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Механизм эволюции на экосистемном уровне жизни человека

Журнальные статьи

1. Amano T., Butt I., Peh K.S.-H. The importance of green spaces to public health: a multi-continental analysis // Ecol. Appl. 2018. Vol. 28, № 6. P. 1473–1480.

As green spaces are a common feature of liveable cities, a detailed understanding of the benefits provided by these areas is essential. Although green spaces are regarded as a major contribution to the human well-being in urbanized areas, current research has largely focused on the cities in developed countries and their global importance in terms of public health benefits remains unclear. In this study, we performed a multiple linear regression using 34 cities in different regions across the globe to investigate the relationship between green spaces and public health. Our analysis suggested that for richer cities, green spaces were associated with better public health; whereas a greater area of green spaces was associated with reduced public health in the poorest cities. In contrast to previous studies, which typically found positive relationships between green spaces and health benefits, we demonstrate that health benefits of green spaces could be context dependent.


2. Bowen L. et al. Integrating Gene Transcription-Based Biomarkers to Understand Desert Tortoise and Ecosystem Health // EcoHealth. 2015. Vol. 12, № 3. P. 501–512.

Tortoises are susceptible to a wide variety of environmental stressors, and the influence of human disturbances on health and survival of tortoises is difficult to detect. As an addition to current diagnostic methods for desert tortoises, we have developed the first leukocyte gene transcription biomarker panel for the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), enhancing the ability to identify specific environmental conditions potentially linked to declining animal health. Blood leukocyte transcript profiles have the potential to identify physiologically stressed animals in lieu of clinical signs. For desert tortoises, the gene transcript profile included a combination of immune or detoxification response genes with the potential to be modified by biological or physical injury and consequently provide information on the type and magnitude of stressors present in the animal's habitat. Blood from 64 wild adult tortoises at three sites in Clark County, NV, and San Bernardino, CA, and from 19 captive tortoises in Clark County, NV, was collected and evaluated for genes indicative of physiological status. Statistical analysis using a priori groupings indicated significant differences among groups for several genes, while multidimensional scaling and cluster analyses of transcription CT values indicated strong differentiation of a large cluster and multiple outlying individual tortoises or small clusters in multidimensional space. These analyses highlight the effectiveness of the gene panel at detecting environmental perturbations as well as providing guidance in determining the health of the desert tortoise.


3. Brans K.I., Stoks R., De Meester L. Urbanization drives genetic differentiation in physiology and structures the evolution of pace-of-life syndromes in the water flea Daphnia magna // Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 2018. Vol. 285, № 1883. P. 20180169.

Natural and human-induced stressors elicit changes in energy metabolism and stress physiology in populations of a wide array of species. Cities are stressful environments that may lead to differential selection on stress-coping mechanisms. Given that city ponds are exposed to the urban heat island effect and receive polluted run-off, organisms inhabiting these ecosystems might show genetic differentiation for physiological traits enabling them to better cope with higher overall stress levels. A common garden study with 62 Daphnia magna genotypes from replicated urban and rural populations revealed that urban Daphnia have significantly higher concentrations of total body fat, proteins and sugars. Baseline activity levels of the antioxidant defence enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were higher in rural compared with city populations, yet urban animals were equally well protected against lipid peroxidation. Our results add to the recent evidence of urbanization-driven changes in stress physiology and energy metabolism in terrestrial organisms. Combining our results with data on urban life history evolution in Daphnia revealed that urban genotypes show a structured pace-of-life syndrome involving both life-history and physiological traits, whereas this is absent in rural populations.


4. Chi Y. et al. Spatial heterogeneity of estuarine wetland ecosystem health influenced by complex natural and anthropogenic factors // Sci. Total Environ. 2018. Vol. 634. P. 1445–1462.

