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Журнальные статьи

1. U48349
Aleixo L.C.M. et al. Ginkgo biloba extract alters the binding of the sodium [123I] iodide (Na123I) on blood constituents // Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2012. Vol. 70, № 1. P. 59–62.

We evaluated the in vitro effect of an aqueous extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) on the distribution in blood cells (BC) and plasma (P) and on the binding of Na123I to the blood constituents using precipitation with trichloroacetic acid. The radioactivity percentages insoluble (SF) and insoluble fraction (IF) of blood constituents were determined. The EGb interfered (p<0.05) on the distribution of Na123I in the P (from 69.64 to 86.13) and BC (from 30.36 to 13.87) and altered the fixation of the Na123I in IF-P and in IF-BC.


2. U24950
Baudron P. et al. Assessing Groundwater Residence Time in a Highly Anthropized Unconfined Aquifer Using Bomb Peak C-14 and Reconstructed Irrigation Water H-3 // Radiocarbon. 2013. Vol. 55, № 2. P. 993–1006.

Radiocarbon decay is rarely used to assess the residence time of modern groundwater due to the low resolution of its long half-life in comparison to the expected range of ages. Nonetheless, the modern C-14 peak induced by the nuclear bomb tests traces efficiently the impacts of recent human activities on groundwater recharge, as well as for tritium. A simple lumped parameter model (LPM) was implemented in order to assess the interest of C-14 and H-3 nuclear peaks in a highly anthropized aquifer system of southeastern Spain under intense agricultural development. It required i) to assess a correction factor for modern C-14 activities and ii) to reconstruct the H-3 recharge input function, affected by irrigation. In such a complex hydrogeological context, an exponential model did not provide satisfying results for all samples. A better solution was reached by taking into account the qualitative recent variation of the recharge rates into a combined exponential flow and piston flow model. Apart from presenting an uncommon approach for C-14 dating of modern groundwater, this study highlights the need of considering not only the variation of the tracer but also the variability of recharge rates in LPMs.


3. U62755
Bevelacqua J.J. Applicability of health physics lessons learned from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident to the Fukushima Daiichi accident // J. Environ. Radioact. 2012. Vol. 105. P. 6–10.

The TMI-2 and Fukushima Daiichi accidents appear to be dissimilar because they involve different reactor types. However, the health physics related lessons learned from TMI-2 are applicable, and can enhance the Fukushima Daiichi recovery effort.


4. U24876
Bouffler S.D. et al. Assessing radiation-associated mutational risk to the germline: Repetitive DNA sequences as mutational targets and biomarkers // Radiat. Res. 2006. Vol. 165, № 3. P. 249–268.

This review assesses recent data on mutational risk to the germline after radiation exposure obtained by molecular analysis of tandemly repeated DNA loci (TRDLs): minisatellites in humans and expanded simple tandem repeats in mice. Some studies, particularly those including exposure to internal emitters, indicate that TRDL mutation can be used as a marker of human radiation exposure; most human studies, however, are negative. Although mouse studies have suggested that TRDL mutation analysis may be more widely applicable in biomonitoring, there are important differences between the structure of mouse and human TRDLs. Mutational mechanisms probably differ between the two species, and so care should be taken in predicting effects in humans from mouse data. In mice and humans, TRDL mutations are largely untargeted with only limited evidence of dose dependence. Transgenerational mutation has been observed in mice but not in humans, but the mechanisms driving such mutation transmission are unknown. Some minisatellite variants are associated with human diseases and may affect gene transcription, but causal relationships have not yet been established. It is concluded that at present the TRDL mutation data do not warrant a dramatic revision of germline or cancer risk estimates for radiation.


5. U24950

Lacustrine stromatolites are layered accretionary structures formed in shallow water by cyanobacteria. They are a precise indicator of high lake limits and their morphology and structure provide an insight into paleoenvironments of the time. Previous research on lacustrine stromatolites from Etosha Pan in Namibia based on radiocarbon ages of carbonates were close to the limit of the method and did not account for any possible C-14 reservoir effect. The ages were used to suggest that the basin was not extensively flooded during the last 40,000 yr. To assess the reservoir effect, the age characteristics of a stromatolite from Poacher's Point were investigated by C-14 dating both carbonate and organic residue from samples at different depths in the deposit. The similar to 15-cm-diameter stromatolite was separated into 12 zones from the center to the edge and block samples were cut from each zone; the carbonate and residual organic residue were dated separately. The carbonate ages ranged from 34,700 to 24,700 C-14 yr BP and the organic ages from 15,700 to 2500 C-14 yr BP. Ages generally increased with increasing distance from the surface of the deposit. We believe that the organic ages are an accurate estimate of the stromatolite's age, while the much older carbonate ages reflect incorporation of old carbon from limestone bedrock and ancient calcrete introduced by stream and spring flow. Excluding the 2 oldest organic ages (15,700 and 13,600 C-14 yr BP), which may reflect contamination by older organic material washed into the lake during flooding, a linear regression relationship between carbonate and organic ages indicates that the reservoir effect on carbonate ranges up to similar to 24,000 C-14 yr BP but decreases slightly as the true age of the deposit increases. This regression relationship was used to correct 2 finite carbonate ages for stromatolites from Pelican Island obtained in the early 1980s, which together with our new organic age for a stromatolite from Andoni Bay, document a > 8-m-deep lake in Etosha Pan during the Late Pleistocene, at and prior to similar to 34,000-26,000 cal yr BP. The organic carbon ages from the Poacher's Point stromatolite suggest prolonged lacustrine conditions during the early to middle Holocene (8000-6600 cal yr BP) but not to the extent seen during the Late Pleistocene.


6. U14501
Buratovic S. et al. Developmental effects of fractionated low-dose exposure to gamma radiation on behaviour and susceptibility of the cholinergic system in mice // Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2016. Vol. 92, № 7. P. 371–379.

Purpose: To investigate whether neonatal exposure to fractionated external gamma radiation and co-exposure to radiation and nicotine can affect/exacerbate developmental neurotoxic effects, including altered behavior/cognitive function and the susceptibility of the cholinergic system in adult male mice. Materials and methods: Neonatal male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice were irradiated with one 200 mGy fraction/day and/or exposed to nicotine (66 mu g/kg b.w.) twice daily on postnatal day (PND) 10, 10-11, 10-12 or 10-13 (nicotine only). At 2 months of age the animals were tested for spontaneous behavior in a novel home environment, habituation capacity and nicotine-induced behavior. Results: Fractionated irradiation and co-exposure to radiation and nicotine on three consecutive days disrupted behavior and habituation and altered susceptibility of the cholinergic system. All observed effects were significantly more pronounced in mice co-exposed to both radiation and nicotine. Conclusions: The fractionated irradiation regime affects behavior/cognitive function in a similar manner as has previously been observed for single-dose exposures. Neonatal co-exposure to radiation and nicotine, during a critical period of brain development in general and cholinergic system development in particular, enhance these behavioral defects suggesting that the cholinergic system can be a target system for this type of developmental neurotoxic effects.


7. U24950
Capano M. et al. Preliminary Radiocarbon Analyses of Contemporaneous and Archaeological Wood from the Ansanto Valley (southern Italy) // Radiocarbon. 2012. Vol. 54, № 3–4. P. 701–714.

The Ansanto Valley (southern Italy) is characterized by hydrothermal phenomena, with volcanic gas emissions arising from some vents. In the 1st millennium BC, a sanctuary dedicated to the goddess Mephitis was built but later destroyed by landslides in the valley. During archaeological excavations in the 1950s, many items were found including wooden artifacts, preserved thanks to the imbibition and subsequent mineralization of the wood tissues due to the gas emissions. Radiocarbon dating of these objects is underway at CIRCE (Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage), in Caserta, Italy. Unfortunately, 2 main problems arise in dating these materials. The first is possible fossil dilution caused by the CO2 emitted from the nearby volcanic vents, which could affect the trees of the valley and also the archaeological materials. In order to determine the magnitude of the fossil dilution in the area, C-14 measurements were performed on contemporaneous wood cored from 2 oak trees growing near the vents. C-14 values measured in these samples confirmed the presence of a strong fossil dilution in the Ansanto Valley. The second problem is the restoration that the objects underwent during the last century (mostly by using modern organic substances). To investigate suitable pretreatment procedures for removing the restoration materials from the archaeological findings, contemporaneous wood was also analyzed. The wood of trees from the Ansanto Valley and from a distant village (unaffected by the Ansanto fossil dilution) were submitted to the same restoration process applied to the archaeological artifacts, followed by an "artificial weathering" process. Some archaeological materials were also tested for the removal of restoration materials. We subjected the artificially aged trees and the archaeological samples to different chemical processes. Here, we present the results of these processes. Almost all methods turned out to be suitable for the contemporaneous wood, while the results for the archaeological samples remain uncertain. For this reason, more tests are needed, concerning the "artificial weathering," the restoration, and the chemical procedure for removing the consolidation materials.


8. U14501
Castillo H. et al. Stress induction in the bacteria Shewanella oneidensis and Deinococcus radiodurans in response to below-background ionizing radiation // Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2015. Vol. 91, № 9. P. 749–756.

Purpose: The 'Linear no-threshold' (LNT) model predicts that any amount of radiation increases the risk of organisms to accumulate negative effects. Several studies at below background radiation levels (4.5-11.4 nGy h(-1)) show decreased growth rates and an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. The purpose of our study is to obtain molecular evidence of a stress response in Shewanella oneidensis and Deinococcus radiodurans grown at a gamma dose rate of 0.16 nGy h(-1), about 400 times less than normal background radiation. Materials and methods: Bacteria cultures were grown at a dose rate of 0.16 or 71.3 nGy h(-1) gamma irradiation. Total RNA was extracted from samples at early-exponential and stationary phases for the rt-PCR relative quantification (radiation-deprived treatment/background radiation control) of the stress-related genes katB (catalase), recA (recombinase), oxyR (oxidative stress transcriptional regulator), lexA (SOS regulon transcriptional repressor), dnaK (heat shock protein 70) and SOA0154 (putative heavy metal efflux pump). Results: Deprivation of normal levels of radiation caused a reduction in growth of both bacterial species, accompanied by the upregulation of katB, recA, SOA0154 genes in S. oneidensis and the upregulation of dnaK in D. radiodurans. When cells were returned to background radiation levels, growth rates recovered and the stress response dissipated. Conclusions: Our results indicate that below-background levels of radiation inhibited growth and elicited a stress response in two species of bacteria, contrary to the LNT model prediction.


9. U14501
Copp R.R. et al. Radioprotective efficacy and toxicity of a new family of aminothiol analogs // Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2013. Vol. 89, № 7. P. 485–492.

Purpose : A family of 17 new nucleophilic-polyamine and aminothiol structures was designed and synthesized to identify new topical or systemic radioprotectors with acceptable mammalian toxicity profiles. Design elements included: (i) Length and charge of the DNA-interacting, alkylamine backbone, (ii) nucleophilicity of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging group, and (iii) non-toxic drug concentration achievable in animal tissues. Materials and methods : Mouse maximum tolerated doses (MTD) were determined by increasing intraperitoneal (IP) doses. To assess radioprotective efficacy, mice received IP 0.5 MTD doses prior to an LD95 radiation dose (8.63 Gy), and survival was monitored. Topically applied aminothiol was also scored for prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis (17.3 Gy to skin). Results : The most radioprotective aminothiols had 4-6 carbons and 1-2 amines, and unlike amifostine and its analogs, displayed a terminal thiol from an alkyl side chain that projected the thiol away from the DNA major groove into the environment surrounding the DNA. The five carbon, single thiol, alkylamine, PrC-210, conferred 100% survival to an otherwise 100% lethal dose of whole-body radiation and achieved 100% prevention of Grade 2-3 radiation dermatitis. By mass spectrometry analysis, the one aminothiol that was tested formed mixed disulfides with cysteine and glutathione. Conclusions : Multiple, highly radioprotective, aminothiol structures, with acceptable systemic toxicities, were identified.


10. U24950
Coppola A.I., Ziolkowski L.A., Druffel E.R.M. Extraneous Carbon Assessments in Radiocarbon Measurements of Black Carbon in Environmental Matrices // Radiocarbon. 2013. Vol. 55, № 3. P. 1631–1640.

