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Журнальные статьи

1. U61199
Alyakrinskaya I.O. Some adaptations of Monodonta turbinata (Born, 1780) (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Trochidae) to feeding and habitation in the littoral zone // Biol. Bull. 2010. Vol. 37, № 1. P. 63–68.

The basic morphological, ethological, and physiological-biochemical adaptations of Monodonta turbinata to survival in the littoral zone were investigated in this work. Quantitative estimation of myoglobin content in radular tissues of mollusks inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea Basin has been carried out.


2. U17020
Andrade B.G., Santos Costa P.M., Pimenta A.D. Taxonomic review of the genus Opaliopsis (Gastropoda: Nystiellidae) from Brazil, with description of a new species // J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 2011. Vol. 91, № 7. P. 1561–1566.

The genus Opaliopsis from Brazil is revised based on three deep-water species. Opaliopsis atlantis (Clench & Turner, 1952) is confirmed as occurring in north-eastern and south-eastern localities. Opaliopsis opalina (Dall, 1927) is reported for the first time in the south-western Atlantic. A new species, Opaliopsis cearense, is described from the north-eastern Brazilian coast, and is distinguished by its large number of fine spiral cords per teleoconch whorl.


3. U04872
Benkendorff K. sdf Molluscan biological and chemical diversity: secondary metabolites and medicinal resources produced by marine molluscs // Biol. Rev. 2010. Vol. 85, № 4. P. 757–775.

The phylum Mollusca represents an enormous diversity of species with eight distinct classes. This review provides a taxonomic breakdown of the published research on marine molluscan natural products and the medicinal products currently derived from molluscs, in order to identify priority targets and strategies for future research. Some marine gastropods and bivalves have been of great interest to natural products chemists, yielding a diversity of chemical classes and several drug leads currently in clinical trials. Molluscs also feature prominently in a broad range of traditional natural medicines, although the active ingredients in the taxa involved are typically unknown. Overall secondary metabolites have only been investigated from a tiny proportion (< 1%) of molluscan species. At the class level, the number of species subject to chemical studies mirrors species richness and our relative knowledge of the biology of different taxa. The majority of molluscan natural products research is focused within one of the major groups of gastropods, the opisthobranchs (a subgroup of Heterobranchia), which are primarily comprised of soft-bodied marine molluscs. Conversely, most molluscan medicines are derived from shelled gastropods and bivalves. The complete disregard for several minor classes of molluscs is unjustified based on their evolutionary history and unique life styles, which may have led to novel pathways for secondary metabolism. The Polyplacophora, in particular, have been identified as worthy of future investigation given their use in traditional South African medicines and their abundance in littoral ecosystems. As bioactive compounds are not always constitutively expressed in molluscs, future research should be targeted towards biosynthetic organs and inducible defence reactions for specific medicinal applications. Given the lack of an acquired immune system, the use of bioactive secondary metabolites is likely to be ubiquitous throughout the Mollusca and broadening the search field may uncover interesting novel chemistry.


4. U21083
Clements T. et al. The eyes of Tullimonstrum reveal a vertebrate affinity // Nature. 2016. Vol. 532, № 7600. P. 500–503.

Tullimonstrum gregarium is an iconic soft-bodied fossil from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek Lagerstatte ( Illinois, USA)(1). Despite a large number of specimens and distinct anatomy, various analyses over the past five decades have failed to determine the phylogenetic affinities of the 'Tully monster', and although it has been allied to such disparate phyla as the Mollusca(2), Annelida(3),(4) or Chordata(5), it remains enigmatic(1-5). The nature and phylogenetic affinities of Tullimonstrum have defied confident systematic placement because none of its preserved anatomy provides unequivocal evidence of homology, without which comparative analysis fails. Here we show that the eyes of Tullimonstrum possess ultrastructural details indicating homology with vertebrate eyes. Anatomical analysis using scanning electron microscopy reveals that the eyes of Tullimonstrum preserve a retina defined by a thick sheet comprising distinct layers of spheroidal and cylindrical melanosomes. Time-offlight secondary ion mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics provide further evidence that these microbodies are melanosomes. A range of animals have melanin in their eyes, but the possession of melanosomes of two distinct morphologies arranged in layers, forming retinal pigment epithelium, is a synapomorphy of vertebrates. Our analysis indicates that in addition to evidence of colour patterning(6), ecology(7) and thermoregulation(8), fossil melanosomes can also carry a phylogenetic signal. Identification in Tullimonstrum of spheroidal and cylindrical melanosomes forming the remains of retinal pigment epithelium indicates that it is a vertebrate; considering its body parts in this new light suggests


5. U0330X
Emberton K.C. et al. Terrestrial mollusks of Andriantantely Massif, Eastern Madagascar, with descriptions of 36 new species (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda; Pulmonata) // Arch. Molluskenkd. 2010. Vol. 139, № 1. P. 71–141.

An altitudinal transect and other collecting on the eastern side of Andriantantely Massif along the central-east coast of Madagascar resulted in 74 species of terrestrial mollusks including 36 new species: Acroptychia mahafinaritra n. sp., Boucardicus anjarae n. sp., B. avo n. sp., B. hetra n. sp., B. n. sp., B. mahavariana n. sp., B. matoatoa n. sp., B. menoi n. sp., B. peggyae n. sp., B. pulchellus n. sp., B. tantelyae n. sp., Cyathopoma anjombona n. sp., C. hoditra n. sp., C. iridescens n. sp., C. madio n. sp., C. matsoko n. sp., Fauxulus tsarakely n. sp.. Gulella andriantanteliae n. sp.. G. thompsoni n. sp., Parvedentulina andriantanteliae n. sp., P benjamini n. sp., P. jeani n. sp.. P paulayi n. sp., P thompsoni n. sp., Ampelita owengriffithsi n. sp., Reticulapex michellae n. sp., Kalidos gora n. sp., Kalidos manotrika n. sp., Kalidos manta n. sp., Kaliella crandalli n. sp., Micmcystis albosuturalis n. sp., M. fotsifotsy n. sp., M. vony n. sp., Sitala burchi n. sp., S. mavo n. sp., and S. stanisici n. sp. Andriantantely Massif is one of few tracts of lowland native rainforest remaining along the central coast of eastern Madagascar. Given the richness and endemism of this eastern forest, it is imperative to survey more of the remaining lowland rainforests in the region, while they remain relatively intact and while this information has value for conservation efforts.


6. Gagnon Y.L., Sutton T.T., Johnsen S. Visual acuity in pelagic fishes and mollusks (vol 92, pg 1, 2013) // Vision Res. 2015. Vol. 115. P. 155–156.

The authors regret that the calculation of the angular full width at half maximum (?FWHM) of the point spread function of animal lenses was miscalculated by a factor of two. This implies that the angular resolutions of the animals’ lenses are twice as high as previously thought (i.e., the minimum resolvable angle is half of what is reported). Simply put, the animals’ vision is twice more acute than reported.


7. Gagnon Y.L., Sutton T.T., Johnsen S. Visual acuity in pelagic fishes and mollusks // Vision Res. 2013. Vol. 92. P. 1–9.

In the sea, visual scenes change dramatically with depth. At shallow and moderate depths (<1000 m), there is enough light for animals to see the surfaces and shapes of prey, predators, and conspecifics. This changes below 1000 m, where no downwelling daylight remains and the only source of light is bioluminescence. These different visual scenes require different visual adaptations and eye morphologies. In this study we investigate how the optical characteristics of animal lenses correlate with depth and ecology. We measured the radius, focal length, and optical quality of the lenses of pelagic fishes, cephalopods, and a gastropod using a custom-built apparatus. The hatchetfishes (Argyropelecus aculeatus and Stern-optyx diaphana) and the barrel-eye (Opisthoproctus soleatus) were found to have the best lenses, which may allow them to break the counterillumination camouflage of their prey. The heteropod lens had unidirectional aberrations that matched its ribbon-shaped retina. We also found that lens angular resolution increased with depth. Due to a similar trend in the angular separation between adjacent ganglion cells in the retinas of fishes, the perceived visual contrast at the retinal cutoff frequency was constant with depth. The increase in acuity with depth allows the predators to focus all the available light bioluminescent prey animals emit and detect their next meal.


8. Grande C. et al. Evolution, divergence and loss of the Nodal signalling pathway: new data and a synthesis across the Bilateria // Int. J. Dev. Biol. 2014. Vol. 58, № 6–8. P. 521–532.

Since the discovery that the TGF-beta signalling molecule Nodal and its downstream effector Pitx have a parallel role in establishing asymmetry between molluscs and deuterostomes the debate over the degree to which this signalling pathway is conserved across the Bilateria as a whole has been ongoing. Further taxon sampling is critical to understand the evolution and divergence of this signalling pathway in animals. Using genome and transcriptome mining we confirmed the presence of nodal and Pitx in a range of additional animal taxa for which their presence has not yet been described. In situ hybridization was used to show the embryonic expression of these genes in brachiopods and planarians. We show that both nodal and Pitx genes are broadly conserved across the Spiralia, and nodal likely appeared in the Bilaterian stem lineage after the divergence of the Acoelomorpha. Furthermore, both nodal and Pitx mRNA appears to be expressed in an asymmetric fashion in the brachiopod Terebratalia transverse. No evidence for the presence of a Lefty ortholog could be found in the non-deuterostome genomic resources examined. Nodal expression is asymmetric in a number of spiralian lineages, indicating a possible ancestral role of the Nodal/Pitx cascade in the establishment of asymmetries across the Bilateria.