The evaluation of estuarine wetland ecosystem health (EWEH) is vital and difficult due to complex influencing factors and their spatial heterogeneities. An EWEH evaluation model was established in this study on the basis of the typical features of estuarine wetland ecosystems with focus on spatial heterogeneity. The index system comprises external factors, internal factors, and ecological state, and covers all aspects of the natural and anthropogenic factors, with each index possessing its own spatial heterogeneity. The Yellow River Delta, a typical estuarine wetland in China, was selected as the study area to demonstrate the model. Results indicated that the present EWEH in the entire study area was in good status with distinct spatial heterogeneity. Ecosystem productivity, seawater intrusion, human interference, and Yellow River input were the most relevant indexes of EWEH. The temporal variations of EWEH fluctuated from 1987 to 2016. The decrease in the Yellow River input and the increase in human activity intensity deteriorated EWEH, whereas the alongshore embankment and nature reserve construction improved EWEH in certain parts. The influence of natural factors continuously decreased, and human activity became the main driving factor of the EWEH spatial variation. Our model was proven to possess comprehensive reflections of estuarine wetland ecological characteristics, full exhibitions of spatial heterogeneity, and high applicability; therefore, it can be widely used to evaluate EWEH in different areas. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


5. Douglas I. Urban ecology and urban ecosystems: understanding the links to human health and well-being // Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 2012. Vol. 4, № 4. P. 385–392.

The ecology of cities assesses the health and well-being benefits et urban greenspace, vegetated areas and water bodies. Ecology in cities examines how the characteristics of the urban landscape mosaic, and various parts of it, affect human health and well-being. Human consumption and behaviour in one urban area can affect the health and wellbeing of people in other, such as through export of waste and trans-boundary emissions and pollutant flows. Environmental, economic, technological, social and individual risk factors and impacts affect urban populations at four urban ecosystem scales: patches within the urban mosaic, built-up areas, urban regions and the global scale. Increasing urban built-up area sizes lead to more severe heat island effects, particularly for people with inadequate cooling living in buildings that retain heat. Urban people benefit in varied ways from everyday contact with nature, but some urban greeenspaces create both health benefits and health hazards. Cultural or social contrasts in responses to urban nature and greenspaces vary. Despite a general consensus that a healthy urban ecosystem can improve human health and well-being, a large part of the global urban population in low latitude, low income cities, the poorest urban dwellers are likely to suffer from contact with many aspects of nature.


6. Ford A.E.S., Graham H., White P.C.L. Integrating Human and Ecosystem Health Through Ecosystem Services Frameworks // EcoHealth. 2015. Vol. 12, № 4. P. 660–671.

The pace and scale of environmental change is undermining the conditions for human health. Yet the environment and human health remain poorly integrated within research, policy and practice. The ecosystem services (ES) approach provides a way of promoting integration via the frameworks used to represent relationships between environment and society in simple visual forms. To assess this potential, we undertook a scoping review of ES frameworks and assessed how each represented seven key dimensions, including ecosystem and human health. Of the 84 ES frameworks identified, the majority did not include human health (62%) or include feedback mechanisms between ecosystems and human health (75%). While ecosystem drivers of human health are included in some ES frameworks, more comprehensive frameworks are required to drive forward research and policy on environmental change and human health.


7. Kim Y.-N. et al. Molecular identification and distribution of native and exotic earthworms in New Zealand human-modified soils // N. Z. J. Ecol. 2017. Vol. 41, № 2. P. 218–225.

Important knowledge gaps remain with regards to the ecology and the systematics of New Zealand's native earthworms. With many putative new species yet to be described, often specimens cannot be named, which makes species inventory, monitoring and community comparisons difficult. Our work aimed to identify new putative taxa of New Zealand native species of earthworms, and describe their distribution in selected human-modified ecosystems. A total of 24 earthworm taxa (13 native and 11 exotic) were identified using a DNA barcoding approach focusing on 16S rDNA and COI (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1). The combination of morphological and molecular analyses were complementary in elucidating species identity. However, of the 13 native taxa, eight could not be named and are likely to be undescribed species from the genera Octochaetus, Maoridrilus and Deinodrilus. Most native species appeared to have a restricted geographic distribution linked to soil conditions, in particular pH and organic matter.


8. Luo Z., Zuo Q., Shao Q. A new framework for assessing river ecosystem health with consideration of human service demand // Sci. Total Environ. 2018. Vol. 640. P. 442–453.

