Ni hyperaccumulator and a congeneric nonaccumulator // Plant Soil. 2017. Vol. 420, № 1. P. 493–503.

AimsDevelopmentally distinct soil formations (e.g., serpentine vs. non-serpentine soils) can vary markedly in chemical composition, including elements known to alter plant reproduction. Here we evaluate the effects of soil Ca and Ni on pollen germination and fruit and seed production for two species: Streptanthus polygaloides, a serpentine endemic and Ni hyperaccumulator, and S. tortuosus, a non-endemic, non-Ni-accumulating, serpentine-tolerant species.MethodsIn a factorial experiment, we grew each species in soils that were amended to have high or low concentrations of Ca and Ni. We then performed hand pollinations and measured pollen germination, fruit production, and seeds per fruit.ResultsWhile Ca soil supplementation did not affect reproduction for either species, soil Ni had a strong influence, which varied by species. For S. tortuosus, the high Ni recipient treatment resulted in reduced pollen germination and fruit/seed production. For S. polygaloides, recipient effects were detected, but in the opposite direction of S. tortuosus: high Ni recipient treatment had a neutral (or slightly positive) effect on S. polygaloides pollen germination and fruit/seed production.ConclusionsSoil chemistry can greatly influence plant reproduction by altering pollen-pistil interactions, and may determine patterns of plant species abundance and distribution on novel soils by directly affecting pollen germination and subsequent reproductive success.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs11104-017-3425-4

12. U10290
Owens J.D. et al. Empirical links between trace metal cycling and marine microbial ecology during a large perturbation to Earth’s carbon cycle // Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2016. Vol. 449. P. 407–417.

Understanding the global redox state of the oceans and its cause-and-effect relationship with periods of widespread organic-carbon deposition is vital to interpretations of Earth's climatic and biotic feedbacks during periods of expanded oceanic oxygen deficiency. Here, we present a compilation of new and published data from an organic-rich locality within the proto-North Atlantic Ocean during the Cenomanian–Turonian boundary event that shows a dramatic drawdown of redox-sensitive trace elements. Iron geochemistry independently suggests euxinic deposition (i.e., anoxic and sulfidic bottom waters) for the entire section, thus confirming its potential as an archive of global marine metal inventories. In particular, depleted molybdenum (Mo) and vanadium (V) concentrations effectively record the global expansion of euxinic and oxygen-deficient but non-sulfidic waters, respectively. The V drawdown precedes the OAE, fingerprinting an expansion of oxygen deficiency prior to an expansion of euxinia. Molybdenum drawdown, in contrast, is delayed with respect to V and coincides with the onset of OAE2. Parallel lipid biomarker analyses provide evidence for significant and progressive reorganization of marine microbial ecology during the OAE in this region of the proto-North Atlantic, with the smallest relative eukaryotic contributions to total primary production occurring during metal-depleted intervals. This relationship may be related to decreasing supplies of enzymatically important trace elements. Similarly, box modeling suggests that oceanic drawdown of Mo may have approached levels capable of affecting marine nitrogen fixation. Predictions of possible nitrogen stress on eukaryotic production, locally and globally, are consistent with the low observed levels of Mo and a rise in 2-methylhopane index values during the peak of the OAE. At the same time, the environmental challenge presented by low dissolved oxygen and euxinia coincides with increased turnover rates of radiolarian clades, calcareous nanofossils, and foraminifera, suggesting that the temporal patterns of anoxia/euxinia and associated nutrient limitation may have contributed to the fabric of OAE2-related turnover.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.epsl.2016.05.046

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Yang H. et al. Spiders as excellent experimental models for investigation of heavy metal impacts on the environment: a review // Environ Earth Sci. 2016. Vol. 75, № 13. P. 1059.

Heavy metals can accumulate in the bodies of spiders and affect their physiological and ecological traits and/or show toxicological effects. Spiders are thus considered to be potential bioindicators of heavy metal pollution for ecosystem monitoring, due to their superior resistance to and regulation of heavy metals. The metal loads in spider bodies show considerable variation within and among species, metal types, geochemical sites, exposure pathways, spider physiological traits, and other factors. Moreover, the mechanism of physiological regulation and tolerance in spiders to different kinds of heavy metals also varies significantly; it has been shown that those two differences are synergistic effects. Since the ecotoxicology and differences in physiological mechanisms remain unclear, questions and recommendations for possible further research are suggested.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs12665-016-5828-6

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Zhao L. et al. Geochemical controls on the distribution of mercury and methylmercury in sediments of the coastal East China Sea // Science of The Total Environment. 2019. Vol. 667. P. 133–141.