9. Gunaratne C.A., Katz P.S. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Buccal Ganglia of Nudipleura Molluscs // J. Comp. Neurol. 2016. Vol. 524, № 6. P. 1181–1192.

Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the -aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the nudibranch species, Hermissenda crassicornis, Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, and Dendronotus iris, the number of GABA-ir neurons was highly consistent. Another nudibranch, Melibe leonina, however, contained approximately half the number of GABA-ir neurons. This may relate to its loss of a radula and its unique feeding behavior. The GABA immunoreactivity in a sister group to the nudibranchs, Pleurobranchaea californica, differed drastically from that of the nudibranchs. Not only did it have significantly more GABA-ir neurons but it also had a unique GABA distribution pattern. Furthermore, unlike the nudibranchs, the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution was also different from that of other, more distantly related, euopisthobranch and panpulmonate snails and slugs. This suggests that the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution may be a derived feature, unique to this lineage. The majority of GABA-ir axons and neuropil in the Nudipleura were restricted to the buccal ganglia, commissures, and connectives. However, in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, we detected a few GABA-ir fibers in buccal nerves that innervate feeding muscles. Although the specific functions of the GABA-ir neurons in the species in this study are not known, the innervation pattern suggests these neurons may play an integrative or regulatory role in bilaterally coordinated behaviors in the Nudipleura.


10. Gunaratne C.A., Sakurai A., Katz P.S. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Central Nervous Systems of Nudibranch Molluscs // J. Comp. Neurol. 2014. Vol. 522, № 4. P. 794–810.

The relative simplicity of certain invertebrate nervous systems, such as those of gastropod molluscs, allows behaviors to be dissected at the level of small neural circuits composed of individually identifiable neurons. Elucidating the neurotransmitter phenotype of neurons in neural circuits is important for understanding how those neural circuits function. In this study, we examined the distribution of -aminobutyric-acid;-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in four species of sea slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia): Tritonia diomedea, Melibe leonina, Dendronotus iris, and Hermissenda crassicornis. We found consistent patterns of GABA immunoreactivity in the pedal and cerebral-pleural ganglia across species. In particular, there were bilateral clusters in the lateral and medial regions of the dorsal surface of the cerebral ganglia as well as a cluster on the ventral surface of the pedal ganglia. There were also individual GABA-ir neurons that were recognizable across species. The invariant presence of these individual neurons and clusters suggests that they are homologous, although there were interspecies differences in the numbers of neurons in the clusters. The GABAergic system was largely restricted to the central nervous system, with the majority of axons confined to ganglionic connectives and commissures, suggesting a central, integrative role for GABA. GABA was a candidate inhibitory neurotransmitter for neurons in central pattern generator (CPG) circuits underlying swimming behaviors in these species, however none of the known swim CPG neurons were GABA-ir. Although the functions of these GABA-ir neurons are not known, it is clear that their presence has been strongly conserved across nudibranchs.


11. Gutierrez-Mazariegos J. et al. A Mollusk Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Ortholog Sheds Light on the Evolution of Ligand Binding // Endocrinology. 2014. Vol. 155, № 11. P. 4275–4286.

Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that regulate networks of target genes in response to small molecules. There is a strong bias in our knowledge of these receptors because they were mainly characterized in classical model organisms, mostly vertebrates. Therefore, the evolutionary origins of specific ligand-receptor couples still remain elusive. Here we present the identification and characterization of a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) from the mollusk Nucella lapillus (NlRAR). We show that this receptor specifically binds to DNA response elements organized in direct repeats as a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor. Surprisingly, we also find that NlRAR does not bind all-trans retinoic acid or any other retinoid we tested. Furthermore, NlRAR is unable to activate the transcription of reporter genes in response to stimulation by retinoids and to recruit coactivators in the presence of these compounds. Three-dimensional modeling of the ligand-binding domain of NlRAR reveals an overall structure that is similar to vertebrate RARs. However, in the ligand-binding pocket (LBP) of the mollusk receptor, the alteration of several residues interacting with the ligand has apparently led to an overall decrease in the strength of the interaction with the ligand. Accordingly, mutations of NlRAR at key positions within the LBP generate receptors that are responsive to retinoids. Altogether our data suggest that, in mollusks, RAR has lost its affinity for all-trans retinoic acid, highlighting the evolutionary plasticity of its LBP. When put in an evolutionary context, our results reveal new structural and functional features of nuclear receptors validated by millions of years of evolution that were impossible to reveal in model organisms.


12. Hochner B. How Nervous Systems Evolve in Relation to Their Embodiment: What We Can Learn from Octopuses and Other Molluscs // Brain Behav. Evol. 2013. Vol. 82, № 1. P. 19–30.

Cephalopods such as the octopus show the most advanced behavior among invertebrates, which they accomplish with an exceptionally flexible body plan. In this review I propose that the embodied organization approach, developed by roboticists to design efficient autonomous robots, is useful for understanding the evolution and development of the efficient adaptive interaction of animals with their environment, using the octopus as the leading example. The embodied organization approach explains adaptive behavior as emerging from the continuous dynamical and reciprocal physical and informational interactions between four elements: the controller, the mechanical and the sensory systems and the environment. In contrast to hierarchical organization, in embodied organization, self-organization processes can take part in the emergence of the adaptive properties. I first discuss how the embodiment concept explains covariation of body form, nervous system organization, and level of behavioral complexity using the Mollusca as an example. This is an ideal phylum to test such a qualitative correlation between body/brain/behavior, because they show the greatest variations of body plan within a single phylum. In some cases the covariation of nervous system and body structure seems to arise independently of close phylogenetic relationships. Next, I dwell on the octopus as an ideal model to test the embodiment concept within a single biological system. Here, the unusual body morphology of the octopus exposes the uniqueness of the four components comprising the octopus' embodiment. Considering together the results from behavioral, physiological, anatomical, and motor control research suggests that these four elements mutually influence each other. It is this mutual interactions and self-organization which have led to their unique evolution and development to create the unique and highly efficient octopus embodiment.


13. U01107
Irikov A., Georgiev D. Identification Keys to the Clausiliidae J. E. Gray, 1855 (Mollusca: Stylommatophora) from Bulgaria // Acta Zool. Bulg. 2015. Vol. 67, № 2. P. 167–177.

The paper presents the currently known diversity of the family Clausiliidae J. E. Gray, 1855 on the territory of Bulgaria. All new systematic changes are noted and all new taxa described during the last years are listed. The main key characters for species identification are presented, with additional descriptions of some characters.


14. Janssen R., Taviani M. Taxonomic, Ecological and Historical Considerations on the Deep-Water Benthic Mollusc Fauna of the Red Sea // The Red Sea. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015. P. 511–529.

The semi-enclosed and narrow Red Sea basin is characterized by bathyal zones in its axial sectors. It is determined by extreme hydrological parameters regarding its deep-water salinity and temperature which are a serious challenge to be coped with by deep-water benthos. Besides, it is separated from the adjacent Indian Ocean (Gulf of Aden) by a remarkably shallow sill that not only opposes easy transit for deep-water benthos but also exerts a strong control on the basin’s hydrology budget during sea-level fluctuations, likely causing pulsing basin-wide extinctions at times of low stands. Among the relevant macrobenthic groups inhabiting the deep Red Sea, Mollusca stand out as the more diverse phylum. Although the full taxonomic appreciation of the Red Sea deep-water molluscs is still unresolved, as many as 262 species are recorded to date from depths below 400 m (163 Gastropoda, 94 Bivalvia, 4 Scaphopoda and 1 Polyplacophora). Part of this fauna is represented by eurybathic species with a wide bathymetric range. A substantial aliquot is equipped with a larval strategy (planktotrophy) in principle enabling the crossing of the shallow sill from the Gulf of Aden. Various taxa occur also in the Indo-West Pacific, and only a few are putatively considered as Red Sea endemics.


15. Katz P.S. Phylogenetic plasticity in the evolution of molluscan neural circuits // Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 2016. Vol. 41. P. 8–16.

Recent research on molluscan nervous systems provides a unique perspective on the evolution of neural circuits. Molluscs evolved large, encephalized nervous systems independently from other phyla. Homologous body-patterning genes were re-specified in molluscs to create a plethora of body plans and nervous system organizations. Octopuses, having the largest brains of any invertebrate, independently evolved a learning circuit similar in organization and function to the mushroom body of insects and the hippocampus of mammals. In gastropods, homologous neurons have been re-specified for different functions. Even species exhibiting similar, possibly homologous behavior have fundamental differences in the connectivity of the neurons underlying that behavior. Thus, molluscan nervous systems provide clear examples of re-purposing of homologous genes and neurons for neural circuits.