In order to study river health status from harmonic relationship between human and natural environment, a river health evaluation method was proposed from the aspects of ecosystem integrity and human service demand, and the understanding of river health connotation. The proposed method is based on the harmony theory and two types of river health assessment methods (the forecasting model and index evaluation). A new framework for assessing river water health was then formed from the perspective of harmony and dynamic evolution between human service demand and river ecosystem integrity. As a case study, the method and framework were applied to the Shaying River Basin, a tributary of the most polluted Huaihe River Basin in China. The health status of the river's ecosystem and its effect on the mainstream of Huaihe River were evaluated based on water ecological experiment. The results indicated that: (1) the water ecological environment in Shaying River was generally poor and showed a gradual changing pattern along the river. The river health levels were generally "medium" in the upstream but mostly "sub-disease" in the midstream and downstream, indicating that the water pollution in Shaying River were mainly concentrated in the midstream and downstream; (2) the water pollution of Shaying River had great influence on the ecosystem of Huaihe River, and the main influencing factors were TN, followed by TP and CODMn; (3) the natural attribute of river was transferring toward to the direction of socialization due to the increasing human activities. The stronger the human activity intervention is, the faster the transfer will be and the more river's attributes will match with human service demand. The proposed framework contributes to the research in water ecology and environment management, and the research results can serve as an important reference for basin management in Shaying River and Huaihe River. Crown Copyright (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


9. Ma C. et al. Establishment of physico-chemical variables and Chl a criteria based on land-use patterns and terrestrial ecosystem health // Ecol. Eng. 2016. Vol. 97. P. 355–362.

Developing numeric criteria is crucial for controlling cultural eutrophication and for protecting current and future water quality. Land-use changes in watersheds are the most important early warning indicators of lake eutrophication. In this study, the relationships between land-use patterns and physicochemical variables and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations were obtained through stepwise regression analysis to predict physico-chemical and Chl a criteria for the Eastern Plain Ecoregion. Ecological indicators (including landscape, function, and stressor aspects) related to land-use patterns and soil erosion was selected for the assessment of terrestrial ecosystem health using the analytic hierarchy process. The results indicated that the physico-chemical and Chl a criteria estimated from the relationships between anthropogenic land use and water quality variables were similar to the average values of the corresponding variables in the case of excellent terrestrial ecosystem health. The average values of water quality variables corresponding to excellent terrestrial ecosystem health can be used as criteria in the Eastern Plain Ecoregion. These findings are advantageous for understanding the health levels of the terrestrial ecosystems of the shallow lakes in this region and the degree of interference from human activities, as well as for providing a theoretical basis for the determination of criteria. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


10. U58092
Meyer C. et al. Characterisation and distribution of deposited trace elements transported over long and intermediate distances in north-eastern France using Sphagnum peatlands as a sentinel ecosystem // Atmos. Environ. 2015. Vol. 101. P. 286–293.

Trace elements in the form of particulate matter can be transported downwind from their emission sources and may have negative effects on human health and ecosystems. The transport of trace elements is often studied by monitoring their accumulation in mosses. The aim of this study was to characterise and describe the distribution of deposited trace elements transported over long and intermediate distances in north-eastern France, a location far from the main emission sources. We analysed the trace element accumulation in Sphagnum capilhfolium in 54 ombrotrophic peatlands distributed in six regions of France (Alps, Jura, Massif Central, Morvan, Rhone corridor and Vosges). The concentrations of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn in the surface were determined in three replicate samples of Sphagnum within each peatland. The enrichment factors calculated using Ti as the element of reference clearly exhibited a predominant anthropogenic origin for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, although the concentrations were relatively low compared to those found in other studies. The isolation of the peatlands from any fixed and traffic emission source suggests an intermediate and/or long-distance transport of the pollutants from their emission sources. The structure of the compositional dataset was explored using a covariance biplot The first score was used as a synthetic indicator of the origin of the deposits and the degree of contamination of each peatland. This new index showed that the Vosges and the Alps were the regions most affected by high enrichment of trace elements, particularly Pb and Cd. The erosion of soils highly contaminated by former mining and smelting activities in the Vosges and the polluted cities and busy highways in the Alps may account for these distributions. The Jura was the least affected region sampled, and the other regions presented intermediate anthropogenic deposits. This study provides valuable information concerning the management and protection of these ecosystems. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


11. Pansu J. et al. Reconstructing long-term human impacts on plant communities: an ecological approach based on lake sediment DNA // Mol. Ecol. 2015. Vol. 24, № 7. P. 1485–1498.