Extraneous carbon (C-ex) added during chemical processing and isolation of black carbon (BC) in environmental matrices was quantified to assess its impact on compound specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA). Extraneous carbon is added during the multiple steps of BC extraction, such as incomplete removal of solvents, and carbon bleed from the gas chromatographic and cation columns. We use 2 methods to evaluate the size and Delta C-14 values of C-ex in BC in ocean sediments that require additional pretreatment using a cation column with the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method. First, the direct method evaluates the size and Delta C-14 value of C-ex directly from the process blank, generated by processing initially empty vials through the entire method identically to the treatment of a sample. Second, the indirect method quantifies C-ex as the difference between processed and unprocessed (bulk) Delta C-14 values in a variety of modern and C-14-free or "dead" BC standards. Considering a suite of hypothetical marine sedimentary samples of various sizes and Delta C-14 values and BC Ring Trial standards, we compare both methods of corrections and find agreement between samples that are >50 mu g C. Because C-ex can profoundly influence the measured Delta C-14 value of compound specific samples, we strongly advocate the use of multiple types of process standards that match the sample size to assess C-ex and investigate corrections throughout extensive sample processing.


11. U48349
Costa Z.M.D., Pontuschka W.M., Campos L.L. A comparative study based on dosimetric properties of different sugars // Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2005. Vol. 62, № 2. P. 331–336.

Measurements of free radical densities in sugar by electron spin resonance (ESR) constitute a useful method for determining the dose received in the case of accidental irradiation because this material retains its radiation history. The aim of this work is to establish methods for practical dose assessment of people involved in ionising irradiation accidents, using two types of sugar: sucrose and dextrose. In this regard, practical considerations of sample preparation, grain size, ESR spectrum and spurious mechanical-induced ESR signal are discussed. Also presented are results for signal reproducibility, radiation response, signal stability and low-dose values. Studies on irradiated samples were carried out to explain the complex spectra derived from different paramagnetic species.


12. U48349
Das N.K. et al. Nonlinear response of radon and its progeny in spring emission // Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2009. Vol. 67, № 2. P. 313–318.

Temporal fluctuations of Rn-222 and Po-218 emanated from a thermal spring have been investigated. Nonlinear statistical approach has been employed to the time sequences as to bring out the ingrained structure of the experimental data and the underlying mechanism therein. It is observed that the irregular time series are nonrandom and consistent with the nonlinear process. In addition, our findings reveal that the experimental time dependent data bears the signature of chaotic traits.


13. U14501
Davesne E., Blanchardon E. Physico-chemical characteristics of uranium compounds: A review // Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2014. Vol. 90, № 11. P. 975–988.

Purpose: To collect values of parameters describing the physicochemical properties of different uranium compounds in order to quantify their variability and to propose specific parameters for different workplaces and compounds. Material and methods: The published values of absorption parameters, gastrointestinal absorption fractions, activity median aerodynamic diameters and geometric standard deviations of the particle size activity distribution were collected. Results: Average and median values for each chemical form and workplace were determined for these parameters. These values can be used when no precise information is known for dose assessment following internal contamination by uranium. This review presents and discusses the variability of these parameters for the different uranium chemical forms and workplaces. Finally, sensitivity of the dose coefficients to these parameters was quantified. Conclusion: Specific parameter values for different workplaces and compounds were proposed and the variability quantified.


14. U24950
De Cesare M. et al. Optimization of U-236 Ams at Circe // Radiocarbon. 2010. Vol. 52, № 2. P. 286–294.

Actinide isotopes are present in environmental samples at ultra-trace levels (U-236 concentration is quoted to be on the order of pg/kg or fg/kg). Their detection requires the resolution of mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, but only accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has the sensitivity required. In order to perform the isotopic ratio measurements of actinides, such as U-236/U-238, an upgrade of the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage accelerator (CIRCE) in Caserta. Italy, has been performed. The system was originally equipped for radiocarbon AMS measurements. The main difficulty of AMS measurement of U-236 is the intense neighboring beam of U-238. Although most of the U-238 ions are suppressed by means of magnetic and electrostatic elements, a small fraction of this intense beam can interfere with the rare isotopes. This paper reports the preliminary results of the U-236/U-238 isotopic ratio measurement limit (<5.6 x 10(-11)), aimed also to better understand the origin of background ions. For this purpose, a large 16-strip silicon detector providing spatial resolution has been used. In addition, calculations to assess the performance of the system obtained by adding a high-resolution time of flight-energy (TOF-E) detector are discussed.


15. U62755
Fonollosa E. et al. Presence of radionuclides in sludge from conventional drinking water treatment plants. A review // J. Environ. Radioact. 2015. Vol. 141. P. 24–31.

The analysis of sludge samples generated during water treatment processes show that different radioisotopes of uranium, thorium and radium, among others can accumulate in that kind of samples, even the good removal rates obtained in the aqueous phase (by comparison of influent and effluent water concentrations). Inconsequence, drinking water treatment plants are included in the group of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) industries. The accumulation of radionuclides can be a serious problem especially when this sludge is going to be reused, so more exhaustive information is required to prevent the possible radiological impact of these samples in the environment and also on the people. The main aim of this review is to outline the current situation regarding the different studies reported in the literature up to date focused on the analysis of the radiological content of these sludge samples from drinking water treatment plants. In this sense, special attention is given to the recent approaches for their determination. Another important aim is to discuss about the final disposal of these samples and in this regard, sludge reuse (including for example direct agricultural application or also as building materials) are together with landfilling the main reported strategies.


16. U24950
Georgiadou E., Stenstrom K. Bomb-Pulse Dating of Human Material: Modeling the Influence of Diet // Radiocarbon. 2010. Vol. 52, № 2. P. 800–807.

The atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s produced large amounts of radiocarbon. This C-14 bomb pulse provides useful age information in numerous scientific fields, e.g. in geosciences and environmental sciences. Bomb-pulse dating can also be used to date human material (e.g. in forensics and medical science). Bomb-pulse dating relies on precise measurements of the declining C-14 concentration in atmospheric carbon dioxide collected at clean-air sites. However, local variations in the C-14 specific activity of air and foodstuffs occur, which are caused by natural processes as well as by various human activities. As C-14 enters the human body mainly through the diet, variations of C-14 concentration in foodstuffs need to be considered. The marine component of the diet is believed to be of particular importance due to the non-equilibrium in C-14 specific activity between the atmosphere and aquatic reservoirs during the bomb pulse. This article reviews the C-14 concentration in marine foodstuffs during the bomb-pulse era, and models how the marine component in one's diet can affect the precision of bomb-pulse dating of human material.


17. U48349
Gual M.R. et al. Study of DNA damage with a new system for irradiation of samples in a nuclear reactor // Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2011. Vol. 69, № 2. P. 373–376.

In this paper, we report results of a quantitative analysis of the effects of neutrons on DNA, and, specifically, the production of simple and double breaks of plasmid DNA in aqueous solutions with different concentrations of free-radical scavengers. The radiation damage to DNA was evaluated by electrophoresis through agarose gels. The neutron and gamma doses were measured separately with thermoluminescent detectors. In this work, we have also demonstrated usefulness of a new system for positioning and removing samples in channel BH#3 of the IEA-R1 reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil) without necessity of interrupting the reactor operation.


18. U24950
Hua Q., Barbetti M., Rakowski A.Z. Atmospheric Radiocarbon for the Period 1950-2010 // Radiocarbon. 2013. Vol. 55, № 4. P. 2059–2072.

We present a compilation of tropospheric 14CO2 for the period 1950–2010, based on published radiocarbon data from selected records of atmospheric CO2 sampling and tree-ring series. This compilation is a new version of the compilation by Hua and Barbetti (2004) and consists of yearly summer data sets for zonal, hemispheric, and global levels of atmospheric 14C. In addition, compiled (and extended) monthly data sets for 5 atmospheric zones (3 in the Northern Hemisphere and 2 in the Southern Hemisphere) are reported. The annual data sets are for use in regional and global carbon model calculations, while the extended monthly data sets serve as calibration curves for 14C dating of recent, short-lived terrestrial organic materials.


19. U48349
Jaggi M. et al. Determination of 241Pu in nuclear waste slurries: A comparative study using LSC and ICP-MS // Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2012. Vol. 70, № 2. P. 360–364.

241Pu was determined in slurry samples from a nuclear reactor decommissioning project at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). To validate the results, the 241Pu activities of five samples were determined by LSC (TriCarb and Quantulus) and ICP-MS, with each instrument at a different laboratory. In lack of certified reference materials for 241Pu, the methods were further validated using the 241Pu information values of two reference sediments (IAEA-300 and IAEA-384). Excellent agreement with the results was found between LSC and ICP-MS in the nuclear waste slurries and the reference sediments.


20. U24950
Janovics R. et al. Development of an Automatic Sampling Unit for Measuring Radiocarbon Content of Groundwater // Radiocarbon. 2010. Vol. 52, № 3. P. 1141–1149.

An automatic water sampling unit was developed to monitor the radioactive emission (radiocarbon and other corrosion and fission products) from nuclear facilities into the groundwater. Automatic sampling is based on the principal of ion exchange using built-in resin columns in the submerging samplers. In this way, even the short-term emissions can be detected. According to our experiments, the (14)C activity concentrations and the delta(13)C values of the samples made by the ion exchange method are systematically underestimated compared to the real values. The carbonate adsorption feature of the sampling unit was studied under laboratory and field conditions. For this purpose, a test method was developed. The observed sampling efficiencies and additionally some carbon contamination for the sampling method itself have lobe taken into consideration when we estimate the amount of (14)C contamination introduced into the groundwater from a nuclear facility. Therefore, a correction factor should be made for the (14)C anion exchange sampling. With the help of this correction, the results converge to the expected value.


21. U24950
Janovics R. et al. Radiocarbon Impact on a Nearby Tree of a Light-Water VVER-Type Nuclear Power Plant, Paks, Hungary // Radiocarbon. 2013. Vol. 55, № 2. P. 826–832.

Tree-ring series were collected for radiocarbon analyses from the vicinity of Paks nuclear power plant (NPP) and a background area (Dunafoldvar) for a 10-yr period (2000-2009). Samples of holocellulose were prepared from the wood and converted to graphite for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) C-14 measurement using the MICADAS at ETH Zurich. The C-14 concentration data from these tree rings was compared to the background tree rings for each year. The global decreasing trend of atmospheric C-14 activity concentration was observed in the annual tree rings both in the background area and in the area of the NPP. As an average of the past 10 yr, the excess C-14 emitted by the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) NPP to the atmosphere shows only a slight systematic excess (similar to 6 parts per thousand) C-14 in the annual rings. The highest C-14 excess was 13 parts per thousand (in 2006); however, years with the same C-14 level as the background were quite frequent in the tree-ring series.


22. U24950
Jenkins W.J. et al. The Passage of the Bomb Radiocarbon Pulse into the Pacific Ocean // Radiocarbon. 2010. Vol. 52, № 3. P. 1182–1190.

We report and compare radiocarbon observations made on 2 meridional oceanographic sections along 150 degrees W in the South Pacific in 1991 and 2005. The distributions reflect the progressive penetration of nuclear weapons-produced (14)C into the oceanic thermocline. The changes over the 14 yr between occupations are demonstrably large relative to any possible drift in our analytical standardization. The computed difference field based on the gridded data in the upper 1600 m of the section exhibits a significant decrease over time (approaching 40 to 50 parts per thousand in Delta(14)C) in the upper 200-300 m, consistent with the decadal post-bomb decline in atmospheric (14)C levels. A strong positive anomaly (increase with time), centered on the low salinity core of the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), approaches 50-60 parts per thousand in Delta(14)C, a clear signature of the downstream evolution of the (14)C transient in this water mass. We use this observation to estimate the transit time of AAIW from its "source region" in the southeast South Pacific and to compute the effective reservoir age of this water mass. The 2 sections show small but significant changes in the abyssal (14)C distributions. Between 1991 and 2005, Delta(14)C has increased by 9 parts per thousand below 2000 m north of 55 degrees S. This change is accompanied overall by a modest increase in salinity and dissolved oxygen, as well as a slight decrease in dissolved silica. Such changes are indicative of greater ventilation. Calculation of "phosphate star" also indicates that this may be due to a shift from the Southern Ocean toward North Atlantic Deep Water as the ventilation source of the abyssal South Pacific.


23. U48349
Kanai Y. Characterization of 210Pb and 137Cs radionuclides in sediment from Lake Shinji, Shimane Prefecture, western Japan // Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2011. Vol. 69, № 2. P. 455–462.

The characterization and chemical behaviors of 210Pb and 137Cs in the surface sediment (4–7 cm depth from the bottom) from Lake Shinji, Shimane Prefecture, western Japan, are studied by grain size and phase analyses. Their activities had increasing trend in silt fractions with decreasing grain size, while those in sand fractions did with increasing grain size. The 40K content had the general increasing trend with increasing grain size. These trends might be derived from the mineral component and the adsorption mechanism of these nuclides. By using the sequential extraction technique, most of 214Pb, 137Cs and 40K were proved to be contained in silicate fraction. A part of 210Pbex presumably existed as carbonate and iron manganese oxides for coarser grains, and as iron manganese oxides for finer grains, in addition to silicate fraction. Although 210Pb and 137Cs may occupy the different sites and exist in different chemical phases, the bulk contents in the samples from a variety of locations within the same lake showed a generally good correlation. This result suggests their similar depositional process within a lake in a macroscopic view, being one of the evidences for the validity of sedimentation chronology in the field.