16. Kenny N.J. et al. The Lophotrochozoan TGF-beta signalling cassette - diversification and conservation in a key signalling pathway // Int. J. Dev. Biol. 2014. Vol. 58, № 6–8. P. 533–549.

TGF-beta signalling plays a key role in the patterning of metazoan body plans and growth. It is widely regarded as a 'module' capable of co-option into novel functions. The TGF-beta pathway arose in the Metazoan lineage, and while it is generally regarded as well conserved across evolutionary time, its components have been largely studied in the Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia.The recent discovery of the Nodal molecule in molluscs has underlined the necessity of untangling this signalling network in lophotrochozoans in order to truly comprehend the evolution, conservation and diversification of this key pathway. Three novel genome resources, the mollusc Patella vulgate, annelid Pomatoceros lamarcki and rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, along with other publicly available data, were searched for the presence of TGF-beta pathway genes. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses, along with some consideration of conserved domain structure, was used to confirm gene identity. Analysis revealed conservation of key components within the canonical pathway, allied with extensive diversification of TGF-beta ligands and partial loss of genes encoding pathway inhibitors in some lophotrochozoan lineages. We fully describe the TGF-beta signalling cassette of a range of lophotrochozoans, allowing firm inference to be drawn as to the ancestral state of this pathway in this Superphylum. The TGF-beta signalling cascade's reputation as being highly conserved across the Metazoa is reinforced. Diversification within the activin-like complement, as well as potential wide loss of regulatory steps in some Phyla, hint at specific evolutionary implications for aspects of this cascade's functionality in this Superphylum.


17. U21083
Kocot K.M. et al. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships // Nature. 2011. Vol. 477, № 7365. P. 452-456.

Evolutionary relationships among the eight major lineages of Mollusca have remained unresolved despite their diversity and importance. Previous investigations of molluscan phylogeny, based primarily on nuclear ribosomal gene sequences(1-3) or morphological data(4), have been unsuccessful at elucidating these relationships. Recently, phylogenomic studies using dozens to hundreds of genes have greatly improved our understanding of deep animal relationships(5). However, limited genomic resources spanning molluscan diversity has prevented use of a phylogenomic approach. Here we use transcriptome and genome data from all major lineages (except Monoplacophora) and recover a well-supported topology for Mollusca. Our results strongly support the Aculifera hypothesis placing Polyplacophora (chitons) in a clade with a monophyletic Aplacophora (worm-like molluscs). Additionally, within Conchifera, a sister-taxon relationship between Gastropoda and Bivalvia is supported. This grouping has received little consideration and contains most (>95%) molluscan species. Thus we propose the node-based name Pleistomollusca. In light of these results, we examined the evolution of morphological characters and found support for advanced cephalization and shells as possibly having multiple origins within Mollusca.


18. Kolodziejczyk L. et al. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field and the Hatching Rate of Fasciola hepatica Eggs, the Fecundity and Survival of Liver Fluke-infected Snail, Lymnaea truncatula // Folia Biol.-Krakow. 2010. Vol. 58, № 3–4. P. 157–161.

Eggs of Fasciola hepatica were exposed for 10 days to extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELFMF) at the frequency of 50 Hz and density of 2 mT (rms). The results show an accelerated hatching of F. hepatica eggs in relation to control (non-exposed) group. The host snails, Lymnaea truncatula, were divided into three groups: those of groups I and II were infected with the miracidia of F. hepatica hatched from control egg culture, whereas those or group III were infected with miracida hatched front eggs affected by ELFMF. Thereafter, snails of groups II and III were exposed to ELFMF for 53 days. whereas those of group I were not exposed. At day 14 post infection, a significant decrease was observed in the number of cocoons laid by snails of group III, compared with control. Also, significant mortality in group III snails was observed 42 days post infection. The increased mortality and a lower number of cocoons laid by group III snails have probably resulted from enhanced stimulation of metacercarial parthenogenetic reproduction in consequence of infecting the molluscs with miracidia reared under ELFMF.


19. Lee C.A., Watson W.H. The influence of stomach distention on feeding in the nudibranch mollusk Melibe leonina // Mar. Freshw. Behav. Physiol. 2016. Vol. 49, № 4. P. 277–290.

Although research on satiation has revealed much about the effect of sensory inputs on motivational state, we have yet to fully understand exactly how satiating signals influence the neural circuits underlying specific behaviors. One organism that is well suited for addressing this question is the nudibranch Melibe leonina, because its feeding activity is easily quantified, it has translucent skin that makes the stomach easy to observe, and it has large, identifiable neurons that are very suitable for subsequent analysis of the neural correlates of satiation. In this study our goal was to document the time course of satiation in Melibe, and determine if stomach distention contributes to satiation. When exposed to brine shrimp (Artemia), Melibe immediately commenced stereotypic oral hood movements to capture prey, and continued to do so for approximately five hours. Individuals eventually stopped, despite the continued presence of food, and the slowing and eventual termination of oral hood closures was correlated with distension of the stomach caused by the ingested Artemia. We obtained further evidence that stomach distension is one of the underlying causes of satiation by injecting artificial non-nutritive food into the stomach, and by cutting open part of the stomach wall to prevent it from filling and distending. The first treatment caused satiation to occur more rapidly, while the second treatment delayed satiation. Both results demonstrate that in Melibe stomach distention has a major impact on the motivation to feed. These findings provide the framework for subsequent studies designed to determine precisely how stomach distention influences feeding circuits.


20. Leung J.Y.S. et al. Acid dulls the senses: impaired locomotion and foraging performance in a marine mollusc // Animal Behaviour. 2015. Vol. 106, № Supplement C. P. 223–229.

The possible impacts of ocean acidification have gained substantial attention for their potential to alter physiological functioning of marine organisms. Less recognized are the present impacts of estuarine acidification, a widespread form of coastal acidification caused by terrestrial runoff and coastal current dynamics. We examined the effects of acidification (pH 8.0, 7.5 and 7.0) on the locomotory activity, respiration rate and foraging performance of a scavenging gastropod, Nassarius festivus, which relies on chemoreception to locate food sources. In addition, we assessed its ability to recover from exposure to acidified conditions, following 48h at pH 8.0. The lowest pH conditions drove a greater proportion of individuals to retract into their shell, reduced respiration rate and resulted in worse foraging performance (i.e. lower travel speed during foraging, foraging success and consumption rate and longer feeding time). Nevertheless, individuals could recover from the effects of short-term acidification when the pH returned to normal. Overall, we demonstrated that foraging performance can be compromised by acidification, for which a global reduction in pH is set to force greater amplitudes of pH fluctuation, causing longer periods of acidification, shorter periods of recovery and potentially changing ecological roles such as nutrient recycling in coastal waters.


21. U26496
Li L. et al. Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system // Science. 2015. Vol. 350, № 6263. P. 952–956.

Nature provides a multitude of examples of multifunctional structural materials in which trade-offs are imposed by conflicting functional requirements. One such example is the biomineralized armor of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata, which incorporates an integrated sensory system that includes hundreds of eyes with aragonite-based lenses. We use optical experiments to demonstrate that these microscopic lenses are able to form images. Light scattering by the polycrystalline lenses is minimized by the use of relatively large, crystallographically aligned grains. Multiscale mechanical testing reveals that as the size, complexity, and functionality of the integrated sensory elements increase, the local mechanical performance of the armor decreases. However, A. granulata has evolved several strategies to compensate for its mechanical vulnerabilities to form a multipurpose system with co-optimized optical and structural functions.


22. U01107
Markovic V. et al. Distribution of the species of Theodoxus Montfort, 1810 (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in Serbia: an Overview // Acta Zool. Bulg. 2014. Vol. 66, № 4. P. 477–484.

The distribution of freshwater snails of the genus Theodoxus in Serbia is examined. The study comprises literature data and field surveys carried out at 84 watercourses and 5 reservoirs during 2010-2013. The occurrence of three species is confirmed: Theodoxus fluviatilis, T danubialis and T transversalis. The most widespread species is T. fluviatilis (river nerite). The previously dominant nerite T danubialis (Danube nerite) currently persists mainly in hilly and mountain parts of central Serbia and remains in few localities only in large rivers such as the Danube and the Sava. The endangered species T transversalis (striped nerite) shows patchy distribution; the Drina River - Lim River and the Velika Morava River - Juzna Morava River - Nisava River systems are revealed as important refugia for this species. Moreover, at some localities at the Nigava River and the Velika Morava River, the striped nerite is found to be the dominant in the present gastropod communities. Regular studies are crucial for the timely prediction of population health and for conservation of freshwater nerite species in Europe.


23. U0330X
Miquel S.E., Cerdeno E. First record of the Chilean gastropod Chiliborus in the Oligocene of Mendoza (Argentina) (Gastropoda Pulmonata: Strophocheilidae) // Archiv fur Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology. 2016. Vol. 145, № 1. P. 1–6.