We examined the spatial and vertical distribution of total mercury (THg) in 119 surface sediment samples and 4 sediment cores from the coastal East China Sea. The THg concentrations (3.6–69.2??g?kg?1, average 34.7??g?kg?1) in surface sediments exhibited a decreasing trend from the inner shelf towards the outer shelf. The THg levels in sediment cores showed a significant increasing trend from the bottom to the top layer. Both the spatial and vertical distribution of THg indicates the impacts of anthropogenic inputs. The THg concentrations in the surface sediments of Yangtze River estuary were strongly correlated with sediment particle size and organic matter, governing by the Yangtze River inputs. The relatively higher THg levels in the surface sediments of southern inner shelf were attributed to the stronger binding affinity of the finer-grained sediments, the nature of organic matter, as well as local inputs. The spatial distribution of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) was distinct from THg, controlled by direct terrigenous MeHg inputs and in situ MeHg formation. The net Hg methylation potential (indicated by MeHg/THg ratio) in surface sediments were significantly influenced by both geochemical factors (DO, temperature and water depth) and the physicochemical properties of sediments (grain size, TOC, S, Fe2O3 and MnO), and exhibited the highest correlation with TOC, suggesting the key role of organic matter in governing net MeHg production. Moreover, sites with high MeHg/THg ratios mainly occurred within the summer hypoxia zones adjacent to the Yangtze River estuary, suggesting special attention on Hg ecological risks should be paid in this region.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.scitotenv.2019.02.334

15. 04127X
Аничкина Н.В. Исследования биогеохимии фтора в компонентах геосистем // Научное обозрение. Биологические науки. 2016. № 3. С. 5–23.

Фтор широко распространен в природе, он входит в состав почв, минералов, природных вод, растительных и животных организмов. В свободном виде не встречается. Имеет наименьший радиус атома. Сильнейший окислитель. Биологическая роль фтора исследуется в мире с 20 годов двадцатого века. В статье приводится обзор исследований, проведённых в основном на территории бывшего Советского Союза, по содержанию фтора в различных компонентах геосистем и влиянию его на здоровье населения.

https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=26682624

16. 047276
Ермаков В.В., Сарьян В.К. Развитие исследований по применению новых информационных технологий в экологическом мониторинге и биогеохимии // Доклады Томского Государственного Университета систем управления и радиоэлектроники. 2018. Т. 21,. № 3. С. 129–134.

Показаны перспективы интеграции достижений биогеохимии и инфокоммуникационных технологий, в частности интернета вещей. Описывается конкретная разработка, внедрение которой может радикально повысить предсказательный потенциал существующих сегодня систем мониторинга за глобальными процессами. Это приведет к решению актуальной задачи - резкого сокращения материальных и людских потерь при участившимся в мире количестве чрезвычайных ситуаций, вызванных глобальными процессами природного и техногенного происхождения. Описывается создание национального центра мониторинга и проводимые на нем в этом году эксперименты. Предполагается, что использование возможностей IoT позволит ученым получить глобальный экспериментальный полигон для изучения влияния природной среды на динамические характеристики природных объектов, изучить и, возможно, использовать для коррекции природных и техногенных процессов, открывающуюся возможность прямых информационных взаимодействий между собой всех объектов природы в масштабах биосферы. Начатые междисциплинарные исследования и эксперименты будут продолжены.

https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36715405

17. 001200
Каширцев В.А., Никитенко Б.Л., Пещевицкая Е.Б., Фурсенко Е.А. Биогеохимия и микрофоссилии верхней юры и нижнего мела Анабарского залива моря Лаптевых // Геология и геофизика. 2018. Т. 59. № 4. С. 481–501.