24. U48349
Khan R.F.H. et al. Retrospective radiation dosimetry using electron paramagnetic resonance in canine dental enamel // Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2005. Vol. 62, № 2. P. 173–179.

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) biodosimetry of human tooth enamel has been widely used for measuring radiation doses in various scenarios. We have now developed EPR dosimetry in tooth enamel extracted from canines. Molars and incisors from canines were cleaned by processing in supersaturated aqueous potassium hydroxide solution. The dosimetric signal in canine tooth enamel was found to increase linearly as a function of laboratory added dose from 0.44±0.02 to 4.42±0.22 Gy. The gamma radiation sensitivity of the canine molar enamel was found to be comparable to that of human tooth enamel. The dosimetric signal in canine enamel has been found to be stable up to at least 6 weeks after in vitro irradiation. A dosimetric signal variation of 10–25% was observed for canines ranging from in age 3 years to 16 year old.


25. U24876
Kleinerman R.A. et al. Retrospective assessment of radiation exposure using biological dosimetry: Chromosome painting, electron paramagnetic resonance and the glycophorin A mutation assay // Radiat. Res. 2006. Vol. 166, № 1. P. 287–302.

Biological monitoring of dose can contribute important, independent estimates of cumulative radiation exposure in epidemiological studies, especially in studies in which the physical dosimetry is lacking. Three biodosimeters that have been used in epidemiological studies to estimate past radiation exposure from external sources will be highlighted: chromosome painting or FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization), the glycophorin A somatic mutation assay (GPA), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with teeth. All three biodosimeters have been applied to A-bomb survivors, Chernobyl clean-up workers, and radiation workers. Each biodosimeter has unique advantages and limitations depending upon the level and type of radiation exposure. Chromosome painting has been the most widely applied biodosimeter in epidemiological studies of past radiation exposure, and results of these studies provide evidence that dose-related translocations persist for decades. EPR tooth dosimetry has been used to validate dose models of acute and chronic radiation exposure, although the present requirement of extracted teeth has been a disadvantage. GPA has been correlated with physically based radiation dose after high-dose, acute exposures but not after low-dose, chronic exposures. Interindividual variability appears to be a limitation for both chromosome painting and GPA. Both of these techniques can be used to estimate the level of past radiation exposure to a population, whereas EPR can provide individual dose estimates of past exposure. This paper will review each of these three biodosimeters and compare their application in selected epidemiological studies.


26. U48349
Li M. et al. Using 137Cs to quantify the sediment delivery ratio in a small watershed // Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2012. Vol. 70, № 1. P. 40–45.

Understanding the sediment delivery ratio (SDR) is important in controlling sediments for the sustainable development of natural resources and in the design of the construction such as dams and reservoirs. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the SDR by the 137Cs tracing method in a small watershed in the Sichuan Hilly Basin of China. In the study watershed, different land plots are divided according to the land use type, and 97 sampling sites were selected from these plots. The results show that the average net soil loss rates from the forest land and sloping cultivated land are 1759 and 4468 t/km2 a, respectively. No 137Cs was detectable on the bare rock surfaces and previous work showed that the erosion rate from the bare rock area was 14,260 t/km2 a. In the depositional zone, the sedimentation rates in the Caoto (a kind of cultivated land located at the foot of hills) and paddy field are 3113 and 3562 t/km2 a, respectively. Combining the area of each land use in the small watershed, the SDR of 0.40 is obtained in the past four decades. The 137Cs technique was shown to provide an effective and rapid means of estimating the SDR within the small watershed.


27. U48349
Li Y. et al. Effects of the composition of standard reference material on the accuracy of determinations of 210Pb and 137Cs in soils with gamma spectrometry // Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2011. Vol. 69, № 2. P. 516–520.

The effect of the composition of the used standard reference material (SRM) on results of determination of fallout radionuclides in soil samples was studied. Using five soil types as SRMs, we measured the specific activity of 210Pb and 137Cs in six target samples of Chestnut soil. It was observed that the determination of the 210Pb activity in the samples depended on the chemical composition of SRMs used to create the efficiency curves. Thus, using SRMs similar in chemical composition to the target samples should improve accuracy in the determination of 210Pb in environmental samples.


28. U24950
Limer L. et al. Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Modeling in the Context of Releases of C-14 as a Consequence of Nuclear Activities // Radiocarbon. 2013. Vol. 55, № 2. P. 804–813.

The need to address radiological impacts from radiocarbon released to the biosphere has been recognized for some time. In 2011, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) commissioned a study to develop a C-14 model of the soilplant-atmosphere system that would provide them with an independently developed assessment capability. This paper summarizes that study, which comprised a review of contemporary models, the development of a new conceptual model, SSPAM(14)C, and the application of SSPAM(14)C to a set of experimental data relating to the atmospheric exposure of cabbages.


29. U24876
Linet M.S. et al. Historical Review of Occupational Exposures and Cancer Risks in Medical Radiation Workers // Radiat. Res. 2010. Vol. 174, № 6. P. 793–808.

Epidemiological studies of medical radiation workers have found excess risks of leukemia, skin and female breast cancer in those employed before 1950 but little consistent evidence of cancer risk increases subsequently. Occupational radiation-related dose-response data and recent and lifetime cancer risk data are limited for radiologists and radiologic technologists and lacking for physicians and technologists performing fluoroscopically guided procedures. Survey data demonstrate that occupational doses to radiologists and radiologic technologists have declined over time. Eighty mostly small studies of cardiologists and fewer studies of other physicians reveal that effective doses to physicians per interventional procedure vary by more than an order of magnitude. For medical radiation workers, there is an urgent need to expand the limited information on average annual, time-trend and organ doses from occupational radiation exposures and to assess lifetime cancer risks of these workers. For physicians and technologists performing interventional procedures, more information about occupational doses should be collected and long-term follow-up studies of cancer and other serious disease risks should be initiated. Such studies will help optimize standardized protocols for radiologic procedures, determine whether current radiation protection measures for medical radiation workers are adequate, provide guidance on cancer screening needs, and yield valuable insights on cancer risks associated with chronic radiation exposure.


30. U14501
Liu W. et al. Comparing radiation toxicities across species: An examination of radiation effects in Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus // Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2013. Vol. 89, № 6. P. 391–400.

Purpose: Life shortening and pathological complications in similarly irradiated cohorts of the laboratory mouse Mus musculus and the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus were recorded in the course of the Janus studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory from 1970-1992. This study examines how lifespan, tumor and non-tumor disease incidence, and tumor multiplicity are differentially affected by gamma-rays and neutron radiation exposure in two different animal species. Materials and methods : Survival analyses examined differences in lifespan across species, while decision tree analyses examined statistically significant associations between lifespan, radiation exposure, and specific diseases. Logistic regression models were generated to examine the likelihood of disease incidence in these two species following gamma-ray or neutron radiation exposure. Results : Life shortening in response to radiation was more significant in Peromyscus leucopus than in Mus musculus, irrespective of radiation quality. Many types of tumor and non-tumor diseases were found to be consistently species specific. Tumor multiplicity was observed in both species in response to radiation, although more pronounced in Mus musculus. Conclusion : The response to radiation was highly species specific, highlighting the difficulty in extrapolating conclusions from one species to another, irrespective of their phenotypic similarities and ecologic niches.


31. U24950
Matsuzaki H. et al. Comparison of Depth Profiles of I-129 and C-14 Concentration in the Surface Layer of Soils Collected from Northeastern Japan // Radiocarbon. 2010. Vol. 52, № 3. P. 1487–1497.

I-129/I-127 and C-14/C-12 depth profiles were compared for the surface 30-cm layer of soil samples (Andisols) collected from Shimokita Peninsula, northeastern Japan, in November 2005. The I-129/I-127 and C-14/C-12 profiles have a clear correlation, even taking into account that the data include samples collected from different sites with different surface histories. These results, and considering that C-14/C-12 can be regarded as a proxy of the original depth in stable soil, show the diversity of the I-129/I-127 ratio at the surface among the sites, indicating variations in the thicknesses of the layers recently removed. At one of the sampling sites (P003-1), the Delta C-14 value measures similar to 110 parts per thousand near the surface, which is indicative of anthropogenic C-14 produced by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the late 1950s and early 1960s. This site has experienced no disturbances for at least the past 50 yr. The relatively high activity of I-129 (0.8 mBq/kg) and the I-129/I-127 ratio (7 x 10(-9)) observed at the top layer of this site can be considered a "representative value" when considering the anthropogenic iodine transfer from the atmosphere to the ground. The observations also support 2 separate modes of I-129 migration in the soil: i.e. "topmost quick diffusion" and "subsurface relatively slow migration process." Even in the "subsurface relatively slow migration zone," the I-129/I-127 ratio was still orders higher than the pre-anthropogenic natural level.


32. U24950
Mazeika J. et al. Radiocarbon and Other Environmental Isotopes in the Groundwater of the Sites for a Planned New Nuclear Power Plant in Lithuania // Radiocarbon. 2013. Vol. 55, № 2. P. 951–962.

The assessment of construction sites for the new Visaginas Nuclear Power Plant (Visaginas NPP), including groundwater characterization, took place over the last few years. For a better understanding of the groundwater system, studies on radiocarbon; tritium; stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon; and helium content were carried out at the location of the new NPP, at the Western and Eastern sites, as well as in the near-surface repository (NSR) site. Two critical depth zones in the Quaternary aquifer system were characterized by different groundwater residence times and having slightly different stable isotope features and helium content. The first shallow interval of the Quaternary multi-aquifer system consists of an unconfined aquifer and semiconfined aquifer. The second depth interval of the system is related to the lower Quaternary confined aquifer. Groundwater residence time in the first flow system was mainly based on tritium data and ranges from 6 to 60 yr. These aquifers are the most important in terms of safety assessment and are considered as a potential radionuclide transfer pathway in safety assessment. Groundwater residence time in the lower Quaternary aquifers based on C-14 data varies from modern to several thousand years and in some intervals up to 10,500 yr.


33. U24950
Mobbs S. et al. Intercomparison of Models of C-14 in the Biosphere for Solid Radioactive Waste Disposal // Radiocarbon. 2013. Vol. 55, № 2. P. 814–825.

Radiocarbon is present in solid radioactive wastes arising from the nuclear power industry, in reactor operating wastes, and in graphite and activated metals that will arise from reactor decommissioning. Its half-life of 5730 yr, among other factors, means that C-14 may be released to the biosphere from radioactive waste repositories. These releases may occur as C-14-bearing gases, especially methane, or as aqueous species, and enter the biosphere from below via natural processes or via groundwater pumped from wells. Assessment of radiation doses to humans due to such releases must take account of the major role of carbon in biological processes, requiring specific C-14 assessment models to be developed. Therefore, an intercomparison of 5 C-14 assessment models was organized by the international collaborative forum, BIOPROTA. The intercomparison identified significantly different results for the activity concentrations in the soil, atmosphere, and plant compartments, based upon the different modeling approaches. The major source of uncertainty was related to the identification of conditions under which mixing occurs and isotopic equilibrium is established. Furthermore, while the assumed release area plays a role in determining the calculated atmospheric C-14 concentrations, the openness of the plant canopy and the wind profile in and above the canopy are the key drivers. The intercomparison has aided understanding of the processes involved and helped to identify areas where further research is required to address some of the uncertainties.


34. U48349
Moharram B.M. et al. External exposure doses due to gamma emitting natural radionuclides in some Egyptian building materials // Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2012. Vol. 70, № 1. P. 241–248.

Using of building materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides as 238U, 232Th and 40K and their progeny results in an external exposures of the housing of such buildings. In the present study, indoor dose rates for typical Egyptian rooms are calculated using the analytical method and activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in some building materials. Uniform chemical composition of the walls, floor and ceiling as well as uniform mass concentrations of the radionuclides in walls, floor and ceiling assumed. Different room models are assumed to discuss variation of indoor dose rates according to variation in room construction. Activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K content in eight samples representative Clay soil and different building materials used in most recent Egyptian building were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The specific activity for 238U, 232Th and 40K, from the selected samples, were in the range 14.15–60.64, 2.75–84.66 and 7.35–554.4 Bq kg?1, respectively. The average indoor absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 0.005 ?Gy h?1 to 0.071 ?Gy h?1 and the corresponding population-weighted annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation varies from 0.025 to 0.345 mSv. An outdoor dose rate for typical building samples in addition to some radiological hazards has been introduced for comparison.


35. U62755
Morley N.J. The effects of radioactive pollution on the dynamics of infectious diseases in wildlife // J. Environ. Radioact. 2012. Vol. 106. P. 81–97.