The first record of a Chilean gastropod of the Late Oligocene of Argentina is described. The specimens show a typical general morphology and a characteristic nepionic sculpture of Chiliborus (Mollusca: Gastropoda), being the first fossil of this genus of Strophocheilidae. The locality of Quebrada Fiera (Malargue, Mendoza Province) had provided vertebrates (a small lizard, birds and many mammals, such as notoungulates, litopterns, carnivorous marsupials), but this is the first record of an invertebrate. The mammal assemblage has been assigned to the Deseadan Mammal Age and corresponds to an open woodland environment that developed in semiarid conditions during a period of volcanic activity. The extant species of Chiliborus live in a warm oceanic climate on the west coast of Chile, in areas with vegetation that varies from sclerophyllous shrublands, small forests to transitional and mixed forests.


24. U01107
Mitov P.G. New data on Myosotella myosotis (Draparnaud, 1801) (Pulmonata: Basommatophora: Ellobiidae) from Bulgaria // Acta Zool. Bulg. 2016. Vol. 68, № 3. P. 321–330.

The present paper contains new chorological data on Myosotella myosotis from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, as well as some conchiological (variation in shell size and in the number of apertural folds and denticles), biological, and ecological notes on this ellobiid gastropod from Bulgaria, with brief comments on its conservation status.


25. U1581X
Munoz J.L.P. et al. Melatonin in octopus (Octopus vulgaris): tissue distribution, daily changes and relation with serotonin and its acid metabolite // J. Comp. Physiol. A -Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 2011. Vol. 197, № 8. P. 789–797.

Information regarding melatonin production in molluscs is very limited. In this study the presence and daily fluctuations of melatonin levels were investigated in hemolymph, retina and nervous system-related structures in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris. Adult animals were maintained in captivity under natural photoperiod and killed at different times in a regular daily cycle. Levels of melatonin, serotonin (5-HT) and its acid metabolite (5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, 5-HIAA) in the hemolymph, retina, optic lobe, and cerebral ganglion were assayed by HPLC. Melatonin content fluctuated rhythmically in the retina and hemolymph, peaking at night. In the retina, but not in the other neural tissues, the rhythm was opposite to that of 5-HT, which displayed basal levels at night. Also, 5-HIAA levels in the retina were higher during the night, supporting that rhythmic melatonin production could be linked to diurnal changes in 5-HT degradation. The high levels of melatonin found in the retina point to it as the major source of melatonin in octopus; in addition, a large variation of melatonin content was found in the optic lobe with maximal values at night. All these data suggest that melatonin might play a role in the transduction of the light-dark cycle information for adjustment of rhythmic physiological events in cephalopods.


26. Mynhardt G. et al. Shell shape convergence masks biological diversity in gliding scallops: description of Ylistrum n. gen. (Pectinidae) from the Indo-Pacific Ocean // J. Molluscan Stud. 2014. Vol. 80. P. 400–411.

The scallop genus Amusium Roding, 1798 is one of few genera of Pectinidae that includes taxa capable of long-distance swimming or gliding. Membership of the genus has been defined primarily by shell shape, and it currently includes only three species: the type species A. pleuronectes (Linnaeus, 1758), A. balloti (Bernardi, 1861) and A. japonicum (Gmelin, 1791). In this study, we use molecular data and aspects of shell morphology to resolve the systematics of the genus. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Pectinidae using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence from four genes supports a polyphyletic Amusium. Differences in internal ribbing pattern provide morphological evidence for the recognition of the two clades identified in our phylogenetic analyses. In contrast, quantification of shell shape through geometric morphometric methods indicates that shape is a convergent phenotype and is not informative in terms of distinguishing between the two gliding lineages. Based on these results, we describe Ylistrum, n. gen, which includes two species previously assigned to Amusium. We provide characters that separate the now monotypic Amusium from the two species, Ylistrum balloti, n. comb. and Y. japonicum, n. comb.


27. U0330X
Neubauer T.A., Mandic O., Harzhauser M. Middle Miocene freshwater mollusks from Lake Sinj (Dinaride Lake System, // Arch. Molluskenkd. 2011. Vol. 140, № 2. P. 201–237.

This study provides the first assemblage-based taxonomic revision of the mollusk fauna of the Middle Miocene Dinaride Lake System (DLS). The assemblage, consisting of more than 13.000 specimens, was sampled from a 100-m-thick Lower Langhian interval of the Lucane section in the Sinj Basin (Croatia). 18 gastropod species and 3 bivalve species are detected from the succession. All are endemic to the Dinaride Lake System. Within that system, the described fauna of Lake Sinj displays strong similarities with the coeval and geographically close fauna of Lake Drnis. Reduced faunistic relations to other lakes of the DLS are discussed to result from slightly different stratigraphic ages and deviating paleoecologic settings. Many melanopsid and prososthenid gastropod taxa in the literature are considered to be mere morphotypes of few polymorphic species resulting in nomenclatorial rectifications. Melanopsis hicanensis NEUBAUER n. sp. and Belgrandia klietmanni NEUBAUER n. sp. are introduced as new species.


28. U07902
Odintsova N.A., Dyachuk V.A., Nezlin L.P. Muscle and neuronal differentiation in primary cell culture of larval Mytilus trossulus (Mollusca: Bivalvia) // Cell Tissue Res. 2010. Vol. 339, № 3. P. 625–637.

Molluscan in vitro technology allows the study of the differentiation of isolated cells undergoing experimental manipulations. We have used the immunofluorescence technique and laser scanning microscopy to investigate the organization of muscle proteins (actin, myosin, paramyosin, and twitchin) and the localization of neurotransmitters (serotonin and FMRFamide) in cultured mussel larval cells. Differentiation into muscle and neuron-like cells occurs during the cultivation of mussel cells from premyogenic and prenervous larval stages. Muscle proteins are colocalized in contractile cells through all stages of cultivation. The cultivation of mussel cells on various substrates and the application of integrin receptor blockers suggest that an integrin-dependent mechanism is involved in cell adhesion and differentiation. Dissociated mussel cells aggregate and become self-organized in culture. After 20 days of cultivation, they form colonies in which serotonin- and FMRFamide-immunoreactive cells are located centrally, whereas muscle cells form a contractile network at the periphery. The pattern of thick and thin filaments in cultivated mussel cells changes according to the scenario of muscle arrangement in vivo: initially, a striated pattern of muscle filaments forms but is then replaced by a smooth muscle pattern with a diffuse distribution of muscle proteins, typical of muscles of adult molluscs. Myogenesis in molluscs thus seems to be a highly dynamic and potentially variable process. Such a "flexible" developmental program can be regarded as a prerequisite for the evolution of the wide variety of striated and smooth muscles in larval and adult molluscs.


29. Ottaviani E. et al. Epigenetic modification in neurons of the mollusc Pomacea canaliculata after immune challenge // Brain Res. 2013. Vol. 1537. P. 18–26.

In human and rodents, the transcriptional response of neurons to stress is related to epigenetic modifications of both DNA and histone proteins. To assess the suitability of simple invertebrate models in studying the basic mechanisms of stress-related epigenetic modifications, we analyzed epigenetic modifications in neurons of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata after the injection of Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The phospho-acetylation of histone H3, together with the induction of stress-related factors, c-Fos and HSP70, were evaluated in large and small neurons of the pedal ganglia of sham- and LPS-injected snails. Immunocytochemical investigations showed that after LPS injection, the immunopositivity towards phospho (Ser10)-acetyl (Lys14)-histone H3 and c-Fos increases in the nuclei of small gangliar neurons. Western blot analysis confirmed a significant increase of phospho (Ser10)-acetyl (Lys14)-histone H3 in nuclear extracts from 2 h LPS-injected animals. c-Fos protein levels were significantly augmented 6 h after LPS injection. Immunocytochemistry and western blot indicated that no changes occurred in HSP70 distribution and protein levels. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of epigenetic changes in molluscan neurons after an immune challenge and indicate the gastropod P. canaliculata as a suitable model for evolutionary and translational studies on stress-related epigenetic modifications.


30. Ozturk B. et al. Marine molluscs of the Turkish coasts: an updated checklist // Turk. J. Zool. 2014. Vol. 38, № 6. P. 832–879.

This study presents the molluscan species diversity along the Turkish coasts. The compilation of the available references revealed a total of 1065 species belonging to 7 classes (Caudofoveata, Solenogastres, Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Scaphopoda, and Cephalopoda). Most of the reported species belong to the class Gastropoda (706 species), followed by Bivalvia (279 species), Cephalopoda (50 species), Polyplacophora (17 species), Scaphopoda (10 species), Caudofoveata (2 species), and Solenogastres (1 species). Among the coasts of Turkey, the highest number of molluscan species was recorded from the Aegean Sea (825 species), followed by the Levantine Sea (807 species), Sea of Marmara (537 species), and the Black Sea (155 species). Of the 1065 mollusc taxa, 118 species are alien ones that originated outside the Mediterranean Sea. Among the listed species, Timoclea roemeriana (Bivalvia), and Sepiola ligulata and Abraliopsis morisii (both from Cephalopoda) are new records for the Turkish mollusc fauna, 11 species of the classes Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, and Bivalvia (Leptochiton boettgeri, Cerithium protractum, Similiphora similior, Cerithiopsis diadema, Rissoa guerinii, Crepidula moulinsii, Crepidula unguiformis, Bela zenetouae, Doto coronata, Lima marioni, and Limaria loscombi) are new reports for the Levantine coast of Turkey, and 2 gastropod species (Acirsa subdecussata and Monotygma lauta) are new reports for the Aegean coast of Turkey. Among the listed taxa, 27 species have been classified in the IUCN Red List or Barcelona/Bern Conventions.