Детальный анализ органического вещества оксфорд-нижневаланжинской части разреза Нордвик (Анабарский залив) позволил выделить три геохимических горизонта (терпановый, диастереновый, гопановый), которые характеризуются определенными признаками, четко выраженными как в составе геохимических показателей, так и в их количественных параметрах. Горизонты сопоставлены с особенностями развития микрофоссилий на фоне эволюции экологических и геохимических обстановок морского бассейна. Показано, что наблюдаются определенные корреляции между изменением многих геохимических параметров, составом ассоциаций микрофоссилий и трансгрессивно-регрессивной динамикой палеобассейна. Умеренно мелководные фации реконструированы по микропалеонтологическим, палинологическим и литологическим данным в нижней и верхней частях разреза, где выделены терпановый и гопановый горизонты. В целом для них характерно преобладание гопанов среди полициклических биометок, присутствие в их составе соединений с «биологической» конфигурацией, а также смешанный континентально-морской тип органического вещества (ОВ), наличие бензогопанов и ретена - «индикатора» смол хвойных растений. Это находит отражение в составе палинологических ассоциаций, в которых доминируют наземные палиноморфы с небольшим количеством пыльцы хвойных. Относительно более глубоководные фации характерны для средней части разреза (диастереновый горизонт). Отличительным геохимическим признаком здесь является высокое содержание диастеренов и 4-метилдиастеренов. Это особенно показательно для нижнего подгоризонта, где наблюдаются максимальные значения соотношений пристан/ н -С17 и относительно легкий изотопный состав некарбонатного углерода пород. В ароматических фракциях отмечаются необычайно высокие концентрации метилтриметилтридецилхроманов (МТТХ), в образовании которых предполагается значительное участие хлорофилла празинофитов. Среди терпеноидов определены неогоп-13(18)-ены, возможные продукты жизнедеятельности метанотрофных бактерий. Перечисленные геохимические признаки показывают высокую продуктивность фотической зоны (подтверждается составом палинологических ассоциаций с обильными диноцистами и празинофитами), что способствовало накоплению ОВ в периодически формирующихся дизаэробных придонных обстановках. Чередование дизаэробных и слабоаэрируемых придонных обстановок хорошо реконструируется на основе анализа сообществ микробентоса. Результаты комплексных исследований по биогеохимии, микропалеонтологии и палинологии высокоуглеродистых глин верхневолжского подъяруса и нижней части бореального берриаса свидетельствуют, что эта часть разреза имеет высокие потенциальные нефтематеринские свойства, в том числе относительно высокие концентрации органического вещества, его бактериально-водорослевый генезис, стагнационные условия седиментогенеза и диагенеза. Лишь чрезвычайно «мягкие» условия термобарических преобразований в области развития мезозойских отложений современной Анабарской губы не позволили реализовать этот потенциал. Вместе с тем полученные результаты совместно с анализом имеющихся данных по геологическому строению изучаемого региона позволяют достаточно оптимистично рассматривать перспективы нефтегазоносности юрских и нижнемеловых отложений, погруженных на шельфе моря Лаптевых.

https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=32834902

18. 01140X
Ляпина Е.Е., Шворнева Е.В., Воропай Н.Н. Содержание ртути в хвое Юго-Западного Прибайкалья // Оптика атмосферы и океана. 2018. Т. 31. № 1. С. 69–72.

Исследовано содержание ртути в разновозрастной хвое различных пород деревьев на территории участков «Монды», «Аршан» и «Тунка» в Республике Бурятия. Приводятся оригинальные данные по уровню накопления ртути, а также особенностям ее распределения в зависимости от вида хвойных, возраста хвои, ландшафтных и климатических условий. Результаты, полученные для Восточной Сибири, не превышают данных, приведенных в литературе, и лежат в пределах средних значений для Сибири и России в целом.

https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=32312073

19. 001408
Моисеенко Т.И., Гашкина Н.А. Биогеохимия кадмия: антропогенное рассеивание, биоаккумуляция и экотоксичность // Геохимия. 2018. № 8. С. 759–773.

Рассматриваются биогеохимические особенности кадмия как одного из наиболее опасных элементов. Приводятся данные о его содержаниях в водах малых озер на Европейской территории России (от тундры до степных зон) и крупных речных систем (Волга, Северная Двина, Печера). Показано, что, несмотря на относительно низкие концентрации элемента в воде, фактор обогащения этим элементом составляет сотни и тысячи единиц, особенно в северных регионах, подверженных влиянию выбросов цветной металлургии. Приводятся данные о биоаккумуляции кадмия в системах организма рыб, которые определяются концентрацией элемента в воде, а также рН вод и содержанием кальция. Доказано, что в наибольших концентрациях элемент накапливается в почках и печени сиговых и лососевых рыб, вызывая патологические нарушения. Приводятся данные об аккумуляции кадмия в почках и печени жителей населенных пунктов индустриально развитого региона Севера, где функционируют медно-никелевые плавильные производства. Показано сходство накопления элемента и патологических нарушений у рыб, и населения, потребляющего воду из загрязненных водных объектов, что позволяет рекомендовать рыб в качестве биоиндикатора загрязнения окружающей среды кадмием.

https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=35393227

20. 011556
Шихова Н.С. Некоторые закономерности биогеохимии растений лесов южного Приморья // Вестник Дальневосточного отделения Российской Академии Наук. 2017. № 5 (195). С. 78–87.

Представлены результаты биогеохимических исследований растительности слабо нарушенных лесных экосистем п-ова Муравьев-Амурский (юг Приморского края). Впервые для широкого спектра дальневосточных видов деревьев, кустарников, деревянистых лиан и лесного разнотравья, формирующих природные фитоценозы южного Приморья, определена специализация в накоплении тяжелых металлов. Проведена сравнительная оценка аккумулятивных способностей к тяжелым металлам у разных видов и жизненных форм растений. На основе эколого-геохимических критериев установлена специфика растительности и почв региона исследований.

https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=32317988

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