The interactions between infectious diseases and chemical pollution are well known and recognised as important factors in regulating the way wild animals respond to contaminant exposure. However, the impact of ionising radiation and radionuclides has often been overlooked when assessing host-pathogen interactions in polluted habitats, despite often occurring together with chemical contamination. Nevertheless, a comprehensive body of literature exists from laboratory and field studies on host-pathogen relationships under radiation exposure, and with a renewed interest in radioecology developing: an evaluation of infectious disease dynamics under these conditions would be timely. The present study assesses the impact of external ionising radiation and radionuclides on animal hosts and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoans, helminths, arthropods) in laboratory studies and collates the data from field studies, including the large number of investigations undertaken after the Chernobyl accident. It is apparent that radiation exposure has substantial effects on host-pathogen relationships. Although damage to the host immune system is a major factor other variables, such as damage to host tissue barriers and inhibition of pathogen viability are also important in affecting the prevalence and intensity of parasitic diseases. Field studies indicate that the occurrence of host-pathogen associations in radioactively contaminated sites is complex with a variety of biotic and abiotic factors influencing both pathogen and host(s), resulting in changes to the dynamics of infectious diseases.


36. U14501
Mothersill C. et al. Chronic exposure by ingestion of environmentally relevant doses of Ra-226 leads to transient growth perturbations in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque, 1820) // Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2013. Vol. 89, № 11. P. 950–964.

Purpose: To assess the impact of environmentally relevant levels of ingested Ra-226 on a common freshwater fish species. Methods : Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque) were obtained at the first feeding stage and established on a commercial fish food diet containing Ra-226 in the activity range 10 mBq/g(-1), -10,000 mBq/g(-1). They remained on this diet for 24 months and were sampled invasively at 1,6,18 and 24 months to assess growth, biochemical indices and accumulated dose and non-invasively also at 12 and 15 months to assess growth. Results : Fish fed 10 and 100 mBq/g(-1) diet showed a small transitory deregulation of growth at 6 and 12 months. Fish fed higher activities showed less significant or insignificant effects. There was a trend at 18 months which was stronger at 24 months for the population distribution to change in all of the Ra-226 fed groups so that smaller fish were smaller and bigger fish were bigger than the controls. There were also significant differences in the ratios of protein: DNA at 24 months which were seen as a trend but were not significant at earlier time points. Conclusions : Fish fed a radium diet for 2 years show a small and transitory growth dysregulation at 6 and 12 months. The effects predominate at the lower activities suggesting hormetic or homeostatic adjustments. There was no effect on growth of exposure to the high activities Ra-226. This suggests that radium does not have a serious impact on the ecology of the system and the level of radium that would be transferred to humans is very low. The results may be important in the assessment of long-term environmental impacts of Ra-226 exposure.


37. U14501
Mothersill C. et al. Dosimetric analysis of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque, 1820) exposed via ingestion to environmentally relevant activities of Ra-226 for two years // Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2014. Vol. 90, № 2. P. 169–178.

Purpose: To assess the dosimetry of Ra-226 in a two-year chronic ingestion study in laboratory maintained fathead minnow fed environmentally relevant levels of the isotope known to occur in gut contents of fish from a uranium mining area. Methods: Fish were established on reconstituted commercial fish food containing 10 mBq-10 Bq Ra-226. g(-1) dry food. The fish were sampled at 1, 6, 18 and 24 months and the Ra-226 levels in the whole fish were directly determined using measurement performed using inorganic mass spectrometry. Pilot experiments using higher doses were also done during development of a liquid scintillation detection system which support some data. Results: The data show that after 1 month the levels of accumulation in the fish were below detection. At 6 months there was an activity dependent accumulation which was relatively higher in the low activity groups. By 18 and 24 months the radium was very low in all groups - well below 6 month levels suggesting considerable loss of radium from the fish. These data were confirmed in a small and shorter study using higher dietary activities. The highest dose calculated for any measurement point was 16 mu Gy. h(-1) in the 6-month-old fish fed the diet containing 10 Bq.g(-1) Conclusions: We conclude that environmentally relevant levels of Ra-226 have a maximum impact at early time-points when the fish are still growing. After that they appear to depurate accumulated radium. In terms of environmental impact, the maximum accumulation peaks at the age where fish could be spawning but is extremely low leading to mGy.year(-1) doses even after exposure to the high activity diets.


38. U48349
Nikolov J. et al. Different methods for tritium determination in surface water by LSC // Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2013. Vol. 71, № 1. P. 51–56.

The main aim of this paper was to compare different methods of preparing water samples for tritium analysis by ultra-low-level background liquid scintillation counter, Quantulus 1220. Three methods of sample preparation for low-level tritium measurement have been implemented in the Nuclear Physics Laboratory in Novi Sad: electrolytic enrichment, direct method without electrolytic enrichment and sample Oxidizer 307 method. The examined fresh water samples were rainfall collected during 6 months and water from a stream in the Vinca nuclear research center collected over 3 months. The obtained results using these three methods showed satisfying agreement. The appropriate measuring time by LSC for each sample prepared according to different methods has been determined.


39. U24950
Ohta T. et al. Radionuclides in Ancient Relics Obtained from the Matsusaki Site and the Hirohata Shellmound on the Pacific Coast of Japan // Radiocarbon. 2010. Vol. 52, № 2. P. 526–533.

We compared 2 archaeological relics of different preservation environments, white substances adhering to a vessel from the Matsusaki site and to earthenware from Hirohata, by measuring their environmental radioactivity, (14)C, (228)Ra/(226)Ra, (234)U/(238)U, and (87)Sr/(86)Sr, and major element contents (Ca, Sr, Mg, Fe, and Mn). The results showed that the 2 materials were somewhat different and also reflected differences in their preservation environments. The chemical elements that were more abundant in the Matsusaki sample than in the Hirohata sample, Fe, Mn, (238)U, and (232)Th (parent of (228)Ra), are also abundant in seaweed or seagrass. Contamination by (14)C derived from rainwater after atmospheric nuclear tests was clearly observed in the white substance from Hirohata.


40. U48349
Petraki E. et al. Self-organised critical features in soil radon and MHz electromagnetic disturbances: Results from environmental monitoring in Greece // Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2013. Vol. 72. P. 39–53.

This paper addresses the issues of self-organised critical behaviour of soil-radon and MHz-electromagnetic disorders during intense seismic activity in SW Greece. A significant radon signal is re-analysed for environmental influences with Fast Fourier Transform and multivariate statistics. Self-organisation of signals is investigated via fractal evolving techniques and detrended fluctuation analysis. New lengthy radon data are presented and analysed accordingly. The data did not show self-similarities. Similar analysis applied to new important concurrent MHz-electromagnetic signals revealed analogous behaviour to radon. The signals precursory value is discussed.


41. U24876
Preston D.L. et al. Solid cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors: 1958-1998 // Radiat. Res. 2007. Vol. 168, № 1. P. 1–64.

This is the second general report on radiation effects on the incidence of solid cancers (cancers other than malignancies of the blood or blood-forming organs) among members of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The analyses were based on 17,448 first primary cancers (including non-melanoma skin cancer) diagnosed from 1958 through 1998 among 105,427 cohort members with individual dose estimates who were alive and not known to have had cancer prior to 1958. Radiation-associated relative risks and excess rates were considered for all solid cancers as a group, for 19 specific cancer sites or groups of sites, and for five histology groups. Poisson regression methods were used to investigate the magnitude of the radiation-associated risks, the shape of the dose response, how these risks vary with gender, age at exposure, and attained age, and the evidence for inter-site variation in the levels and patterns of the excess risk. For all solid cancers as a group, it was estimated that about 850 (about 11%) of the cases among cohort members with colon doses in excess of 0.005 Gy were associated with atomic bomb radiation exposure. The data were consistent with a linear dose response over the 0-to 2-Gy range, while there was some flattening of the dose response at higher doses. Furthermore, there is a statistically significant dose response when analyses were limited to cohort members with doses of 0.15 Gy or less. The excess risks for all solid cancers as a group and many individual sites exhibit significant variation with gender, attained age, and age at exposure. It was estimated that, at age 70 after exposure at age 30, solid cancer rates increase by about 35% per Gy (90% CI 28 %; 43 %) for men and 58 % per Gy (43 %; 69 %) for women. For all solid cancers as a group, the excess relative risk (ERR per Gy) decreases by about 17% per decade increase in age at exposure (90% CI 7%; 25%) after allowing for attained-age effects, while the ERR decreased in proportion to attained age to the power 1.65 (90% CI 2.1; 1.2) after allowing for age at exposure. Despite the decline in the ERR with attained age, excess absolute rates appeared to increase throughout the study period, providing further evidence that radiation-associated increases in cancer rates persist throughout life regardless of age at exposure. For all solid cancers as a group, women had somewhat higher excess absolute rates than men (F:M ratio 1.4; 90% CI 1.1; 1.8), but this difference disappears when the analysis was restricted to non-gender-specific cancers. Significant radiation-associated increases in risk were seen for most sites, including oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, lung, non-melanoma skin, breast, ovary, bladder, nervous system and thyroid. Although there was no indication of a statistically significant dose response for cancers of the pancreas, prostate and kidney, the excess relative risks for these sites were also consistent with that for all solid cancers as a group. Dose-response estimates for cancers of the rectum, gallbladder and uterus were not statistically significant, and there were suggestions that the risks for these sites may be lower than those for all solid cancers combined. However, there was emerging evidence from the present data that exposure as a child may increase risks of cancer of the body of the uterus. Elevated risks were seen for all of the five broadly classified histological groups considered, including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, other epithelial cancers, sarcomas and othernon-epithelial cancers. Although the data were limited, there was a significant radiation-associated increase in the risk of cancer occurring in adolescence and young adulthood. In view of the persisting increase in solid cancer risks, the LSS should continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for at least another 15 to 20 years.


42. U48349
Regulla D.F. ESR spectrometry: a future-oriented tool for dosimetry and dating // Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2005. Vol. 62, № 2. P. 117–127.

ESR spectroscopy is currently taking root as a key technology in dosimetry, dating and imaging. In dosimetry, it competes with cytometry in the fields of biological dosimetry and retrospective dosimetry, leads in high-level reference and routine dosimetry, is high-ranking among the methods to identify radiation preserved foods, represents a method of choice to date geological, archaeological and paleontological materials back millions of years, and has demonstrated capacity for imaging. Further scientific and technological progress as predicted in the recent past (Appl. Radiat. Isot. 52 (2000) 1023) is reviewed here. Additionally, the review is expanded to include international reports and recommendations on ESR dosimetry and dose reconstruction, under way at the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the International Organisation of Standards (ISO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Emphasis is placed on interpretation of tooth enamel doses in terms of organ and effective doses, using CT-based virtual humans. The future of EPR spectroscopy for in situ dose measurements is noted, depicting a non-destructive in vivo dosimetry applicable directly to individuals, but also to hominid and animal fossils for direct dating.


43. U14501
Ruano-Ravina A. et al. Residential radon exposure and esophageal cancer. An ecological study from an area with high indoor radon concentration (Galicia, Spain) // Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2014. Vol. 90, № 4. P. 299–305.

Purpose: To analyze the correlation between municipal esophageal cancer relative risk and municipal residential radon concentration in a high radon emission Spanish area. Materials and methods: We performed an ecological study at municipal level in Galicia, Spain. For each municipality we estimated the median radon concentration and the relative risk (RR) for esophageal cancer mortality for males and females. The relative risk was calculated using a Bayesian approach. Homes with data on radon concentration were selected through stratified random sampling. To be included, each municipality had to have at least five radon measurements. We obtained Spearman's correlations for median residential radon concentration and esophageal cancer mortality RR for males and females, separately. Results: We included 129 municipalities, covering the 79% of Galician population. 14% of municipalities had radon concentrations above the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) action level. We found a statistically significant correlation among residential radon and esophageal cancer mortality RR for males (p < 0.001), but not for females. When the analysis was restricted to municipalities with more than 15 radon measurements the correlation pattern remained. Conclusions: This is the first study analyzing the association between residential radon and esophageal cancer. The results suggesting a possible effect of residential radon on esophageal cancer mortality should be explored through more robust epidemiological designs such as case-control studies.


44. U24950
Santos G.M. et al. Blank Assessment for Ultra-Small Radiocarbon Samples: Chemical Extraction and Separation Versus Ams // Radiocarbon. 2010. Vol. 52, № 3. P. 1322–1335.