31. U62100
Pimenova E.A. Effect of copper ions on spatial density of NO synthase-positive cells in intestine of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (mollusca: bivalvia: mytilidae). A histochemical study // J. Evol. Biochem. Physiol. 2010. Vol. 46, № 3. P. 267–274.

By the histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) (EC1.6.99.1) [1] the state of nitroxidergic enteric nervous system of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus was studied under conditions of an increased copper concentration in water. Under the action of copper ions the density of distribution of NADPH-d-positive cells has been established to be changed as compared with control throughout 28 days. A sharp rise of proportion of the labeled cells and their enzyme activity was noted after one day of the experiment. The labeled bipolar cells were of dark blue color and were located within the epithelium. There were revealed numerous nerve fibers penetrating the intestinal epithelium throughout its entire length as well as bipolar nerve cells in epithelium of the minor typhlosole and of crystalline style sac; in control molluscs the NADPH-d-positive cells in these parts were absent. After 7 days the difference between control and experimental decreased and remained at this level after 14 days, while after 21 days of exposition the proportion of labeled cells in the experimental mussels was lower than in control, but increased again after 28 days. It is suggested that nitric oxide is an important protective factor of the intestinal epithelium of the mussel C. grayanus and participates in adaptation of this mollusc to action of the elevated concentration of copper ions in water.


32. Red Sea: The Formation, Morphology, Oceanography and Environment of a Young Ocean Basin / ed. Rasul N.M.A., Stewart I.C.F. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin. — 2015. — P. 627. — Online ISBN 978-3-662-45201-1.

This book presents a broad overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the Red Sea, from its geological formation and oceanographic development to the environmental influences on its ecology and the changes it is experiencing due to the rapid development of its coastlines and role as one of the world’s major transport routes. The book gathers invited contributions from researchers with an interest in the geology, geophysics, oceanography and environment of the Red Sea, while also providing comprehensive new data and a complete review of the literature. It will be of interest not only to researchers actively studying the sea and its surroundings, but will also appeal to all those involved in planning and managing the Red Sea, its environment, its resources and the countries which rely on its existence.


33. Sakurai A., Gunaratne C.A., Katz P.S. Two interconnected kernels of reciprocally inhibitory interneurons underlie alternating left-right swim motor pattern generation in the mollusk Melibe leonina // J. Neurophysiol. 2014. Vol. 112, № 6. P. 1317–1328.

The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying the rhythmic swimming behavior of the nudibranch Melibe leonina (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) has been described as a simple half-center oscillator consisting of two reciprocally inhibitory pairs of interneurons called swim interneuron 1 (Si1) and swim interneuron 2 (Si2). In this study, we identified two additional pairs of interneurons that are part of the swim CPG: swim interneuron 3 (Si3) and swim interneuron 4 (Si4). The somata of Si3 and Si4 were both located in the pedal ganglion, near that of Si2, and both had axons that projected through the pedal commissure to the contralateral pedal ganglion. These neurons fulfilled the criteria for inclusion as members of the swim CPG: 1) they fired at a fixed phase in relation to Si1 and Si2, 2) brief changes in their activity reset the motor pattern, 3) prolonged changes in their activity altered the periodicity of the motor pattern, 4) they had monosynaptic connections with each other and with Si1 and Si2, and 5) their synaptic actions helped explain the phasing of the motor pattern. The results of this study show that the motor pattern has more complex internal dynamics than a simple left/right alternation of firing; the CPG circuit appears to be composed of two kernels of reciprocally inhibitory neurons, one consisting of Si1, Si2, and the contralateral Si4 and the other consisting of Si3. These two kernels interact with each other to produce a stable rhythmic motor pattern.


34. U0330X
Salvador R.B., Cavallari D.C., Simone L.R.L. Taxonomical study on a sample of land snails from Alto Ribeira State Park (Sao Paulo, Brazil), with description of a new species // Arch. Molluskenkd. 2016. Vol. 145, № 1. P. 59–68.

A sample of land snails, mainly pulmonates, was recently collected in caves in the Alto Ribeira State and Tourist Park ("Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira" [PETAR], in Portuguese), an important tourism spot in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Overall, twenty-one species were found, the following being reported for the first time for Sao Paulo state: Alcadia iheringi (Helicinidae); Lamellaxis mizius (Subulinidae); Zilchogyra (Trochogyra) superba and Radiodiscus promatensis (Charopidae); Entodina gionensis and Scolodonta interrupta (Systrophiidae). A new species, Bahiensis ribeirensis sp. nov. (Odontostomidae), is described herein. The new records and species addressed here constitute important findings, improving distributional maps and the knowledge of the local molluscan fauna. This is an essential step for future conservation efforts, especially of the poorly studied Brazilian troglofauna.


35. U15453
Senatore A., Spafford J.D. Transient and Big Are Key Features of an Invertebrate T-type Channel (LCa(v)3) from the Central Nervous System of Lymnaea stagnalis // J. Biol. Chem. 2010. Vol. 285, № 10. P. 7447–7458.

Here we describe features of the first non-mammalian T-type calcium channel (LCa(v)3) expressed in vitro. This molluscan channel possesses combined biophysical properties that are reminiscent of all mammalian T-type channels. It exhibits T-type features such as "transient" kinetics, but the "tiny" label, usually associated with Ba2+ conductance, is hard to reconcile with the "bigness" of this channel in many respects. LCa(v)3 is 25% larger than any voltage-gated ion channel expressed to date. It codes for a massive, 322-kDa protein that conducts large macroscopic currents in vitro. LCa(v)3 is also the most abundant Ca2+ channel transcript in the snail nervous system. A window current at typical resting potentials appears to be at least as large as that reported for mammalian channels. This distant gene provides a unique perspective to analyze the structural, functional, drug binding, and evolutionary aspects of T-type channels.


36. Serb J.M. et al. Morphological convergence of shell shape in distantly related scallop species (Mollusca: Pectinidae) // Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 2011. Vol. 163, № 2. P. 571–584.

Morphological convergence is a central concept in evolutionary biology, but convergent patterns remain understudied in nonvertebrate organisms. Some scallop species exhibit long-distance swimming, a behaviour whose biomechanical requirements probably generate similar selective regimes. We tested the hypothesis that shell shape similarity in long-distance swimming species is a result of convergent evolution. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we quantified shell shape in seven species representing major behavioural habits. All species displayed distinct shell shapes, with the exception of the two long-distance swimmers, whose shells were indistinguishable. These species also displayed reduced morphological variance relative to other taxa. Finally, a phylogenetic simulation revealed that these species were more similar in their shell shape than was expected under Brownian motion, the model of character evolution that best described changes in shell shape. Together, these findings reveal that convergent evolution of shell shape occurs in scallops, and suggest that selection for shell shape and behaviour may be important in the diversification of the group.


37. U21083
Smith S.A. et al. Resolving the evolutionary relationships of molluscs with phylogenomic tools // Nature. 2011. Vol. 480, № 7377. P. 364-367.

Molluscs (snails, octopuses, clams and their relatives) have a great disparity of body plans and, among the animals, only arthropods surpass them in species number. This diversity has made Mollusca one of the best-studied groups of animals, yet their evolutionary relationships remain poorly resolved(1). Open questions have important implications for the origin of Mollusca and for morphological evolution within the group. These questions include whether the shell-less, vermiform aplacophoran molluscs diverged before the origin of the shelled molluscs (Conchifera)(2-4) or lost their shells secondarily. Monoplacophorans were not included in molecular studies until recently(5,6), when it was proposed that they constitute a clade named Serialia together with Polyplacophora (chitons), reflecting the serial repetition of body organs in both groups(5). Attempts to understand the early evolution of molluscs become even more complex when considering the large diversity of Cambrian fossils. These can have multiple dorsal shell plates and sclerites(7-10) or can be shell-less but with a typical molluscan radula and serially repeated gills(11). To better resolve the relationships among molluscs, we generated transcriptome data for 15 species that, in combination with existing data, represent for the first time all major molluscan groups. We analysed multiple data sets containing up to 216,402 sites and 1,185 gene regions using multiple models and methods. Our results support the clade Aculifera, containing the three molluscan groups with spicules but without true shells, and they support the monophyly of Conchifera. Monoplacophora is not the sister group to other Conchifera but to Cephalopoda. Strong support is found for a clade that comprises Scaphopoda (tusk shells), Gastropoda and Bivalvia, with most analyses placing Scaphopoda and Gastropoda as sister groups. This well-resolved tree will constitute a framework for further studies of mollusc evolution, development and anatomy.


38. Speiser D.I., Eernisse D.J., Johnsen S. A Chiton Uses Aragonite Lenses to Form Images // Curr. Biol. 2011. Vol. 21, № 8. P. 665–670.