Paleoenvironmental studies are essential to understand biodiversity changes over long timescales and to assess the relative importance of anthropogenic and environmental factors. Sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) is an emerging tool in the field of paleoecology and has proven to be a complementary approach to the use of pollen and macroremains for investigating past community changes. SedaDNA-based reconstructions of ancient environments often rely on indicator taxa or expert knowledge, but quantitative ecological analyses might provide more objective information. Here, we analysed sedaDNA to investigate plant community trajectories in the catchment of a high-elevation lake in the Alps over the last 6400years. We combined data on past and present plant species assemblages along with sedimentological and geochemical records to assess the relative impact of human activities through pastoralism, and abiotic factors (temperature and soil evolution). Over the last 6400years, we identified significant variation in plant communities, mostly related to soil evolution and pastoral activities. An abrupt vegetational change corresponding to the establishment of an agropastoral landscape was detected during the Late Holocene, approximately 4500years ago, with the replacement of mountain forests and tall-herb communities by heathlands and grazed lands. Our results highlight the importance of anthropogenic activities in mountain areas for the long-term evolution of local plant assemblages. SedaDNA data, associated with other paleoenvironmental proxies and present plant assemblages, appear to be a relevant tool for reconstruction of plant cover history. Their integration, in conjunction with classical tools, offers interesting perspectives for a better understanding of long-term ecosystem dynamics under the influence of human-induced and environmental drivers.


12. Patrick R., Dietrich U. Global Principles, Regional Action: Guiding Ecohealth Practice in Oceania // EcoHealth. 2016. Vol. 13, № 4. P. 808–812.

In Oceania, a region challenged by rapid urbanisation and climate change, integrative frameworks are required to enable effective actions on health and sustainability. The Ecohealth approach provides a framework for practice that acknowledges human health is intrinsically linked to ecosystem health. This research communication reports on a study involving interviews with twenty-seven leading health and sustainability thinkers from Oceania and across the globe. In examining their ideas for action, the report presents the study findings in relation to the guiding principles of Ecohealth: systems thinking, transdisciplinarity, participation, sustainability, equity and knowledge-to-action. Implications for Ecohealth practitioners working in Oceania are considered.


13. Schandl H. et al. “Biosensitive” cities - a conceptual framework for integrative understanding of the health of people and planetary ecosystems // Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 2012. Vol. 4, № 4. P. 378–384.

Urban sustainability research, despite rapid growth in research activity in recent years, still lacks integrative conceptual and methodological approaches that account for the full spectrum of urban processes and variables that determine human and ecosystem health and natural resource use. Once developed, such approaches would allow assessment of cities and urban policy and planning options in terms of the extent to which they satisfy the biologically determined health needs of people and maintain the integrity of the ecosystems on which cities depend. Integrated analysis and assessment of cities with regard to human health, ecosystem integrity and resource use would build on evolutionary and historical perspectives, and assist in understanding current environmental and health impacts of urbanism and options for the future.


14. Turner J.S. Homeostasis and the physiological dimension of niche construction theory in ecology and evolution // Evol. Ecol. 2016. Vol. 30, № 2. P. 203–219.

Niche construction theory (NCT) has been represented as a new and comprehensive theory of evolution, one that breaks the constraints imposed by the dominant and largely gene-selectionist standard evolutionary model that is presently mischaracterized as "Darwinian." I will argue that NCT is not so much a new theory, as it is a fruitful readmission of a venerable physiological perspective on adaptation, selection and evolution. This perspective is closer in spirit and philosophy to the original (and richer) Darwinian idea developed by Darwin himself, and that animated much of the rich late nineteenth century debate about evolution, heredity, adaptation and development, a debate that was largely eclipsed by the early twentieth century emergence of the Neodarwinian synthesis. I will argue that a full realization of the promise of NCT turns on a full understanding of another intellectual revolution of the nineteenth century, Claude Bernard's conception of homeostasis, a profound statement of the nature of life that has, through the twentieth century, come to be widely misunderstood and trivialized.