The Keck Carbon Cycle AMS facility at the University of California, Irvine (KCCAMS/UCI) has developed protocols for analyzing radiocarbon in samples as small as similar to 0.001 mg of carbon (C). Mass-balance background corrections for modem and (14)C-dead carbon contamination (MC and DC, respectively) can be assessed by measuring (14)C-free and modern standards, respectively, using the same sample processing techniques that are applied to unknown samples. This approach can be validated by measuring secondary standards of similar size and (14)C composition to the unknown samples. Ordinary sample processing (such as ABA or leaching pretreatment, combustion/graphitization, and handling) introduces MC contamination of similar to 0.6 +/- 0.3 mu g C, while DC is similar to 0.3 +/- 0.15 mu g C. Today, the laboratory routinely analyzes graphite samples as small as 0.015 mg C for external submissions and congruent to 0.001 mg C for internal research activities with a precision of similar to 1% for similar to 0.010 mg C. However, when analyzing ultra-small samples isolated by a series of complex chemical and chromatographic methods (such as individual compounds), integrated procedural blanks may be far larger and more variable than those associated with combustion/graphitization alone. In some instances, the mass ratio of these blanks to the compounds of interest may be so high that the reported (14)C results are meaningless. Thus, the abundance and variability of both MC and DC contamination encountered during ultra-small sample analysis must be carefully and thoroughly evaluated. Four case studies are presented to illustrate how extraction chemistry blanks are determined.


45. U24876
Schaue D., McBride W.H. Links between Innate Immunity and Normal Tissue Radiobiology // Radiat. Res. 2010. Vol. 173, № 4. P. 406–417.

The body senses "danger" from "damaged self" molecules through members of the same receptor superfamily it uses for microbial "non-self", triggering canonical signaling pathways that lead to the generation of acute inflammatory responses. For this reason, the biology of normal tissue responses to moderate and clinically relevant doses of radiation is inextricably connected to innate immunity. The complex sequence of inflammatory events that ensues causes further cell and tissue damage to eliminate potential invaders but also leads to cytoprotective responses that limit the spread of damage and to wound healing through tissue regeneration or replacement. These sequential processes are orchestrated through multiple feedback control mechanisms involving cyclical production of free radicals and cytokines that are common to both radiation and immune signaling. This requires a concerted effort by resident tissue and inflammatory cell types, with macrophages apparently leading the way. The initial response to moderate doses of radiation therefore feeds into a pro-inflammatory paradigm whose eventual outcome is critically dependent upon the properties of the immune cells that are involved in tissue damage, regeneration and repair and that are in part under genetic influence. Importantly, these canonical pathways provide targets for interventions aimed at modifying normal tissue radiation responses. In this review, we examine areas of intersection between innate immunity and normal tissue radiobiology.


46. U24950

Marine radiocarbon bomb-pulse time histories of annually resolved archives from temperate regions have been underexploited. We present here series of Delta C-14 excess from known-age annual increments of the long-lived bivalve mollusk Arctica islandica from 4 sites across the coastal North Atlantic (German Bight, North Sea; Tromso, north Norway; Siglufjordur, north Icelandic shelf; Grimsey, north Icelandic shelf) combined with published series from Georges Bank and Sable Bank (NW Atlantic) and the Oyster Ground (North Sea). The atmospheric bomb pulse is shown to be a step-function whose response in the marine environment is immediate but of smaller amplitude and which has a longer decay time as a result of the much larger marine carbon reservoir. Attenuation is determined by the regional hydrographic setting of the sites, vertical mixing, processes controlling the isotopic exchange of C-14 at the air-sea boundary, C-14 content of the freshwater flux, primary productivity, and the residence time of organic matter in the sediment mixed layer. The inventories form a sequence from high magnitude-early peak (German Bight) to low magnitude-late peak (Grimsey). All series show a rapid response to the increase in atmospheric Delta C-14 excess but a slow response to the subsequent decline resulting from the succession of rapid isotopic air-sea exchange followed by the more gradual isotopic equilibration in the mixed layer due to the variable marine carbon reservoir and incorporation of organic carbon from the sediment mixed layer. The data constitute calibration series for the use of the bomb pulse as a high-resolution dating tool in the marine environment and as a tracer of coastal ocean water masses.


47. U14501
Smith R.W. et al. The induction of a radiation-induced bystander effect in fish transcends taxonomic group and trophic level // Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2013. Vol. 89, № 4. P. 225–233.

Purpose: To extend the investigations of bystander effect induction in fish of the same species as the irradiated fish, to bystander effect induction between fish species and between trophic levels. Materials and methods: To investigate interspecies bystander effect induction, zebrafish and medaka were irradiated with a 0.5 Gy X-ray dose and then swum with non-irradiated fish of the same and opposite species. To investigate trophic level bystander effect induction, California blackworms were irradiated with the same X-ray dose and then fed to non-irradiated rainbow trout. Results: Reductions in clonogenic survival of the HPV-G (non-transformed human keratinocytes, immortalized with the human papilloma virus) reporter cell line, treated with tissue explant media, revealed that zebrafish and medaka induced a pro-apoptotic bystander effect in the other species and that, in trout, the normally anti-apoptotic effect caused by the consumption of non-irradiated blackworms was significantly reduced or lost if the blackworms had been irradiated. Conclusions: These results are the first to show that a radiation-induced bystander effect can transcend taxonomic group and trophic level in fish. This provides further evidence that bystander signals are widespread and conserved and may be transmitted through an ecosystem, as well as between individuals of the same species.


48. U24950
Svetlik I. et al. Radiocarbon in the Air of Central Europe: Long-Term Investigations // Radiocarbon. 2010. Vol. 52, № 2. P. 823–834.

Regional levels of radiocarbon have been monitored in order to investigate the impact of fossil fuel combustion on the activity of atmospheric (14)CO(2) in central Europe. Data from atmospheric (14)CO(2) monitoring stations in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary for the period 2000-2008 are presented and discussed. The Prague and Bratislava monitoring stations showed a distinct local Suess effect when compared to the Jungfraujoch clean-air monitoring station. However, during the summer period, statistically insignificant differences were observed between the low-altitude stations and the high-mountain Jungfraujoch station. (14)C data from the Hungarian monitoring locality at Dunafoldvar and the Czech monitoring station at Kosetice, which are not strongly affected by local fossil CO(2) sources, indicate similar grouping and amplitudes, typical for a regional Suess effect.


49. U24950
Takahashi H.A. et al. Radiocarbon Dating of Groundwater in Granite Fractures in Abukuma Province, Northeast Japan // Radiocarbon. 2013. Vol. 55, № 2. P. 894–904.

Knowledge of the groundwater age is indispensable for understanding groundwater flow in crystalline rocks. The present study is the first to discuss the radiocarbon ages of groundwater in Abukuma granite, Fukushima Prefecture, northeast Japan. The vertical profiles of C-14 dates and delta C-13 are obtained from 3 boreholes (depths of 140, 230, and 306 m). Chemical and carbon isotopic compositions suggest that dead-carbon contamination of groundwater occurred during groundwater storage in the fractures. C-14 concentration was corrected by using isotopic mass balance in which dead-carbon contamination of the groundwater was considered. The C-14 dates ranged from modern to similar to 16 ka. The relationship between tritium and C-14 data in 1 borehole suggests the simultaneous inflow of shallow groundwater to deeper levels occur for the depths between 60 and 100 m. The vertical profiles of C-14 dates indicate a relatively constant age of 10-16 ka for groundwater deeper than 100 m, which may have been influenced by rapid sea-level changes after the glacial period.


50. U24950
Vaitkeviciene V. et al. C-14 in Radioactive Waste for Decommissioning of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant // Radiocarbon. 2013. Vol. 55, № 2. P. 783–790.

Radiocarbon is one of the most significant radionuclides affecting the safety margins of near-surface repositories for the disposal of low-and intermediate-level, short-lived radioactive waste, arising from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants (NPPs). One of the goals of the present study was to characterize radioactive waste from Ignalina NPP (Lithuania) (storage tanks TW18B01 and TW11B03) from the spent ion-exchange resins/perlite stream to determine the C-14-specific activity of inorganic and organic carbon compounds. The approach applied is based on classical radiochemical separation methods, including acid-stripping techniques and wet oxidation with subsequent catalytic combustion. The suitability of the method for C-14-specific activity determination in ion-exchange resin samples with a minimum detectable activity of 0.5 Bq/g by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) was demonstrated. The extraction efficiency of inorganic and organic carbon compounds based on model samples with known C-14 activity was estimated. The fraction of C-14 associated with organic compounds ranged from 42% to 63% for storage tank TW18B01 and from 30% to 63% for storage tank TW11B03. The specific activity of inorganic C-14 was estimated as 12.6 Bq/g with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 29% for storage tank TW18B01, and 177.5 Bq/g with a RSD of 35% for storage tank TW11B03. Based on volume and density data, the total C-14 activity for radioactive waste stored in tanks TW18B01 and TW11B03 was estimated as 3.59E + 10 Bq (+/- 32%) and 4.15E + 11 Bq (+/- 28%), respectively.

http://www.dx.doi.org/ 10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16322

51. U24950
Varlam C. et al. Radiocarbon and Tritium Levels Along the Romanian Lower Danube River // Radiocarbon. 2010. Vol. 52, № 2. P. 783–793.

The Lower Danube Basin covers the Romanian-Bulgarian sub-basin downstream from Cazane Gorge and the sub-basins of the Siret and Prut rivers. To extensively survey the Romanian nuclear power plant impact on the Danube water, tritium and radiocarbon baseline values are required. Therefore, the reported study tried to establish these values based on a 2-yr sampling campaign covering 975 km of the Danube from Cazane Gorge to Tulcea. The tributaries Cerna, Jiu, Olt, and Arges were also included in this study. During the sampling campaigns, tritium concentration of different sampling locations showed values between 7 +/- 2.1 and 33.5 +/- 2.3 TU. Measured (14)C activity for the same locations ranged between 88.45 +/- 1.46 and 112.36 +/- 1.56 pMC. Lower values were recorded for tributaries: between 8.3 +/- 2.1 and 12.2 +/- 2.2 TU for tritium and between 67.3 +/- 1.29 and 86.04 +/- 1.42 pMC for (14)C. Despite the nuclear activity in the observed areas, tritium and (14)C activities presented slightly higher values for specific locations without any influence on Danube River water.


52. U24876
Vinnikov V.A. et al. Limitations Associated with Analysis of Cytogenetic Data for Biological Dosimetry // Radiat. Res. 2010. Vol. 174, № 4. P. 403–414.

The scientific literature concerning cytogenetic biodosimetry has been reviewed to identify the range of scenarios of radiation exposure where biodosimetry has been carried out. Limitations in the existing standardized statistical methodology have been identified and categorized, and the reasons for these limitations have been explored. Statistical problems generally occur due to either low numbers of aberrations leading to large uncertainties or deviations in aberration-per-cell distributions leading to over-or under-dispersion with respect to the Poisson model. A number of difficulties also stem from limitations of the classical statistical methodology, which requires that chromosome aberration yields be considered as something "fixed" and thus provides a deterministic estimate of radiation dose and associated confidence limits (because an assignment of a probability to an event is based solely on the observed frequency of occurrence of the event). Therefore, it is suggested that solutions to the listed problems should be based in the Bayesian framework. This will allow the investigator to take a probabilistic approach to analysis of cytogenetic data, which can be considered highly appropriate for biological dose estimation.


53. U24950
Vogel F.R., Levin I., Worthy D.E.J. Implications for Deriving Regional Fossil Fuel CO2 Estimates from Atmospheric Observations in a Hot Spot of Nuclear Power Plant (CO2)-C-14 Emissions // Radiocarbon. 2013. Vol. 55, № 3. P. 1556–1572.

Using Delta C-14 observations to infer the local concentration excess of CO2 due to the burning of fossil fuels (Delta FFCO2) is a promising technique to monitor anthropogenic CO2 emissions. A recent study showed that (CO2)-C-14 emissions from the nuclear industry can significantly alter the local atmospheric (CO2)-C-14 concentration and thus mask the Delta C-14 depletion due to Delta FFCO2. In this study, we investigate the relevance of this effect for the vicinity of Toronto, Canada, a hot spot of anthropogenic (CO2)-C-14 emissions. Comparing the measured emissions from local power plants to a global emission inventory highlighted significant deviations on interannual timescales. Although the previously assumed emission factor of 1.6 TBq(GWa)(-1) agrees with the observed long-term average for all CANDU reactors of 1.50 +/- 0.18 TBq(GWa)(-1). This power-based parameterization neglects the different emission ratios for individual reactors, which range from 3.4 +/- 0.82 to 0.65 +/- 0.09 TBq(GWa)(-1). This causes a mean difference of -14% in 14CO2 concentrations in our simulations at our observational site in Egbert, Canada. On an annual time basis, this additional (CO2)-C-14 masks the equivalent of 27-82% of the total annual FFCO2 offset. A pseudo-data experiment suggests that the interannual variability in the masked fraction may cause spurious trends in the Delta FFCO2 estimates of the order of 30% from 2006-2010. In addition, a comparison of the modeled Delta C-14 levels with our observational time series from 2008-2010 underlines that incorporating the best available (CO2)-C-14 emissions significantly increases the agreement. There were also short periods with significant observed. C-14 offsets, which were found to be linked with maintenance periods conducted on these nuclear reactors.

http://www.dx.doi.org/ 10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16347

54. U14501
Walsh S. et al. Health, growth and reproductive success of mice exposed to environmentally relevant levels of Ra-226 via drinking water over multiple generations // Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2015. Vol. 91, № 7. P. 576–584.