Hundreds of ocelli are embedded in the dorsal shell plates of certain chitons [1]. These ocelli each contain a pigment layer, retina, and lens [2], but it is unknown whether they provide chitons with spatial vision [3]. It is also unclear whether chiton lenses are made from proteins, like nearly all biological lenses, or from some other material [4]. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis and X-ray diffraction revealed that the chiton Acanthopleura granulate has the first aragonite lenses ever discovered. We found that these lenses allow A. granulata's ocelli to function as small camera eyes with an angular resolution of about 9 degrees-12 degrees. Animals responded to the sudden appearance of black, overhead circles with an angular size of 9 degrees, but not to equivalent, uniform decreases in the downwelling irradiance. Our behavioral estimates of angular resolution were consistent with estimates derived from focal length and receptor spacing within the A. granulate eye. Behavioral trials further indicated that A. granulata's eyes provide the same angular resolution in both air and water. We propose that one of the two refractive indices of the birefringent chiton lens places a focused image on the retina in air, whereas the other does so in water.


39. Tamvacakis A.N., Senatore A., Katz P.S. Identification of genes related to learning and memory in the brain transcriptome of the mollusc, Hermissenda crassicornis // Learn. Mem. 2015. Vol. 22, № 12. P. 617–621.

The sea slug Hermissenda crassicornis (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) has been studied extensively in associative learning paradigms. However, lack of genetic information previously hindered molecular-level investigations. Here, the Hermissenda brain transcriptome was sequenced and assembled de novo, producing 165,743 total transcripts. Orthologs of 95 genes implicated in learning were identified. These included genes for a serotonin receptor and a GABA-B receptor subunit that had not been previously described in molluscs, as well as an adenylyl cyclase gene not previously described in gastropods. This study illustrates the Hermissenda transcriptome's potential as an important genetic tool in future learning and memory research.


40. U01107
Tomovic J. et al. Biotic Typology of the Danube River Based on Distribution of Mollusc Fauna as Revealed by the Second Joint Danube Survey (2007) // Acta Zool. Bulg. 2014. Vol. 66, № 4. P. 527–537.

The aim of this study is to present the distribution of aquatic molluscs along a 2600 km long stretch of the Danube River based on information obtained during the Second Joint Danube Survey (JDS2) in 2007. The collected data are used to validate the abiotic typology of the Danube River and to determine the extent of variations in mollusc richness and composition that can be explained by the basic habitat characteristics of the sites. The examination of the distribution of mollusc fauna reveals differences between the three main sectors of the river, the Upper, Middle and Lower Danube. The Iron Gate Section was identified as the boundary between the Middle and Lower, Danube. A total of 42 aquatic mollusc species-group taxa of 14 families are detected within the study area. The Middle and Upper sectors are characterised by higher species richness and diversity as compared to the Lower Danube.


41. Voronezhskaya E.E. et al. Neuronal development in larval mussel Mytilus trossulus (Mollusca?: Bivalvia) // Zoomorphology. 2008. Vol. 127, № 2. P. 97–110.

Although our understanding of neuronal development in Trochozoa has progressed substantially in recent years, relatively little attention has been paid to the bivalve molluscs in this regard. In the present study, the development of FMRFamide-, serotonin- and catecholamine-containing cells in the mussel, Mytilus trossulus, was examined using immunocytochemical and histofluorescent techniques. Neurogenesis starts during the trochophore stage at the apical extreme with the appearance of one FMRFamide-like immunoreactive (lir) and one serotonin-lir sensory cell. Later, five FMRFamide-lir and five serotonin-lir apical sensory cells appear, and their basal fibres form an apical neuropil. Fibres of two lateral FMRFamide-lir apical cells grow posteriorly and at the time that they reach the developing foot, the first FMRFamide-lir neurons of the pedal ganglia also appear. Subsequently, FMRFamide-lir fibres grow further posteriorly and reach the caudal region where neurons of the developing visceral ganglia then begin to appear. In contrast, the five apical serotonin-lir neurons do not appear to project outside the apical neuropil until the late veliger stage. Catecholamine-containing cells are first detected in the veliger stage where they appear above the oesophagus, and subsequently in the velum, foot, and posterior regions. Though neural development in M. trossulus partly resembles that of polyplacophorans in the appearance of the early FMRFamidergic elements, and of scaphopods in the appearance of the early serotonergic elements, the scenario of neural development in M. trossulus differs considerably from that of other Trochozoa (bivalves, gastropods, polyplacophorans, scaphopods and polychaetes) studied to date.


42. Wanninger A., Wollesen T. Methods in Brain Development of Molluscs // Brain Development: Methods and Protocols / ed. Sprecher S.G. Totowa: Humana Press Inc, 2014. Vol. 1082. P. 117–125.

Representatives of the phylum Mollusca have long been important models in neurobiological research. Recently, the routine application of immunocytochemistry in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy has allowed fast generation of highly detailed reconstructions of neural structures of even the smallest multicellular animals, including early developmental stages. As a consequence, large-scale comparative analyses of neurogenesis-an important prerequisite for inferences concerning the evolution of animal nervous systems-are now possible in a reasonable amount of time. Herein, we describe immunocytochemical staining protocols for both whole-mount preparations of developmental stages-usually 70-300 mu m in size-as well as for vibratome sections of complex brains. Although our procedures have been optimized for marine molluscs, they may easily be adapted for other (marine) organisms by the creative neurobiologist.


43. Wollesen T. et al. FMRFamide gene and peptide expression during central nervous system development of the cephalopod mollusk, Idiosepius notoides // Evolution & Development. 2010. Vol. 12, № 2. P. 113–130.

P>Mollusks are a showcase of brain evolution represented by several classes with a varying degree of nervous system centralization. Cellular and molecular processes involved in the evolution of the highly complex cephalopod brain from a simple, monoplacophoran-like ancestor are still obscure and homologies on the cellular level are poorly established. FMRFamide (Phe-Ile-Arg-Phe-NH(2))-related peptides (FaRPs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved and diverse group of neuropeptides in the central nervous system (CNS) of many metazoans. Herein, we provide a detailed description of the developing FMRFamide-like immunoreactive (Fa-lir) CNS of the pygmy squid Idiosepius notoides using gene expression analyses and immunocytochemistry. The open reading frame of the I. notoides FMRFamide gene InFMRF predicts one copy each of FIRFamide, FLRFamide (Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH(2)), ALSGDAFLRFamide (Ala-Leu-Ser-Gly-Asp-Ala-Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH(2)), and 11 copies of FMRFamide. Applying matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometry-based peptide profiling, we characterized all predicted FaRPs except ALSGDAFLRFamide. Two cell clusters express InFMRF and show FMRFamide-like-immunoreactivity within the palliovisceral ganglia, that is, the future posterior subesophageal mass, during the lobe differentiation phase. They project neurites via ventral axonal tracts, which form the scaffold of the future subesophageal mass. In the supraesophageal mass, InFMRF is first expressed during mid-embryogenesis in the superior and inferior buccal lobes. A neurite of the peduncle commissure represents the first Fa-lir element. Later, the sub- and supraesophageal mass interconnect via Fa-lir neurites and more brain lobes express InFMRF and FMRFamide-like peptides. InFMRF expression was observed in fewer brain lobes than Fa-lir elements. The early expression of InFMRF and FMRFamide-lir peptides in the visceral system and not the remaining CNS of the cephalopod I. notoides resembles the condition found in the majority of investigated gastropods.


44. U07902
Wollesen T. et al. The VD1/RPD2 alpha 1-neuropeptide is highly expressed in the brain of cephalopod mollusks // Cell and Tissue Research. 2012. Vol. 348, № 3. P. 439–452.

In certain gastropod mollusks, the central neurons VD1 and RPD2 express a distinct peptide, the so-called VD1/RPD2 alpha 1-neuropeptide. In order to test whether this peptide is also present in the complex cephalopod central nervous system (CNS), we investigated several octopod and squid species. In the adult decapod squid Idiosepius notoides the alpha 1-neuropeptide is expressed throughout the CNS, with the exception of the vertical lobe and the superior and inferior frontal lobes, by very few immunoreactive elements. Immunoreactive cell somata are particularly abundant in brain lobes and associated organs unique to cephalopods such as the subvertical, optic, peduncle, and olfactory lobes. The posterior basal lobes house another large group of immunoreactive cell somata. In the decapod Idiosepius notoides, the alpha 1-neuropeptide is first expressed in the olfactory organ, while in the octopod Octopus vulgaris it is first detected in the olfactory lobe. In prehatchlings of the sepiolid Euprymna scolopes as well as the squids Sepioteuthis australis and Loligo vulgaris, the alpha 1-neuropeptide is expressed in the periesophageal and posterior subesophageal mass. Prehatchlings of L. vulgaris express the alpha 1-neuropeptide in wide parts of the CNS, including the vertical lobe. alpha 1-neuropeptide expression in the developing CNS does not appear to be evolutionarily conserved across various cephalopod taxa investigated. Strong expression in different brain lobes of the adult squid I. notoides and prehatching L. vulgaris suggests a putative role as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in these species; however, electrophysiological evidence is still missing.