15. Weese D.J. et al. Long-term nitrogen addition causes the evolution of less-cooperative mutualists // Evolution. 2015. Vol. 69, № 3. P. 631–642.

Human activities have altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle, and as a result, elevated N inputs are causing profound ecological changes in diverse ecosystems. The evolutionary consequences of this global change have been largely ignored even though elevated N inputs are predicted to cause mutualism breakdown and the evolution of decreased cooperation between resource mutualists. Using a long-term (22 years) N-addition experiment, we find that elevated N inputs have altered the legume-rhizobium mutualism (where rhizobial bacteria trade N in exchange for photosynthates from legumes), causing the evolution of less-mutualistic rhizobia. Plants inoculated with rhizobium strains isolated from N-fertilized treatments produced 17-30% less biomass and had reduced chlorophyll content compared to plants inoculated with strains from unfertilized control plots. Because the legume-rhizobium mutualism is the major contributor of naturally fixed N to terrestrial ecosystems, the evolution of less-cooperative rhizobia may have important environmental consequences.


16. 001075

В обзоре предпринимается попытка обсудить взаимосвязь регуляторных генетических механизмов трех фундаментальных процессов биологии: развития, эволюции и рака. Рассмотрены проблема эволюционной неизбежности возникновения рака, эволюционно выработанные системы защиты организма от опухолей, а также общие системы регуляции, используемые при эволюции, развитии и раке.


17. 045247
Бебешко В.Г., Базыка Д.А., Чумак А.А. РАДИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ И МЕДИЦИНСКИЕ ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯ ЧЕРНОБЫЛЬСКОЙ КАТАСТРОФЫ // Радиационная гигиена. 2012. Т. 5. № 1. С. 5-14.

С позиций 25-летнего опыта преодоления медицинских последствий аварии на Чернобыльской АЭС проанализирована динамика радиационной обстановки, первые обобщения на международном уровне (1988 г.), итоги выполненных научных исследований и практического мониторинга. Когорта больных, перенесших ОЛБ и находящихся под диспансерным наблюдением в ГУ «Научный центр радиационной медицины НАМН Украины», в Украине остается самой многочисленной. За 25 лет изучено функциональное состояние основных органов и систем организма, метаболических процессов и гомеостаза у данной категории лиц; дана комплексная оценка состояния их здоровья, умственной и физической работоспособности, а также определены факторы риска развития и особенности течения стохастической и нестохастической патологии, разработана система реабилитации больных, перенесших острую лучевую болезнь (ОЛБ). Перенесшие ОЛБ и оставшиеся живыми страдают хроническими заболеваниями внутренних органов и систем (от 5-7 до 10-12 диагнозов одновременно). Выявлены коррелятивные связи между острым радиационным эффектом и определенными HLA-фенотипами. Исследована динамика восстановления иммунной системы после облучения. Впервые установлены роль и прогностическое значение длины теломер и запрограммированной клеточной гибели лимфоцитов в формировании клеточных эффектов ионизирующего облучения. Найдены различия между спонтанными и радиационно-индуцированными острыми миелоидными лейкемиями. Дозозависимые нейропсихиатрические, нейрофизиологические, нейропсихологические и нейровизуализационные отклонения выявлены после облучения в дозах свыше 0,3 Зв. Показано, что лимфоциты участников ликвидации последствий аварии на ЧАЭС с дозами облучения 350-690 мГр способны индуцировать «эффект свидетеля» в необлученных клетках даже через 19 лет после воздействия радиации. Рассмотрены показатели онкологической заболеваемости, смертности пострадавших, уроки и основные проблемы для решения в третьем десятилетии после Чернобыльской катастрофы.