Purpose: To assess health, growth and reproductive success of mammals exposed for multiple generations to levels of radium-226 known to occur in environments surrounding uranium mines and mills in Canada. Methods : The study consisted of a control group and four treatment groups each containing 40 mice (20 males and 20 females) of the CBA/CaJ strain that were continuously exposed to a range of radium-226 levels via drinking water. Breeding was at 8-10 weeks of age and the study was concluded after three breeding cycles. Results : When compared to control mice, constant consumption of drinking water containing 0.012, 0.076, 0.78 and 8.0 Bq/l of radium-226 over four generations of mice did not demonstrably affect physical condition, weight, pregnancy rate, number of pups per litter, sex ratio and bodyweight gain of pups. Between generations, the observed differences in pregnancy rates that were noted in all groups, including controls, seemed to directly correlate with the weight and age of the females at breeding. Conclusions : Based on the endpoints measured on four generations of mice, there is no indication that the consumption of radium-226 via drinking water (at activity concentrations up to 8.0 Bq/l) affects health, growth and reproductive fitness.


55. U24950
Wang N. et al. Improved Application of Bomb Carbon in Teeth for Forensic Investigation // Radiocarbon. 2010. Vol. 52, № 2. P. 706–716.

While radiocarbon is widely applied in dating ancient samples, recent studies reveal that (14)C concentrations in modern samples can also yield precise ages due to the atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices between 1950 and 1963. (14)C concentrations in both enamel and organic matter of 13 teeth from 2 areas in China were examined to evaluate and improve this method of forensic investigation. Choosing enamel near the cervix of the tooth can reduce the error caused by the difference between the sample formation time and whole enamel formation time because tooth enamel formations take a long time to complete. A proper regional data set will be helpful to get an accurate result when calculating the age of the sample (T(1)) by the CALIBomb program. By subtracting the enamel formation time (t), the birth date of an individual (T(2)) can be confirmed by enamel F(14)C from 2 teeth formed at different ages. Calculated enamel formation dates by (14)C concentration are basically consistent with corresponding actual values, with a mean error of 1.9 yr for all results and 0.2 yr for the samples formed after AD 1960. This method is more effective for dating samples completed after AD 1960. We also found that (14)C concentrations in organic matter of tooth roots are much lower than atmospheric concentrations in root formation years, suggesting that the organic material keeps turning over even after tooth formation is complete. This might be a potential tool for identification of death age to extract a proper component for (14)C dating. We also observed that delta(13)C values between hydroxyapatite and organic matter indicate that isotopic fractionation during the biomineralization is 8-9 parts per thousand more positive in mineral fractions than in organic matter.


56. U24950
Wang X. et al. AMS MEASUREMENT OF Np-237 AT China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) // Radiocarbon. 2013. Vol. 55, № 2. P. 294–301.

Np-237 (similar to 2.14 x 10(6) yr half-life) is potentially applicable in studies on nuclear safeguards and radioactive waste migration. The atomic ratio of Np-237/U in nature is 10(-12) or even lower, depending strongly on the integral neutron flux received by the material. As an ultra-sensitive technique, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the best for measuring ultratrace Np-237. By extracting negative molecular ions NpO- from the oxide sample using (UO-)-U-238 and (PbO2-)-Pb-208-O-16 pilot beams for the simulation of Np-237 ion transport, identifying the interference isotopes by high-resolution dedicated injector, electrostatic analyzer, and time of flight (TOF) detector, a method for AMS measurement of Np-237 was set up on the HI-13 accelerator at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). A sensitivity of <10(-11) has been achieved for the isotopic ratio Np-237/U-238.


57. U24950
Wang Z., Xiang Y., Guo Q. C-14 Levels in Tree Rings Located Near Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, China // Radiocarbon. 2012. Vol. 54, № 2. P. 195–202.

Specific activities of radiocarbon in annual tree rings corresponding to 1980-2009 are reported for a pine tree located 2 km from the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (Qinshan NPP), China. While a negligible enhanced C-14 activity due to operation of the Qinshan NPP Plant I is evident, a relative increase (1.8-62.6 Bq/kg C) was observed in the specific activity after operation of the Qinshan NPP Plant II in 2002 and Plant III in 2003. The enhanced values were primarily affected by the C-14 discharged from Plant III (CANDU-type reactor), and a good correlation was found between the C-14 discharged from Plant III in the growing season and the C-14 excess value. The excess C-14 activities peaked in 2005 (at 302.0 Bq/kg C, which is 62.6 Bq/kg C above the "clean air" C-14 level), and then declined due to the improvement in C-14 discharge management of Plant III. In 2009, the C-14-specific activity was near the background level.


58. U24950
Wang Z., Xiang Y., Guo Q. Terrestrial Distribution of C-14 in the Vicinity of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, China // Radiocarbon. 2013. Vol. 55, № 1. P. 59–66.

We used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to study radiocarbon-specific activity levels in agricultural and botanical samples (moss and pine needles) distributed within a 6.5-km radius of the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The C-14-specific activity in moss samples (ranging from 265.6 to 223.0 Bq/kg C) decreased with increased distance from the stacks of Plant III (heavy water reactor) and reached the background level (223.8 Bq/kg C) at 6.5 km distance. Compared to the pine needles, the moss was a better indicator for investigating the C-14 distribution near Qinshan NPP. The C-14-specific activity distribution in moss samples showed that the diffusion of C-14 discharged from the Qinshan NPP was affected by both geographical and meteorological factors. Excess C-14-specific activity in the food samples ranged from 8.5 to 13.0 Bq/kg C (except for rice samples), resulting in a minimal radiation dose of 0.5 mu Sv per year to the public.


59. U62755
Warnery E. et al. Indoor terrestrial gamma dose rate mapping in France: a case study using two different geostatistical models // J. Environ. Radioact. 2015. Vol. 139. P. 140–148.

Terrestrial gamma dose rates show important spatial variations in France. Previous studies resulted in maps of arithmetic means of indoor terrestrial gamma dose rates by "departement" (French district). However, numerous areas could not be characterized due to the lack of data. The aim of our work was to obtain more precise estimates of the spatial variability of indoor terrestrial gamma dose rates in France by using a more recent and complete data base and geostatistics. The study was based on the exploitation of 97 595 measurements results distributed in 17 404 locations covering all of France. Measurements were done by the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) using RPL (Radio Photo Luminescent) dosimeters, exposed during several months between years 2011 and 2012 in French dentist surgeries and veterinary clinics. The data used came from dosimeters which were not exposed to anthropic sources. After removing the cosmic rays contribution in order to study only the telluric gamma radiation, it was decided to work with the arithmetic means of the time-series measurements, weighted by the time-exposure of the dosimeters, for each location. The values varied between 13 and 349 nSv/h, with an arithmetic mean of 76 nSv/h. The observed statistical distribution of the gamma dose rates was skewed to the right. Firstly, ordinary kriging was performed in order to predict the gamma dose rate on cells of 1*1 km(2), all over the domain. The second step of the study was to use an auxiliary variable in estimates. The IRSN achieved in 2010 a classification of the French geological formations, characterizing their uranium potential on the bases of geology and local measurement results of rocks uranium content. This information is georeferenced in a map at the scale 1:1 000 000. The geological uranium potential (GUP) was classified in 5 qualitative categories. As telluric gamma rays mostly come from the progenies of the (238)Uranium series present in rocks, this information, which is exhaustive throughout France, could help in estimating the telluric gamma dose rates. Such an approach is possible using multivariate geestatistics and cokriging. Multi-collocated cokriging has been performed on 1*1 km(2) cells over the domain. This model used gamma dose rate measurement results and GUP classes. Our results provide useful information on the variability of the natural terrestrial gamma radiation in France ('natural background') and exposure data for epidemiological studies and risk assessment from low dose chronic exposures.


60. U24876
Wilson G.D., Marples B. Flow cytometry in radiation research: Past, present and future // Radiat. Res. 2007. Vol. 168, № 4. P. 391–403.

Flow cytometry is an invaluable technique in research and clinical laboratories. The technique has been applied extensively to many areas of radiation research at both the experimental and clinical level. In the past few years, there has been a significant increase in the capabilities of modern flow cytometers to undertake multicolor analysis in a user-friendly manner. The developments in cytometric technology are being matched by the rapid development of new reagents, new fluorochromes and new platforms such as bead arrays. These developments are facilitating many new applications in both basic and clinical research that have relevance for many fields of biology, including radiation research. This review provides a historical overview of the application of flow cytometry to radiobiology and an update on how technology and reagents have changed and cites examples of new applications relevant to radiation researchers. In addition, some entirely new flow instrumentation is currently under development that has significant potential for applications in radiation research.


61. U14501
Yen P.N. et al. Late effects on the health-related quality of life in a cohort population decades after environmental radiation exposure // Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2013. Vol. 89, № 8. P. 639–644.

Purpose: To evaluate the late effects on the quality of life (QOL) of individual years after protracting low-dose radiation exposure. Materials and methods : We assessed 1,818 subjects using the World Health Organization Questionnaire on Quality of Life Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) in several Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) domains. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and comorbidities, we examined the HRQoL differences at various levels of exposure and ages at disclosure. We also evaluated the potential effect modification by gender. Results : After adjusting for potential confounders, girls aged 12 years or younger at the disclosure of exposure had lower HRQoL scores in physical, psychological, and environmental domains compared to those with later age at disclosure. The differences in the HRQoL scores between different exposure subgroups were not significant in physical, psychological, and social relationship domains, and only appeared in the environmental domain. Conclusions : Being female and less than 12 years of age at disclosure were more significant predictors of HRQoL scores than the levels of radiation exposure among people exposed to protracted low-dose radiation. Further studies are needed to determine the psychological distresses, such as depression and anxiety, and their relationships in this case, especially for the most vulnerable young females.


62. U14501
Yen P.N. et al. Risk factors of depression after prolonged low-dose rate environmental radiation exposure // Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2014. Vol. 90, № 10. P. 859–866.

Purpose: More than 10,000 Taiwanese people were exposed to excessive protracted low-dose rate radiation from contaminated reinforcement bars, which were installed in buildings before 1992. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of depression amongst the exposed and identify related determinants now that more than two decades have passed since this population was informed of their exposure to radiation. Materials and methods: We used the Beck depression inventory (BDI)-1A questionnaire to survey 2143 eligible people during their annual physical examinations between March 2009 and December 2009. In total, 1621 people participated in the survey. We employed multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations method to identify the determinants of depression. Results:The prevalence of depression (BDI-IA score 12) was 18.7%. Those who exhibited higher cumulative exposure [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.46, 95% confidence interval (Cl): 1.02-2.07] and a previous history of depression (adjusted OR: 2.49, 95% Cl: 1.36-4.58) were significantly associated with the risk of depression, whereas education level was inversely related to depression (adjusted OR: 0.71, 95% Cl: 0.50-0.99). Conclusion: Long-term, low-dose rate radiation exposure early in life might cause subsequent psychological stress and an increased risk of depression decades later.


63. U48349
Zhou C. et al. Atmospheric radioxenon isotope monitoring in Beijing after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident // Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2013. Vol. 72. P. 123–127.

A custom-made, on-site radioxenon sampling, separation and monitoring system was used to monitor atmospheric radioxenon concentrations in Beijing, released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the earthquake of 11 March 2011. The results show that 133Xe concentrations ranged from 393 to 26 mBq/m3 from 12 to 27 April 2011, and those of 131mXe were 84 and 40 mBq/m3 on 13 and 15 April 2011, respectively. The highest dose rate caused by 133Xe was 2?10?5 mSv/yr, and the average 133Xe/131mXe ratio was 3.8±0.4.


64. U24950
Zhou W. et al. High-Level C-14 Contamination and Recovery at Xi’an Ams Center // Radiocarbon. 2012. Vol. 54, № 2. P. 187–193.

A sample with a radiocarbon concentration estimated to be greater than 10(5) times Modern was inadvertently graphitized and measured in the Xi'an AMS system last year. Both the sample preparation lines and the ion source system were seriously contaminated and a series of cleaning procedures were carried out to remove the contamination from them. After repeated and careful cleaning as well as continuous flushing with dead CO2 gas, both systems have recovered from the contamination event. The machine background is back to 2.0 x 10(-16) and the chemical blank is beyond 50 kyr.