45. Wollesen T., Loesel R., Wanninger A. Pygmy squids and giant brains: Mapping the complex cephalopod CNS by phalloidin staining of vibratome sections and whole-mount preparations // Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 2009. Vol. 179, № 1. P. 63–67.

Among bilaterian invertebrates, cephalopod molluscs (e.g., squids, cuttlefish and octopuses) have a central nervous system (CNS) that rivals in complexity that of the phylogenetically distant vertebrates (e.g., mouse and human). However, this prime example of convergent evolution has rarely been the subject of recent developmental and evolutionary studies, which may partly be due to the lack of suitable neural markers and the large size of cephalopod brains. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of fluorescence-coupled phalloidin to characterize the CNS of cephalopods using histochemistry combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Whole-mount preparations of developmental stages as well as vibratome sections of embryonic and adult brains were analyzed and the benefits of this technique are illustrated. Compared to classical neuroanatomical and antibody-based studies, phalloidin labeling experiments are less time-consuming and allow a high throughput of samples. Besides other advantages summarized here, phalloidin reliably labels the entire neuropil of the CNS of all squids, cuttlefish and octopuses investigated. This facilitates high-resolution in toto reconstructions of the CNS and contributes to a better understanding of the organization of neural networks. Amenable for multi-labeling experiments employing antibodies against neurotransmitters, proteins and enzymes, phalloidin constitutes an excellent neuropil marker for the complex cephalopod CNS.


46. Wollesen T., Wanninger A., Klussmann-Kolb A. Neurogenesis of cephalic sensory organs of Aplysia californica // Cell Tissue Res. 2007. Vol. 330, № 2. P. 361–379.

The opisthobranch gastropod Aplysia californica serves as a model organism in experimental neurobiology because of its simple and well-known nervous system. However, its nervous periphery has been less intensely studied. We have reconstructed the ontogeny of the cephalic sensory organs (labial tentacles, rhinophores, and lip) of planktonic, metamorphic, and juvenile developmental stages. FMRFamide and serotonergic expression patterns have been examined by immunocytochemistry in conjunction with epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We have also applied scanning electron microscopy to analyze the ciliary distribution of these sensory epithelia. Labial tentacles and the lip develop during metamorphosis, whereas rhinophores appear significantly later, in stage 10 juveniles. Our study has revealed immunoreactivity against FMRFamides and serotonin in all major nerves. The common labial nerve develops first, followed by the labial tentacle base nerve, oral nerve, and rhinophoral nerve. We have also identified previously undescribed neuronal pathways and other FMRFamide-like-immunoreactive neuronal elements, such as peripheral ganglia and glomerulus-like structures, and two groups of conspicuous transient FMRFamide-like cell somata. We have further found two distinct populations of FMRFamide-positive cell somata located both subepidermally and in the inner regions of the cephalic sensory organs in juveniles. The latter population partly consists of sensory cells, suggesting an involvement of FMRFamide-like peptides in the modulation of peripheral sensory processes. This study is the first concerning the neurogenesis of cephalic sensory organs in A. californica and may serve as a basis for future studies of neuronal elements in gastropod molluscs.


47. Yoshida M.A. et al. Molecular Evidence for Convergence and Parallelism in Evolution of Complex Brains of Cephalopod Molluscs: Insights from Visual Systems // Integr. Comp. Biol. 2015. Vol. 55, № 6. P. 1070–1083.

Coleoid cephalopods show remarkable evolutionary convergence with vertebrates in their neural organization, including (1) eyes and visual system with optic lobes, (2) specialized parts of the brain controlling learning and memory, such as vertical lobes, and (3) unique vasculature supporting such complexity of the central nervous system. We performed deep sequencing of eye transcriptomes of pygmy squids (Idiosepius paradoxus) and chambered nautiluses (Nautilus pompilius) to decipher the molecular basis of convergent evolution in cephalopods. RNA-seq was complemented by in situ hybridization to localize the expression of selected genes. We found three types of genomic innovations in the evolution of complex brains: (1) recruitment of novel genes into morphogenetic pathways, (2) recombination of various coding and regulatory regions of different genes, often called "evolutionary tinkering" or "co-option", and (3) duplication and divergence of genes. Massive recruitment of novel genes occurred in the evolution of the "camera" eye from nautilus' "pinhole" eye. We also showed that the type-2 co-option of transcription factors played important roles in the evolution of the lens and visual neurons. In summary, the cephalopod convergent morphological evolution of the camera eyes was driven by a mosaic of all types of gene recruitments. In addition, our analysis revealed unexpected variations of squids' opsins, retinochromes, and arrestins, providing more detailed information, valuable for further research on intra-ocular and extra-ocular photoreception of the cephalopods.


48. 002190
Алякринская И.О. Морфобиохимические адаптации к выживанию в условиях супралиторали средиземноморской Littorina punctata (Gmelin, 1790) (Mollusca, Gastropoda) // Известия Российской Академии Наук. Серия Биологическая. 2014. № 1. С. 92-98.

Проанализированы поведенческие и морфобиохимические адаптации Littorina punctata к обитанию в условиях супралиторали. Дана количественная оценка содержания гемоглобина в радулярных тканях моллюска.


49. 005201
Амитров О.В. Эпитонииды (gastropoda, Epitoniidae) Позднего Эоцена Казахстана И Украины // Палеонтологический Журнал. 2013. № 4. С. 20-27.

Изучены комплексы эпитониид чеганской свиты Казахстана и мандриковских слоев Украины. Выявлены представители пяти подсемейств, семи родов и не менее 14 видов (девять - в мандриковских слоях, не менее семи - в чеганской свите). Из чеганской свиты описывается новый вид Acirsa aralica, для большинства других видов указано распространение и приведены сравнения, замечания и изображения.


50. 039299
Андреев Н.И., Андреева С. Моллюски семейства Bithyniidae (Gastropoda, Pectinibranchia) водоемов Коргалжынского заповедника // Успехи Современного Естествознания. 2014. № 5–1. С. 227.


51. 00193X
Ворцепнева Е.В., Цетлин А.Б. Новые данные по тонкому строению крючьев Clione limacina (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Gymnosomata) и разнообразие челюстного аппарата Gastropoda // Зоологический Журнал. 2014. Т. 93. № 3. С. 466-478.

В результате исследования внутренней и внешней морфологии буккального аппарата Clione limacinа было описано строение челюстного аппарата, который представляет собой парные мешки с крючьями, расположенными по бокам от радулы, а также получены новые данные по их тонкому строению и описан новый тип челюстей для Gastropoda. Крючья располагаются на внутренней боковой поверхности мышечного мешка, при этом размер крючьев варьирует от 1 мм до 90 мкм в длину. Самые крупные крючья формируются на дне мешка. Один крючок челюсти формируется одной клеткой - гнатобластом. На основе особенностей тонкого строения гнатобластов предположена модель роста крючьев, когда крюк может расти в высоту (удлиниться) и в толщину, при этом зона роста крючка в высоту находится в основании гнатобласта, а утолщение происходит по всей площади. Крючья C. limacina по типу роста (непродолжительный рост, характеризующийся слабым развитием микровиллей) и тонкому строению (захождение гнатобласта в полость крючка) сравнимы с челюстями некоторых Eunicida (Annelida, Polychaeta).


52. 002190
Зотин А.А., Клейменов С.Ю. Эндогенные биоритмы интенсивности потребления кислорода в индивидуальном развитии Lymnaea stagnalis (Lymnaeidae, Gastropoda) // Известия Российской Академии Наук. Серия Биологическая. 2013. № 6. С. 653-660.

В позднем постларвальном онтогенезе пресноводных брюхоногих моллюсков Lymnaea stagnalis с помощью сингулярного спектрального анализа выявлены два эндогенных биоритма интенсивности потребления кислорода с периодами 10.3 и 7.2 нед. Установлено, что локальные максимумы обоих биоритмов у разных особей приходятся на одни и те же возрасты, причем периоды биоритмов приблизительно одинаковы у всех исследованных животных и остаются неизменными на протяжении индивидуального развития. Отмечено, что биоритм с периодом 10.3 нед затухающий (его амплитуда уменьшается от 8 мкл О2/(ч · г) в возрасте 20 нед до 3 мкл О2/(ч · г) к моменту гибели), а биоритм с периодом 7.2 нед незатухающий (его средняя амплитуда 2.4 ± 0.4 мкл О2/(ч · г)).


53. 002190
Зотин А.А., Клейменов С.Ю. Эндогенные биоритмы удельной скорости роста в индивидуальном развитии Lymnaea stagnalis (Lymnaeidae, Gastropoda) // Известия Российской Академии Наук. Серия Биологическая. 2013. № 1. С. 5-14.

На основании данных о росте пресноводных брюхоногих моллюсков Lymnaea stagnalis рассчитана зависимость удельной скорости роста от возраста в позднем постларвальном онтогенезе. С помощью сингулярного спектрального анализа выявлено наличие двух эндогенных биоритмов удельной скорости роста с периодами 10.3 нед и 6.5 нед. Локальные максимумы обоих биоритмов у разных особей приходятся на одни и те же возраста, а их периоды приблизительно одинаковы у всех исследованных животных и остаются неизменными на протяжении индивидуального постларвального развития. Биоритм с периодом 10.3 нед - затухающий, его амплитуда уменьшается от 3.2 год-1 (в возрасте 10 нед) до 0.8 год-1 (к моменту гибели моллюсков). Биоритм с периодом 6.5 нед - не затухающий и имеет среднюю амплитуду 0.8 год-1.