18. 005644

Проанализированы закономерности изменения содержания 137Cs в зеленых кормах в отдаленный период после аварии на ЧАЭС в зависимости от применения агротехнических и агрохимических мероприятий. Выявлено, что применение минеральных удобрений снижает поступление 137Cs из почвы в продукцию кормопроизводства и далее по пищевой цепи. Установлено, что агрохимические мероприятия эффективнее агротехнических.


19. 006628
Зорина В.Н., Зорин Н.А. ЭВОЛЮЦИЯ И МЕХАНИЗМЫ РЕАЛИЗАЦИИ РЕГУЛЯТОРНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ БЕЛКОВ СЕМЕЙСТВА МАКРОГЛОБУЛИНОВ // Успехи современной биологии. 2013. Т. 133. № 3. С. 284-291.

Представлена информация об эволюции, структуре и механизмах реализации регуляторной системы белков семейства макроглобулинов, включающей в себя альфа-2-макроглобулин и другие белки семейства, их рецепторы, лиганды и факторы, регулирующие их синтез и экспрессию. Продемонстрировано, что большая часть компонентов системы возникла более 500 миллионов лет назад и обнаруживается у большинства форм жизни от бактерий и беспозвоночных, до приматов. Количество представителей семейства в циркуляции и количество субъединиц в их молекулах может варьировать у различных видов, однако базовая структура субъединицы, механизмы взаимодействия с лигандами и рецепторами практически не различаются. Данный механизм взаимодействия крайне примитивен, основан на конформационных изменениях молекулы и изменении изоэлектрической точки комплекса макроглобулин-лиганд или макроглобулин-рецептор, однако особенности его реализации гарантируют его надежность, эффективность и позволяют участвовать в самых разнообразных функциях организма.


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Кичигин А.И., Огродовая Л.Я. 30 ЛЕТ КАТАСТРОФЕ НА ЧЕРНОБЫЛЬСКОЙ АТОМНОЙ ЭЛЕКТРОСТАНЦИИ // Вестник института биологии Коми научного центра Уральского отделения РАН. 2016. № 2 (196). С. 30-36.

Изложены краткие сведения об участии сотрудников Института биологии Коми научного центра Уральского отделения Российской академии наук в работах по ликвидации последствий аварии на Чернобыльской атомной электростанции


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Корсаков А.В., Комогорцева Л.К. ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯ ЧЕРНОБЫЛЬСКОЙ КАТАСТРОФЫ 30 ЛЕТ СПУСТЯ // Вестник Брянского государственного технического университета. 2017. № 1 (54). С. 283-289.

Изучены основные последствия чернобыльской катастрофы для здоровья населения, проживающего на радиационно загрязненных территориях. Обсуждается сложившаяся ситуация и перспективы в наиболее пострадавших юго-западных районах Брянской области после принятия постановления Правительства Российской Федерации № 1074.


22. 045228

В обзоре на примере семейства генов РНО, кодирующих структуру кислых фосфатаз дрожжей Saccharomyces cerevisiae, рассмотрены пути эволюции мультигенных семейств. Анализ баз данных продемонстрировал, что основным направлением эволюции мультигенных семейств, кодирующих экзоферменты, является дивергенция за счет изменения регуляции структурных генов и включения их в новые регуляторные сети.


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Рассмотрено моделирование эволюции популяции в изменяющейся природной среде. Предложена оптимизационная постановка, отражающая механизмы регулирования скорости эволюции, которые обеспечивают адекватный ответ популяции, соответствующий направлению и скорости изменения среды обитания. Результаты численных экспериментов демонстрируют правдоподобные зависимости возрастной рождаемости от скорости изменения среды, описывают и объясняют ряд известных эволюционных эффектов.


24. 000513

Современные теории запрограммированного (адаптивного) биологического старения утверждают, что живые организмы различных видов, включая млекопитающих, обычно имеют в себе развитые механизмы, ограничивающие продолжительность их жизни и дающие определенные эволюционные преимущества. Современные теории незапрограммированного старения придерживаются той точки зрения, что животные класса млекопитающих стареют обычно из-за протекания в их организме естественных повреждающих процессов и существующие вариации во времени продолжительности жизни между различными видами млекопитающих могут объясняться их различной степенью устойчивости к этим процессам. Изначально предложенная в XIX в. идея о запрограммированном старении млекопитающих была впоследствии без долгих рассуждений отвергнута как явно несовместная с самими механизмами эволюционных процессов. Однако относительно недавно произошло кардинальное изменение во взглядах и сейчас признается, что запрограммированное старение млекопитающих лучше эволюционно обосновано, чем незапрограммированное. Разрешение этих спорных вопросов имеет огромное значение для исследований в области медицины, поскольку каждая из двух теорий предполагает наличие различных биологических механизмов, ответственных за появление возрастных физиологических изменений и заболеваний, связанных со старческим возрастом.