65. 005767

Определена седиментация в глубоких озерах и эстуариях Балтийского, Печорского морей и моря Лаптевых с использованием глобального 137Сs в качестве метки показателя седиментогенеза. Седиментация в озерах Ладожское и Левинсон-Лессинга составила 0.3-3 мм/год, а в эстуариях Балтийского, Печорского морей и моря Лаптевых - 0.74-1.76, 1.0 и 3.3-5.0 мм/год соответственно. При седиментации >1-2 мм/год пики концентраций глобального и «чернобыльского» 137Сs в толще донных отложений разобщены, скорость седиментации оценивается по каждому из нуклидов. В условиях седиментации <1 мм/год нуклиды («чернобыльский» 137Сs + 137Сs дампинга в море) маскируют в донных отложениях подповерхностный максимум концентрации глобального 137Сs и затрудняют определение седиментации. При слабой изученности шельфовой зоны морей российской Арктики использование 137Сs в определениях седиментации является целесообразным.


66. 002307
БЕНЕЦКИЙ Б.А. О распределении индивидуальных доз и тяжести поражений при радиационных авариях // ИЗВЕСТИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ АКАДЕМИИ НАУК. СЕРИЯ ФИЗИЧЕСКАЯ. 2011. T. 75, № 11. С. 1660–1663.

Проведен анализ аварий на ядерных реакторах, радиационных поражений при авариях, так называемого “человеческого фактора” и распределения аварийных доз. Приведено исходное уравнение баланса дозовых характеристик.


67. 005767

Установлено влияние природы и содержания модифицированных производных гуминовых кислот на интенсивность извлечения Pu, Am и С (органич.) из дерново-подзолистой почвы дистиллированной водой. Установлено, что в динамических условиях указанные радионуклиды извлекаются более интенсивно в присутствии карбоксилированных, чем в присутствии оксиметилированных гуминовых кислот. При длительном промывании дистиллированной водой почв с внесенными в них модифицированными производными гуминовых кислот наблюдается перераспределение радионуклидов в пределах колонок, что указывает на наличие их миграции. Под воздействием растворенных органических веществ, выделенных из почв (низкомолекулярных органических неспецифических соединений и фульвокислот), миграция радионуклидов в почвах протекает еще интенсивней. Установлено, что Pu и Am при промывании почвенных колонок водной фазой, содержащей растворенное органическое вещество, переходят в подвижное состояние в более высокой степени, чем при промывании почв дистиллированной водой.


68. 005644
КИРИЛЛОВА Е.Н. и др. Радиобиологический репозиторий тканей человека: успехи и перспективы в решении проблем радиационной безопасности и здоровья персонала и населения // РАДИАЦИОННАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ. РАДИОЭКОЛОГИЯ. 2014. Т. 54, № 6. С. 565–581.

Цель создания радиобиологического репозитория тканей человека Южно-Уральского института биофизики получение и длительное хранение биологического материала работников ПО “Маяк”, подвергшихся профессиональному воздействию ионизирующего (и/или) излучения в широком диапазоне доз, а также населения, подвергшегося длительному облучению вследствие радиационных аварий, и передача образцов ученым для изучения последствий действия радиации на человека и его потомков. Накопленный биоматериал является информационным и исследовательским потенциалом, на основе которого работают учeные в разных областях радиационной биологии и медицины. Репозиторий биоматериала состоит из нескольких отделов: опухолевые и неопухолевые ткани, полученные при аутопсии, биопсии, оперативных вмешательствах, образцов крови и еe компонентов, ДНК, образцов индуцированной мокроты, слюны и др. у людей, подвергшихся или не подвергшихся (контроль) радиационному воздействию. Биоматериал хранится в формалине, в виде парафиновых блоков, слайдов, а также в фризерах при низкой температуре. Получена и внесена в электронную базу данных вся информация об образцах биоматериала и регистрантах репозитория (медицинские, дозиметрические, демографические, профессиональные сведения). Создан постоянно обновляемый вебсайт репозитория, доступный для ознакомления и подачи заявок на получение образцов биоматериала от российских и зарубежных исследователей (rhtr.subi.su). В обзоре кратко освещены отдельные данные, полученные в результате научно-исследовательских работ, выполненных с использованием биоматериала репозитория.


69. 005767

Оценен коэффициент распределения радиоцезия в системе взвесь-вода речных систем зоны аварии на АЭС Фукусима-1 на основе данных радиационного мониторинга водных объектов. Обнаружено, что коэффициент распределения радиоцезия в реках района Фукусимы на 1-2 порядка величины больше, чем в реках чернобыльской зоны в первые годы после аварии (1987-1990). Возможными причинами связывания радиоцезия наносами могут быть как слюдистые глинистые минералы (вермикулит, мусковит и др.), входящие в состав почв и наносов района Фукусимы, так и содержащиеся в аварийных выпадениях нерастворимые в воде стеклообразные частицы, содержащие радиоцезий, уран и другие элементы конструкции аварийных реакторов.


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КУЗЬМИНА Н.С. и др. Изучение аберрантного метилирования в лейкоцитах крови ликвидаторов аварии на чаэс // РАДИАЦИОННАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ. РАДИОЭКОЛОГИЯ. 2014. Т. 54, № 2. С. 127–139.

С помощью метилчувствительной рестриктазы AciI и последующей ПЦР проведено изучение аберрантного гиперметилирования СpG-островков промоторов генов клеточного цикла (р16/CDKN2A, р14/ARF, RASSF1A) и детоксикации (GSTP1) в лейкоцитах 83 ликвидаторов аварии на ЧАЭС (38-76 лет) и лиц двух контрольных групп (48 чел., возраст 35 лет, и 65 чел., возраст > 35 лет). Общее количество АсiI-сайтов в исследованных фрагментах составляло от 2 до 7 для разных локусов. Только у 1 человека (2.1 %) из контрольной группы молодых людей (35 лет) выявлено метилирование изученных СрG-динуклеотидов гена RASSF1A. Как у ликвидаторов аварии на ЧАЭС, так и у лиц одновозрастной контрольной группы (>35 лет) выявлены случаи аберрантного метилирования промоторов всех генов. Доля лиц с выявленным аберрантным метилированием хотя бы одного гена в группе ликвидаторов составила 28.92% и достоверно превышала (р = 0.016) этот показатель в контрольной группе (12.31%). Выявлена существенно повышенная частота облученных лиц с аномальным метилированием СрG-островка гена GSTP1 (р = 0.023). С возрастом встречаемость метилирования промотора гена RASSF1A статистически значимо возрастала как в контрольной группе (r = 0.214; р = 0.023), так и у ликвидаторов аварии на ЧАЭС (r = 0.230; р = 0.036). В отношении остальных генов подобной тенденции не обнаружено. Множественный регрессионный анализ показал, что рост числа метилированных локусов из совокупности генов p16, p14 и GSTP1 обусловлен исключительно фактом экспонирования (OR = 7.32, 95%-ный ДИ = 2.49-25.83, р-value = 2.7 X 10-5). Таким образом, впервые показана реальность радиационно-индуцированного аберрантного метилирования СpG-островков промоторов генов, участвующих в основных защитных функциях клетки, в организме человека в отдаленный период после облучения.


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ЛАДЕЙЩИКОВ А.В., ШОНОХОВ А.В. Радиационная безопасность населения и окружающей среды в районе расположения Белоярской АЭС // ИЗВЕСТИЯ ВЫСШИХ УЧЕБНЫХ ЗАВЕДЕНИЙ. ЯДЕРНАЯ ЭНЕРГЕТИКА. 2009. № 2. С. 61–63.

Радиационному контролю окружающей среды в районе расположения Белоярской атомной станции традиционно уделяется большое значение. Приведенные в статье данные наблюдений показывают, что уровень радиационного воздействия Белоярской АЭС на население и окружающую среду находится на уровне безусловно приемлемого риска.


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ЛИТВЯКОВ Н.В. и др. Частота и спектр цитогенетических нарушений у работников сибирского химического комбината // РАДИАЦИОННАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ. РАДИОЭКОЛОГИЯ. 2014. Т. 54, № 3. С. 283–296.

Представлены результаты исследования частоты и спектра цитогенетических нарушений у 657 здоровых работников Сибирского химического комбината (СХК), в процессе профессиональной деятельности подвергавшихся внешнему, внутреннему и сочетанному (внешнему и внутреннему) хроническому радиационному воздействию, в зависимости от возраста, пола, вида облучения и дозы внешнего облучения. Не установлено гендерных и возрастных различий в частоте хромосомных аберраций (ХА). Показаны различия по частоте ХА в зависимости от вида облучения. Для индукции ХА определяющим фактором является хроническое внешнее облучение. При дополнительной радиационной нагрузке за счет инкорпорированного 239Рu в крови работников с сочетанным радиационным воздействием по сравнению с работниками, подвергавшимися только внешнему облучению, уменьшается частота аберрантных клеток, аберраций хромосомного типа, парных фрагментов и кольцевых хромосом. Дозовая зависимость частоты ХА у работников СХК имеет нелинейный характер. При облучении в дозе >010 мЗв наблюдается достоверное (или на уровне тенденции, р = 0.066) уменьшение частоты аберрантных клеток, аберраций хроматидного и хромосомного типов по сравнению с контролем, что соответствует известному явлению радиационного гормезиса. При дозах менее 40 мЗв не наблюдается значимого повышения частоты ХА. Статистически значимое увеличения выхода аберрантных метафаз и аберраций хроматидного и хромосомного типов отмечается, начиная с диапазона доз >40100 мЗв (для дицентриков - с диапазона >100200 мЗв), что может свидетельствовать в пользу известной линейно-пороговой модели. В диапазоне >100500 мЗв на дозовой кривой имеется плато.


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МОЛЧАНОВА И.В.и др. Техногенные радионуклиды в почвах восточно-уральского радиоактивного следа и их накопление растениями различных таксономических групп // РАДИАЦИОННАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ. РАДИОЭКОЛОГИЯ. 2014. Т. 54, № 1. С. 77–84.

Оценено пространственное и вертикальное распределение 90Sr, 137Cs и 239, 240Pu в почвах головной части Восточно-Уральского радиоактивного следа и их накопление растениями. Пространственное распределение радионуклидов в зависимости от удаления от эпицентра аварии с высокой степенью достоверности аппроксимируется экспоненциальной функцией. Спустя 55 лет после аварии основное количество радионуклидов удерживается в корнеобитаемом слое почв (0-20 см). Показано, что поступление 90Sr в растения, в первую очередь, определяется уровнем загрязнения почв. Для 137Cs во всем градиенте загрязнения сохраняются достоверные различия накопительной способности между представителями высших растений с одной стороны, мхами и лишайниками с другой.


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НАГОРСКИЙ П.М. и др. Влияние направления воздушного потока на динамику атмосферных полей гамма- и бета-излучений // ИЗВЕСТИЯ ВЫСШИХ УЧЕБНЫХ ЗАВЕДЕНИЙ. ФИЗИКА. 2010. T. 53, № 11. С. 51–54.

Представлен анализ вариаций уровня радиационного фона, в результате которого были обнаружены всплески, синхронно проявляющиеся в различные сезоны года в рядах данных о потоках гамма- и бета-излучений, длительностью от нескольких часов до полусуток, и не связанные с минимумами давления циклонических образований. Предложена гипотеза о том, что всплески гамма- и бета-фона обусловлены появлением вертикальной компоненты скорости ветра, направленного к земной поверхности. Проведена серия численных экспериментов, подтвердившая повышение выхода ионизирующих излучений вблизи земной поверхности при усилении направленной к земной поверхности вертикальной компоненты скорости ветра. Повышение выхода ионизирующих излучений обусловлено увеличением объемной активности изотопов радона и продуктов их распада, чувствительных к изменению направления ветра.


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ПЕЛЕВИНА И.И. и др. Индивидуальная вариабельность иммунологических маркеров, радиочувствительности и оксидативного статуса у жителей москвы // РАДИАЦИОННАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ. РАДИОЭКОЛОГИЯ. 2013. Т. 53, № 6. С. 567–574.