54. 001075
Козминский Е.В. Особенности наследования фоновой окраски раковины у моллюсков Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Littorinidae) // Генетика. 2014. Т. 50. № 10. С. 1177-1187.

Изучено наследование фоновой окраски раковины, формирующейся на основе ряда пигментов, у брюхоногого моллюска Littorina obtusata. Установлено, что наследование окраски раковины у литторин не может быть объяснено в рамках полиаллельной моногенной схемы наследования, свойственной моллюскам рода Cepaea. Показано, что за включение в раковину каждого пигмента у литторин отвечает отдельная генетическая система, в состав которой в случае желтого и пурпурного пигментов входит не менее двух генов. Полученные данные показывают, что переносить результаты изучения фоновой окраски раковины у рода Cepaea на другие виды гастропод следует с осторожностью.


55. 036182
Любас А.А. и др. Брюхоногие моллюски (Gastropoda) в древних и современных термальных источниках Пымвашор(большеземельская Тундра) // Вестник Северного (Арктического) федерального ун-та. Естественные науки (до 2012: Вестник Поморского ун-та. Естественные науки) (с 2017г. Arctic Environmental Research). 2013. № 2. С. 75–83.

Гидротермальная система Пымвашор на востоке Большеземельской тундры – единственная на материковой части Европейской Субарктики. Кроме современных терм здесь имеются отложения среднего-лоценовых термогенных травертинов древнего источника. В травертинах и погребенном аллювии этого источника имеются раковины гастропод (виды сем. Lymnaeidae и Planorbidae), причем большинство из них обитает и в современных гидротермах. Тафоценозы отличаются от современных группировок моллюсков увеличенной долей особей Anisus laevis. Размеры особей видов Lymnaea ovata и L. lagotis в ряду от древнего источника до современных гидротерм сокращаются на 30–40 %.


56. 00193X
Орлова М.И., Комендантов А.Ю. Вселенец Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae) - объект для лабораторного содержания? // Зоологический Журнал. 2013. Т. 92. № 6. С. 627.

Potamopyrgus antipodarum - партеногенетический эврибионтный брюхоногий новозеландский моллюск, известный быстрым антропогенным расселением в морских прибрежных и континентальных водоемах. В течение первых двух лет лабораторного содержания особи P. antipodarum из Финского залива перешли от сезонного размножения к круглогодичному. В ходе культивирования получены “клоны” - размножающееся потомство отдельно взятых самок. Скорость пополнения лабораторных популяций молодью достаточно высока, и их можно использовать для проведения долговременных исследований. По итогам наблюдений выбраны стандартные условия культивирования, выявлены основные факторы, способные влиять на отрождение молоди и ее рост, принадлежность к “клону” и возраст (размер) самок-родоначальниц.


57. 005201
Пархаев П.Ю. Строение раковинной мускулатуры кембрийских брюхоногих моллюсков рода Bemella (gastropoda: Archaeobranchia: Helcionellidae) // Палеонтологический Журнал. 2014. № 1. С. 20-27.

На внутренних ядрах раннекембрийских брюхоногих рода Bemella Missarzhevsky, 1969 (сем. Helcionellidae) обнаружены участки микрорельефа, которые интерпретируются как отпечатки раковинной мускулатуры. По особенностям топографии мускульных отпечатков проведена реконструкция раковинной мускулатуры гельционеллид: реконструированы педальные и цефалические ретракторы, ретракторы мантии. Предлагаемая реконструкция раковинной мускулатуры подтверждает положение гельционеллоидных моллюсков среди древнейших брюхоногих.


58. 005216
Сербина Е.А. Влияние метацеркарий трематод на индивидуальную плодовитость Bithynia Troscheli (gastropoda: Bithyniidae) // Паразитология. 2014. Т. 48. № 1. С. 3–19.

У самок Bithynia troscheli (Paasch, 1842) из р. Каргат (оз. Чаны, юг Западной Сибири, Россия) обнаружены метацеркарии трематод 15 видов 7 семейств. У размножающихся самок обнаружено меньше видов метацеркарий (9 из 15) и более низкие значения индекса обилия этих паразитов, чем у самок, не отложивших кладки. Проверена гипотеза о влиянии паразитирования метацеркарий трематод на индивидуальную плодовитость B. troscheli. Проведено сравнение индивидуальной плодовитости самок, зараженных метацеркариями трематод (сем. Echinostomatidae, Cyathocotilidae, Strigeidae, Cyclocoelidae) и незараженных. Доля плодовитых самок B. troscheli, зараженных метацеркариями трематод сем. Strigeidae или Cyclocoelidae, была значительно меньше и показатели их плодовитости достоверно ниже, чем у незараженных. Метацеркарии трематод в тканях мантии или мышцах не оказывали значимого воздействия на плодовитость хозяина. Показано, что метацеркарии трематод оказывают двойственное влияние на плодовитость B. troscheli. Все показатели плодовитости самок с высокой интенсивностью инвазии были значимо ниже, чем у незараженных: доля плодовитых самок (?2 = 6.73, p < 0.01); число кладок на самку, число яйцевых капсул кладке и число нормальных яйцевых капсул на самку (Tukey HSD тест, p < 0.001). Однако самки с низкой интенсивностью инвазии значимо чаще продуцировали кладки, чем незараженные (?2 = 4.18, p = 0.04), хотя показатели плодовитости этих двух групп были примерно равными. Эти результаты впервые доказывают влияние метацеркарий на индивидуальную плодовитость водных брюхоногих моллюсков. Обсуждаются возможные внутрипопуляпионные механизмы, компенсирующие репродуктивные потери хозяев.


59. 033470
Сербина Е.А. Количественная оценка роли моллюсков семейства Bithyniidae (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) в экосистемах юга Западной Сибири // Сибирский Экологический Журнал. 2013. Т. 20. № 1. С. 37–44.

Приведены результаты исследования видового состава численности и биомассы брюхоногих моллюсков (Gastropoda) в экосистемах юга Западной Сибири на примере р. Карасук и оз. Кротово (Карасукский р-н Новосибирской обл.). Обнаружено 18 видов 7 семейств: Lymnаeidae, Planorbidae, Bulinidae, Bithynhdae, Physidae, Succineidae, Zonitidae. Показаны доли моллюсков семейства Вithyniidae среди брюхоногих моллюсков по видовому составу, численности и биомассе, а также выявлена их роль как хозяев трематод. Видовое разнообразие моллюсков и трематод оценено с использованием индекса К. Шеннона – У. Уивера.


60. Сычев А.А., Снегин Э.А. Внутрипопуляционная структура Helicopsis striata (gastropoda, pulmonata, hygromiidae) в условиях лесостепного ландшафта юга Среднерусской возвышенности // Вестник Красноярского Государственного Аграрного Университета. 2013. № 9. С. 126–132.

В статье описываются особенности внутрипопуляционной структуры наземного моллюска Helicopsis striata на примере модельной изолированной популяции, обитающей на юге Среднерусской возвышенности. Выявлена морфологическая дифференциация и определены демографические характеристики субпопуляций. На основе анализа изоферментов изучена структура генофондов исследуемых групп. Вычислена эффективная численность и дается прогноз времени дальнейшего существования популяции.


61. 00387X
Цетлин В.В., Зотин А.А., Мойса С.С. Влияние изменения магнитного поля на развитие роговой катушки Planorbarius corneus (Gastropoda, Planorbidae) // Авиакосмическая и экологическая медицина. 2014. Т. 48. № 3. С. 36–43.

Исследовано влияние пониженного в 100-300 раз геомагнитного поля на эмбриональное развитие роговой катушки Planorbarius corneus и окислительно-восстановительные свойства водной среды в условиях гипомагнитной камеры. Показано, что гипомагнитное поле (ГМП) оказывало в основном благотворное воздействие на развитие Р. corneus: снижалась доля тератогенных эффектов, т.е. зародыши, изначально оказавшиеся в гипомагнитных условиях (ГМУ), характеризовались пониженной смертностью. На стадии поздней великонхи и у прошедших метаморфоз зародышей повышался индекс подвижности. При резком повышении магнитного поля до нормального уровня быстро гибли зародыши и ювенильные моллюски (практически прекращали рост). Избираемая ювенильными P. corneus индукция зависела от их адаптированности к магнитному полю. Моллюски, выросшие в условиях нормального геомагнитного поля, предпочитали условия с максимальной индукцией, выросшие в условиях гипомагнитной камеры, наоборот, - условия с минимальной индукцией. Выявлено, что по мере ослабления индукции магнитного поля в гипомагнитной камере величина окислительно-восстановительного потенциала (ОВП) водной среды возрастала, что свидетельствует о закономерном снижении внутренней энергии молекул воды, которое, на наш взгляд, обусловило угнетение изучаемых процессов эмбрионального развития моллюсков.


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