25. 005644
Харченко В.П., Снигирёва Г.П., Зотов В.К., Куликова Т.А. НЕКОТОРЫЕ АСПЕКТЫ МЕДИЦИНСКОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ ПО ПРЕОДОЛЕНИЮ ПОСЛЕДСТВИЙ ЧЕРНОБЫЛЬСКОЙ КАТАСТРОФЫ // Радиационная биология. Радиоэкология. 2016. Т. 56. № 3. С. 293-299.

Подведены итоги многолетней работы Российского научного центра рентгенорадиологии МЗ РФ по обследованию участников ликвидации последствий аварии на Чернобыльской АЭС. Показано, что лидирующие позиции в структуре заболеваемости среди пострадавших занимают болезни системы кровообращения и новообразования. Отмечена важная роль цитогенетического обследования, которое позволяет не только установить факт радиационного воздействия на организм человека, но и оценить эффективную дозу облучения, информация о которой позволяет обоснованно прогнозировать развитие отдаленной постлучевой патологии. Результаты цитогенетического обследования, свидетельствующие о взаимосвязи уровня хромосомных нарушений с сердечно-сосудистыми заболеваниями, подтверждают данные клиницистов об увеличении неопухолевой патологии среди участников ликвидации аварии


26. 001785
Шемарова И.В., Нестеров В.П. ЭВОЛЮЦИЯ МЕХАНИЗМОВ СА 2+-СИГНАЛИЗАЦИИ. РОЛЬ СА 2+ В РЕГУЛЯЦИИ СПЕЦИАЛИЗИРОВАННЫХ КЛЕТОЧНЫХ ФУНКЦИЙ // Журнал эволюционной биохимии и физиологии. 2013. Т. 49. № 1. С. 3-14.

В обзоре рассматриваются особенности Са 2+ сигнализации в электровозбудимых клетках высших эукариот. Освещены вопросы Са 2+-зависимых механизмов регуляции сократимости мышц и нейрональной синаптической пластичности у высших позвоночных животных. Особое внимание уделено анализу вклада в регуляцию таких малоизученных компонентов Са 2+-сигнализации, как неселективные ТРРС-каналы, каналы Orai, сенсорные белки STIM1, Са 2+-управляемые К +-каналы высокой и низкой проводимости, нейрональные Са 2+-сенсоры (NCS).


27. 001696
Яблоков А.В. О МЕХАНИЗМЕ ЭВОЛЮЦИИ НА ЭКОСИСТЕМНОМ УРОВНЕ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ ЖИЗНИ // Журнал общей биологии. 2017. Т. 78. № 2. С. 74-80.

Так же как изучение феноменологии видовых адаптаций не раскрывает механизм возникновения новой видовой адаптации (видообразования), так и колоссальный накопленный в науке материал по феноменологии экосистемных процессов не раскрывает механизм эволюции на экосистемном уровне организации живой материи. Сделана попытка (по аналогии с тем, как это было успешно сделано в 1940-е годы для популяционно-видовой формы живого) выделить во всем многообразии эволюционных событий экосистемной формы жизни микроэволюционной компоненты. Предполагается, что элементарной эволюционной структурой на экосистемном уровне является биогеоценоз (БГЦ), элементарным эволюционным событием - изменение видового состава БГЦ, элементарным эволюционным материалом - генофонд видовой популяции (ценогеном), направленным элементарным эволюционным фактором - естественный групповой (ценогенетический) отбор. Возникновение нового / гибель старого БГЦ оказывается качественным этапом микроэволюционного процесса на экосистемном уровне.


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