На стимулированных ФГА лимфоцитах периферической крови жителей Москвы изучали экспрессию маркеров активации (CD69) и пролиферации (Ki67) Т-лимфоцитов человека, связи содержания этих показателей между собой, с оксидативным статусом (содержанием активных форм кислорода АФК) и радиочувствительностью, измеренной по числу клеток с микроядрами (МЯ). Было показано, что содержание Т-лимфоцитов с маркерами CD69 и Ki67 коррелирует между собой (r = 0.571; p = 0.0004), т.е. для продвижения клеток по циклу необходима экспрессия маркера CD69 (через 24 ч после стимуляции), но она недостаточна для проявления высокой экспрессии маркера Ki67 через 48 ч после стимуляции (в фазе синтеза ДНК). Было обнаружено, что содержание Т-лимфоцитов с маркером CD69 и Т-лимфоцитов с маркером Ki67 связаны отрицательной корреляцией с частотой облученных клеток с МЯ (облучение в дозе 1 Гр через 48 ч после стимуляции) r = 0.487, p = 0.010; r = 0.440, p = 0.008 соответственно. Т.е. можно полагать, что радиочувствительность лимфоцитов уменьшается по мере возрастания экспрессии маркеров активации и пролиферации. Показано также, что радиочувствительность лимфоцитов не связана с оксидативным статусом, определяемым по содержанию АФК, в том числе супероксидного анион радикала. Возможно, это объясняется тем, что концентрацию АФК определяли в нестимулированных лимфоцитах, в то время как частоту клеток с МЯ в стимулированных. При отдельном анализе индивидуальных различий по изученным показателям, измеренным у одних и тех же людей, оказалось, что в ряде случаев индивидуальные различия достаточно велики для радиочувствительности при облучении клеток через 48 ч после стимуляции, концентрации АФК, содержания клеток с маркерами активации и пролиферации. Таким образом, поиски коррелятивных связей не обнаружили важные и интересные зависимости. Важным выводом представляется наличие значительных индивидуальных различий в экспрессии маркеров активации и пролиферации, в числе клеток с МЯ, в оксидативном статусе у обычных жителей Москвы.


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САЛЬНИКОВА Л.Е. и др. Генетические и цитогенетические предикторы радиочувствительности хромосом человека // РАДИАЦИОННАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ. РАДИОЭКОЛОГИЯ. 2013. Т. 53, № 3. С. 259–266.

Для однородной выборки доноров (99 человек) изучалась сопряженность частоты -индуцированных (1 Гр in vitro) аберраций хромосом с полиморфизмом 45 кандидатных генов репарации, детоксикации и оксидативного стресса (всего 53 сайта). Показана сопряженность уровней аберраций хромосомного типа с носительством минорных аллелей полиморфных сайтов генов OGG1 Ser326Cys, ABCB1 Ile1145= и NQO1 Pro187Ser (р = 0.0002). Продемонстрировано, что все выявленные генетические ассоциации в прогностическом отношении уступают корреляционным связям между частотами спонтанных и -индуцированных аберраций (p = 1.0 x10-6). Совместное использование генетических и цитогенетических предикторов позволяет довести коэффициент множественной корреляции до уровня R = 0.58 (p = 3.1 x 10-8) и тем самым объяснить более 30% популяционной изменчивости радиочувствительности хромосом.


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СПИРИДОНОВ С.И., ИВАНОВ В.В. Вероятностная оценка накопления радионуклидов в сельскохозяйственной продукции и допустимых уровней радиоактивного загрязнения почв // РАДИАЦИОННАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ. РАДИОЭКОЛОГИЯ. 2013. Т. 53, № 1. С. 95-103.

Разработаны модели для оценки рисков накопления радионуклидов в сельскохозяйственной продукции и определения допустимых уровней радиоактивного загрязнения почв. Предложенный подход позволяет учесть неопределенности ряда показателей, характеризующих содержание радионуклидов в различных звеньях пищевых цепочек. Модели реализованы в виде программных средств, предназначенных для оперативных расчетов. На конкретных примерах показана обоснованность использования вероятностных методов, по сравнению с детерминистскими, для оценки последствий радиоактивных выпадений. Продемонстрирован универсальный характер зависимости рисков содержания радионуклидов в продукции от плотности загрязнения почв. Установлено, что значения предельных уровней загрязнения сельскохозяйственных угодий существенным образом варьируют в зависимости от величин допустимых рисков. Сформулированы перспективы дальнейших работ в рамках рассматриваемого направления исследования.


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СПИРИДОНОВ С.И., КАРПЕНКО Е.И., ШАРПАН Л.А. Ранжирование радионуклидов и путей облучения по вкладу в дозовую нагрузку на население, формирующуюся в результате выбросов атомных электростанций // РАДИАЦИОННАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ. РАДИОЭКОЛОГИЯ. 2013. Т. 53, № 4. С. 401–410.

Описаны подходы к оценке последствий радиоактивного загрязнения экосистем предприятиями ядерного топливного цикла с обоснованием оптимального уровня детализации для атомных электростанций (АЭС), работающих в штатном режиме. Выполнены расчеты, базирующиеся на исходных данных проекта МАГАТЭ INPRO ENV, посвященного ранжированию радионуклидов, поступающих в окружающую среду при работе АЭС. Продемонстрировано влияние различных факторов на рейтинги радионуклидов и путей облучения населения. Важным фактором является состав контролируемых радионуклидов в атмосферных выбросах АЭС. Установлено, что вариация дозовых коэффициентов для некоторых радионуклидов приводит к существенному изменению не только результатов ранжирования, но и расчетных величин суммарных дозовых нагрузок. Показана устойчивость оценки, касающейся наибольшего вклада перорального пути в дозу облучения населения, в рассматриваемой ситуации. Сделан вывод о необходимости учета неопределенностей разноплановых факторов при сравнении воздействия на окружающую среду предприятий традиционных и инновационных ядерных топливных циклов.


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Поверхностные воды р. Шаган являются одним из основных источников радиационной опасности на территории Семипалатинского испытательного полигона (СИП). Для выявления закономерности современного поступления загрязненных тритием подземных вод в р. Шаган - приток р. Иртыш - в пределах участка разгрузки наряду с определением радионуклидов в водах р. Шаган определены химический состав, минерализация и содержание микроэлементов. На основе результатов обработки полученных данных выявлен основной участок разгрузки подземных тритийсодержащих вод, изучено распределение трития по протяженности р. Шаган и в р. Иртыш.


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СУНЦОВА Е.С., АШИХМИНА Т.Я., КАНТОР Г.Я. Содержание радионуклидов в компонентах природной среды в районе кирово-чепецкого химического комбината // ПРОБЛЕМЫ РЕГИОНАЛЬНОЙ ЭКОЛОГИИ. 2012. № 2. С. 162–167.

Кирово-Чепецкий химический комбинат — одно из крупнейших промышленных предприятий Кировской области, на котором более 40 лет осуществлялась переработка радиоактивного сырья. В статье приведены материалы обследования территории на присутствие остаточных количеств радионуклидов в компонентах природной среды. В ходе исследования проведен анализ проб почвы, воды, растений и донных отложений. Выявлены основные области, где сохраняется существенный уровень радиационного загрязнения территории.


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ТИМЧЕНКО О.И. и др. Врожденные пороки развития на территориях, загрязненных радионуклидами вследствие аварии на чаэс // РАДИАЦИОННАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ. РАДИОЭКОЛОГИЯ. 2014. Т. 54, № 5. С. 507–521.

В дескриптивном исследовании при анализе исходов 147318 беременностей (Житомирская обл., 2000-2010 гг.) оценивали частоту врожденных пороков развития при живо-, мертворождении, аборте (при наличии врожденных пороков развития у плода). Частота всех врожденных пороков развития у живорожденных на загрязненной и “чистой” территории составила (26.10 ± 0.80 и 24.23 ± 0.47 соответственно (р < 0.05); у живо- и мертворожденных (в сумме) 26.54 ± 0.81 и 24.78 ± 0.48 соответственно (р < 0.06). Частоты врожденных пороков развития нервной системы на загрязненной и “чистой территории” составили: у живорожденных 1.09 ± 0.17 и 0.75 ± 0.08 , р < 0.05; среди живо- и мертворожденных (в сумме) 1.22 ± 0.18 и 0.81 ± 0.09 , р < 0.05; в группе живо-, мертворожденные и аборты (при наличии врожденных пороков развития) 2.76 ± 0.26 и 2.34 ± 0.15 , р = 0.096 соответственно. Оценка по критерию 2 подтверждает значимость различий рассматриваемых частот на загрязненной и чистой территории. Однако оценка по Байесу противоречит гипотезе о различии частот врожденных пороков развития на загрязненной и чистой территории. Показано, что заболевания щитовидной железы один из существенных факторов, влияющих на возникновение врожденных пороков развития. Это имеет весомое значение при планировании беременности как на загрязненных, так и на “чистых” территориях.


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ФИЛИМОНОВА М.В. и др. Радиозащитные свойства производных изотиомочевины с NO-ингибирующим механизмом действия // РАДИАЦИОННАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ. РАДИОЭКОЛОГИЯ. 2012. Т. 52, № 6. С. 593-601.

Изучение противолучевой активности S-[2-алкил(арил)сульфонил]-производных S-этил(винил)-изотиомочевины по выживаемости мышей при воздействии гамма-излучения в дозе 10 Гр показало, что включение дополнительной серосодержащей группы не приводит к увеличению радиозащитных свойств соединений. В ряду исследованных производных изотиомочевины (ИТМ), в отличие от аминоалкилтиолов, эффективность противолучевого действия отчетливо коррелировала с NO-ингибирующей активностью. В результате дальнейших теоретических и экспериментальных работ были впервые получены четыре S,N-дизамещенных производных ИТМ, являющихся активными неселективными ингибиторами NOS. Эти соединения в дозах 0.01-0.05 ЛД50/15 проявляли выраженное и длительное вазопрессорное действие при тяжелом эндотоксемическом и геморрагическом шоке у опытных животных, а в дозах 0.2-0.3 ЛД50/15 обеспечивали 65-100% 30-суточную выживаемость мышей при воздействии гамма-излучения в дозе 10 Гр (ЛД98/30). Полученные данные свидетельствуют о выраженном радиозащитном действии эффективных NOS-ингибиторов в классе производных ИТМ.


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ЦВЕТНОВА О.Б., ЩЕГЛОВ А.И., СТОЛБОВА В.В. К вопросу о методах биодиагностики в условиях радиоактивного загрязнения // РАДИАЦИОННАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ. РАДИОЭКОЛОГИЯ. 2014. Т. 54, № 4. С. 423–431.

Проанализированы возможности методов биодиагностики (биоиндикации и биотестирования) в условиях радиоактивного загрязнения компонентов природных экосистем. Показаны перспективы использования данных методов для решения ряда практических задач в области радиоэкологии. Рассматривается многолетняя динамика биоиндикационных показателей в природных экосистемах, подвергшихся радиоактивному загрязнению в результате аварии на Чернобыльской АЭС. Сформулирован ряд положений, касающихся аккумулятивных биоиндикаторов для основных компонентов лесных экосистем (древесный и травяно-кустарничковый ярусы, мохово-лишайниковый покров, высшие грибы).


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ШАРЫГИН В.Л. и др. Использование магниторезонансной спектроскопии при системном анализе радиочувствительности/радиорезистентности животных и человека // РАДИАЦИОННАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ. РАДИОЭКОЛОГИЯ. 2013. Т. 53, № 2. С. 151–169.

Рассмотрены молекулярные механизмы синтеза дезоксирибонуклеотидов, ДНК и белков в тканях кроветворных органов, а также изменения пулов Fe3+-трансферрина и Cu2+-церулоплазмина и внеклеточной ДНК в крови и плазме крови животных под действием гамма-радиации в разных дозах. Установлена SOS-активация синтеза дезоксирибонуклеотидтрифосфатов, РНК, ДНК и белков, которая определяет эффективность репарации на ранних пострадиационных сроках. Дальнейшее развитие компенсаторно-восстановительных реакций клеточных систем связано с периодом ингибирования и последующим повышением активности рибонуклеотидредуктазы, обеспечивающей репарацию ДНК за счет индукции синтеза дезоксирибонуклеотидтрифосфатов. Параллельно контролируемые методом ЭПР изменения пулов Fe3+-трансферрина и Cu2+-церулоплазмина в цельной крови, плазме и сыворотке крови, а также содержания внеклеточной ДНК в плазме крови могут использоваться в качестве маркеров радиочувствительности организма. Информативность этих показателей засвидетельствована не только в экспериментах на животных, но и при обследовании состояния здоровья ликвидаторов аварии на ЧАЭС, гражданского взрослого населения и детей, проживающих в загрязненных радионуклидами районах Брянской области.


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ШИШКИНА Л.Н. Особенности антиоксидантов как радиопротекторов при лучевом поражении разной степени тяжести // РАДИАЦИОННАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ. РАДИОЭКОЛОГИЯ. 2013. Т. 53, № 5. С. 536–544.

Обобщены результаты собственных и литературных данных об эффективности антиоксидантов (АО) как радиопротекторов при действии ионизирующих излучений на животных в зависимости от тяжести лучевого воздействия и ЛПЭ излучения. Показано, что исходный антиоксидантный статус тканей вносит разный вклад в проявление противолучевых свойств природных и синтетических АО вследствие нелинейности процессов перекисного окисления липидов в зависимости от дозы излучения и его мощности. Совокупность экспериментальных данных свидетельствует о необходимости комплексного подхода к оценке противолучевой эффективности АО и учета временных факторов при их использовании в качестве радиопротекторов при лучевом поражении разной степени тяжести.


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